Presentation on theme: "A marriage made in heaven Evidence-based practice Sue Jenkins APA Conference 2013."— Presentation transcript:
A marriage made in heaven Evidence-based practice Sue Jenkins APA Conference 2013
Outline EBP What it is, what it isn’t and why do we need it? Physiotherapy evidence Impact of research on clinical practice Barriers to the uptake of evidence My journey into EBP Strategies for implementing EBP New moves – Journal of Physiotherapy
EBP – what it is Conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients (Sackett 2000)
EBP – what it isn’t It is NOT Cookbook physiotherapy Mindless application of research findings Entirely based on RCTs and systematic reviews Too time-consuming
EBP – why do we need it? Informed decisions about healthcare in order to make the best use of resources National Health Reform Agreement (2011) Activity Based Funding
Physiotherapy in Australia Accreditation of entry-level physiotherapy programs Universities must provide evidence that graduates can apply an evidence-based approach to their own practice Australian Standards for Physiotherapy Physiotherapy in Australia uses an evidence-based clinical reasoning process
Physiotherapy evidence PEDro >25,000 randomised trials, systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines Absence of evidence ≠ evidence of absence (Altman & Bland 1995)
Physiotherapists’ perceptions of the importance of research Survey of 355 physiotherapists 171 participants (51% response rate) Predictors of perceived importance of research Previous research experience Being positive about undertaking further research Postgraduate Degree Working in hospitals (Grimmer-Somers et al 2007)
Impact of research on clinical practice Respiratory physiotherapy following cardiac surgery
Cardiac surgery: randomised trials No effect on important patient outcomes Addition of DBE or IS to regimen of ambulation + cough (CABG surgery, UK, Jenkins et al 1989) DBE + cough vs. control (ambulation by nursing staff) (CABG surgery, Australia, Stiller et al 1994) Removal of DBE from pre-op education + early post-op mobilisation (Cardiac surgery, Australia, Brasher et al 2003)
Did the research influence clinical practice? Mx of patients post-CABG1995 1 2010 2 Cardiothoracic units (Aus / NZ) Clinical pathway 35 units 53 units 91% units DBE or cough routinely used89% patients77% patients IS routinely used65% patients40% patients Factors influencing Rx Personal experience Literature 91% 63% 87% 75% Why not? 17 year lag for uptake of research findings (Morris et al 2011) ( 1 Tucker et al 1995, 2 Filbay et al 2012)
Barriers to the implementation of EBP in healthcare Awareness Motivation Practicalities Acceptance and beliefs Skills Knowledge
Barriers to EBP in physiotherapy Unaware of what needs to change Institution Funding / time Lack of authority / support Other healthcare professionals Published research Volume / time / skills to appraise Doesn’t ask the right questions Statistical vs. meaningful Conflicting results Implications unclear (Fruth et al 2010, Iles & Davidson 2006, Jette et al 2003)
Criticisms of RCTs & systematic reviews External validity Single intervention vs. treatment package Real people are ‘unique’ How the ‘average’ patient might respond or likely outcome for a group of patients n of 1 trials! Systematic reviews – strong conclusion often lacking
Recruitment to RCTs % patients recruited PAH – pulmonary arterial hypertension, *ongoing trial, ( # Calverley et al 2007) * #
My journey into EBP 1991 – King’s College London 1992 – Curtin University
Journey cont’d 1992-97 – F/T academic 1997 – sought P/T clinical work Area with strong evidence (pulmonary rehabilitation) Patient-centred outcomes Research opportunities Team of 3 physios (Nola Cecins, Jackie Frankel) Approached teaching hospitals – 0.3 FTEappt at Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital 1998 – clinical and research placement (UK)
Pulmonary rehabilitation Symptomatic patients with chronic respiratory disease Improve physical and psychological condition Promote long-term adherence to health-enhancing behaviours Components: assessment, exercise training*, education, behaviour change Exercise training – LL endurance training (Nici et al 2006)
Outcome-based program 8 week program – exercise + education Assessment – validated tools, developed highly standardised protocols (6MWT) Ex training – developed prescription for high intensity LL endurance training Education ‘Lectures’ by MDT Evaluated Lorig self-mx program (Cecins & Jenkins 2001) Informal education sessions Charlie's Easy Breathers
Evaluation of program Justify ongoing funding Outcomes (Jenkins et al 2001) Exercise capacity HRQoL Patient satisfaction Benchmark with international data Healthcare utilisation Program costs Process evaluation Gradual increase in staff to 0.8 FTE Charlie's Easy Breathers
Program database Report on program outcomes Generate research questions Output 24 conference abstracts 7 papers Pilot data – research, grant applications
Comparison of program outcomes with international data Patients with COPDJenkins & CecinsPuhan 2008* Number of patients150460 Males68%71% Age (yrs)67±969±8 Lung function (%pred)38±1439±14 Baseline 6MWD (m)424±110361±112 Improvement in 6MWD (> MID)63%51% Improvement in HRQoL (> MID)69%60% mean ± SD, MID – minimal important difference *Data from 9 trials - North America, Europe
Outcomes – healthcare utilisation Hospitalisations for acute exacerbations of COPD 12 mths pre-rehab vs. 12 mths post-rehab RCT (200 patients) (Griffiths et al 2000) Decrease of 4 bed days per patient rehabilitated Our program (256 patients) (Cecins et al 2008) 46%* decrease in number of patients admitted 62%* decrease in total bed days *p<0.001
Process evaluation – unmet needs Process evaluation (Cockram et al 2006) 15% patients unable to attend out-patient program 2002 – supervised home-based program Benefits of pulmonary rehab last 6-12 mths (Nici et al 2006) 1998 – maintenance classes in non-medical facilities (Community Physiotherapy Services) Maintained gains in 6MWD and HRQoL, reduction in HCU sustained (Cockram et al 2006, Cecins et al 2013)
Pulmonary rehabilitation and EBP = A marriage made in heaven Unlike this one!
