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WISER 1.  Along with grammar and spelling, punctuation helps clarify meaning and enhances ‘fluent’ reading.  Each punctuation mark has specific a job.

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Presentation on theme: "WISER 1.  Along with grammar and spelling, punctuation helps clarify meaning and enhances ‘fluent’ reading.  Each punctuation mark has specific a job."— Presentation transcript:

1 WISER 1

2  Along with grammar and spelling, punctuation helps clarify meaning and enhances ‘fluent’ reading.  Each punctuation mark has specific a job (or jobs) to do. If it is not doing a specific job, don’t use it. 2

3  There are various punctuation marks but many have just one job to do, for instance: to indicate: ! an exclamation ? a question “ ” ‘ ’ speech. the end of a sentence  Others are more complex and these are the ones we will focus on here. 3

4  Apostrophes ’ slides 5-13  Commas,slides  Hyphen -slides  Semi-colon;slides  Colon :slide 39  Check your understanding slide 40 – 50  A useful resourceslide 51 4

5  2 uses: 1) Show possession (i.e. belonging to)the dog’s dinner 2) Show omission it isn’t cool (i.e. missing letters)  It is not used to show plural (i.e. more than one) Except: ◦ at the greengrocers! ◦ in older usage: DVD’s, CD’s, TV’s - now dying out. 5

6 6 Examples of misuse. No apostrophe needed. taxis pies, pasties & sandwiches drinks, thanks

7 7 No need for an apostrophe here. Some bananas Some plums

8  the dog’s dinner = the dinner of the dog  the dogs’ dinner = the dinner of the dogs  Note: children’s people’s 8

9 whose safety? 9

10  5 o’clock = 5 of the clock  Let’s go = let us go We no longer ever write the full form in these cases. In most cases, it depends on the style and purpose of writing whether we write the full form or contracted (short) form. The full form is generally used in formal writing. Therefore, in academic writing we tend to use the full form. 10

11 Note what the missing word is.  Isn’t = is not  Hasn’t = has not  It’s been good = It has been good  It’s being mended = It is being mended 11

12  Remember academic style prefers no contractions (short forms ) such as isn’t, can’t, hasn’t, so the only apostrophes in your academic essays should be those to show possession. e.g.  the government’s policies....  the people’s choice...  society’s responsibility....  the policies’ supporters

13 It’s or its? Who’s or whose?  ALWAYS It’s = it is who’s = who is (omission)  Its, whose - THINK: his, hers, theirs, ours, its and whose. (possession) Examples:  It’s a wonderful life.  Who’s the daddy?  Each moment of the year has its own beauty.  Whose life is it anyway? 13

14  Commas help divide up information in a sentence into meaningful units.  Main uses: ◦ Lists ◦ Indicating extra information  which can change meaning of the sentence  which ‘re-names’ 14

15 Examples:  He got figures from books, academic journals, websites or the business press.  This is a thorough, well-organised, well- presented and interesting report.  He spell-checked the essay, printed it off, and submitted it to his tutor. Note the use of and and or before the final item in the list. 15

16  Commas also divide up strings of adjectives Examples:  It’s a mad, mad, mad, mad world.  An itsy-bitsy, teeny-weeny, polka-dot bikini.  The difficult, dangerous, and expensive journey home was unforgettable. 16

17  a) The students who are lazy will fail their exams. All the lazy students, but not the others, will fail.  b) The students, who are lazy, will fail their exams. All students will fail. They are all lazy. Which students will fail? All? Just the lazy ones? 17

18 a) The trade unions which oppose the government’s plans will organise a demonstration.  a) No – only those who oppose the plans. b) The trade unions, which oppose the government’s plans, will organise a demonstration.  b) Maybe not all but we do not know which ones specifically. All the trade unions oppose the plans.  Will all trade unions organise demonstrations? 18

19  The phrases which give us extra information, where the meaning changes depending on whether they are within commas or not, are known as defining /identifying and non- defining / non-identifying clauses.  Students who are lazy will fail their exams. Defining /identifying (i.e. tell us which ones)  Students, who are lazy, will fail their exams. Non-defining/ non-identifying 19

20 Examples:  Gordon Brown, former Prime-Minister, yesterday said that...  Bronte’s first novel, Jane Eyre, was swiftly followed by her best novel, Villette.  Mr X, Chief Executive of the NHS, claims that..  The Scilly Isles, a group of islands off the tip of Cornwall, are very beautiful. 20

21 Note each of these sentences is grammatical and therefore reads sensibly without the information within commas: Gordon Brown, former Prime-Minister, yesterday said that... Gordon Brown yesterday said that... The commas are here acting like brackets. Unlike the previous examples, the presence or absence of commas will not change the meaning. In these cases they simply clarify. 21

22  We can include in a sentence a phrase that is providing extra information or is, for example, a link to the previous sentence. We show this by putting a comma between this extra information, and the part, which could stand alone as a complete sentence by itself (shown underlined). Example:  Therefore, this business cannot be launched.  Whenever I go to London, I like to visit the National Portrait Gallery. 22

23  Both ‘halves’ (not necessarily of equal length, note) of the sentences could go in either first or second position with no change in meaning. The commas shows where the sentence ‘breaks’, dividing the main part, and the extra information. Further examples:  However, I cannot agree with that proposition.  I cannot agree with that proposition, however.  Although we have been friends for years, I do not know her address.  I do not know her address, although we have been friends for years.  If you see him, tell him I need to talk with him.  Tell him I need to talk with him, if you see him.

24  In order not to misuse commas when dividing sentences, you need to recognise a complete, grammatical sentence.  A common mistake is to link 2 complete sentences with just a comma. This is known as comma splice. Example:  The children had never been away from home before, they were scared and tired.  [The children had never been away from home before], [they were scared and tired]. 24

25 Start a new sentence. The children had never been away from home before. They were scared and tired. Link with a semi-colon The children had never been away from home before; they were scared and tired. Use a linking word The children had never been away from home before and they were scared and tired. 25

26 Keeping track of the central sentence, onto which extra information is being added, helps to ensure the sentence is grammatical and to decide how to divide up these extra chunks with commas. Before this person retired, he would work away for weeks at a time, where there was no alcohol and when he came home he consumed large amounts of alcoholic drinks at the weekends, consuming far more than the average daily allowance of recommended alcohol. 26

27  Note the comma splice is to be avoided in formal writing. In other genres (e.g. journalese, creative writing) it is not so important to avoid it since the use of commas can vary for creative effect. 27

28  Hyphens link words to show the resulting new meaning Examples:  The student-centred approach to teaching ◦ not a student approach, not a centred approach  An evidence-based argument. 28

29  He swallowed six inch nails Or  He swallowed six-inch nails 29

30  Extra can