Overcoming barriers to the implementation of EBP “Change is not made without inconvenience, even from worse to better” Richard Hooker 1554-1600
Strategies/drivers for implementing EBP The expert patient Clinician-led research NHMRC TRIP Fellowships Clinicians Evidence-based clinical pathways Clinical guidelines / consensus statements Support from managers, academics Mentorship - QI, clinical audits, research Education University courses PD, EBP sessions Journal clubs Professional associations
Clinical guidelines – stroke rehabilitation Adherence with recommended management and outcomes (D/C home, increase ≥22 pts FIM score) (Australian Guidelines for Stroke Rehabilitation & Recovery, 2005) National audit – 63% response rate 68 units – 2,119 patient cases Adherence – 13 to 94% Improved outcomes when practice adhered to recommendations relating to ADL, balance and home Ax (Hubbard et al 2012) FIM – Functional Independence Measure
Importance of EBP in the future More competition for scare healthcare $$$$$$ Need robust evidence to sustain our profession Physiotherapists as leaders among healthcare professions in translating research into clinical practice
Acknowledgements Nola Cecins Jeffrey Tapper & Ian Cooper, Physiotherapy Department, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital Research colleagues and students Patients Dr Kathy Stiller
References Altman DG, Bland JM (1995): Absence of evidence is not evidence of absende. British Medical Journal 311: 485 Australian Physiotherapy Council. Australian Standards for Physiotherapy. http://www.physiocouncil.com.au/files/the-australian-standards-for-physiotherapy. [Accessed 19.9.2013]. http://www.physiocouncil.com.au/files/the-australian-standards-for-physiotherapy. [Accessed 19.9.2013]. Brasher PA, McClelland KH, Denehy L et al (2003): Does removal of deep breathing exercises from a physiotherapy program including pre-operative education and early mobilisation after cardiac surgery alter patient outcomes? Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 49: 165-73. Calverley PMA, Anderson JS, Celli B et al (2007): Salmeterol and fluticasone propionate and survival in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. New England Journal of Medicine 336: 775-89. Cecins N, Geelhoed E, Jenkins SC (2008): Reduction in hospitalisation following pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with COPD. Australian Health Review 32: 415- 22. Cecins N, Jenkins S (2001): Evaluation of an education program for patients with COPD. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 2001; 47: 283.
Cecins N, Jenkins S, Cockram J (2013): Community-based maintenance (Phase 3) pulmonary rehabilitation – uptake, attrition and hospitalisation. Respirology; 18: A52. Cockram J, Cecins N, Jenkins S (2006): Maintaining exercise capacity and quality of life following pulmonary rehabilitation. Respirology 11: 98-104. FilbaySR, Hayes K, Holland AE (2012): Physiotherapy for patients following coronary artery byass graft (CABG) surgery: Limited uptake of evidence into practice. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice 28: 178-87. Fruth SJ, Van Veld RD, Despos CA et al (2010): The influence of a topic- specific, research-based presentation on physical therapists' beliefs and practices regarding evidence-based practice. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice 26: 537-57. Grimmer-Somers K, Lekkas P, Nyland L et al. (2007): Perspectives on research evidence and clinical practice: a survey of Australian physiotherapists. Physiotherapy Research International 12: 147-161. Griffiths TL. Burr ML, Campbell IA et al. (2000): Results at 1 year of outpatient multidisciplinary pulmonary rehabilitation: a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet 355: 362-8.
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Nici L, Donner C, Wouters E et al. (2006): American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Statement on Pulmonary Rehabilitation. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 171: 1390-1413. PEDro Physiotherapy Evidence Database. http://www.pedro.org.au/ [Accessed 10.9.2013].http://www.pedro.org.au/ [Accessed 10.9.2013]. Puhan MA, Mador MJ, Held U et al. (2008): Interpretation of treatment changes in 6-minute walk distance in patients with COPD. European Respiratory Journal 32: 637-43. Sackett DL, Straus SE, Richardson WS et al (2000): Evidence-based medicine: How to practice and teach EBM. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, pp. 3-4. Stiler K, Montarello J, Wallace M et al. (1994): Efficacy of breathing and coughing exercises in the prevention of pulmonary complications after coronary artery surgery. Chest 105: 741-7. Tucker B, Jenkins S, Davies K et al. (1996): The physiotherapy management of patients undergoing coronary artery surgery: A questionnaire survey. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 42: 129-37.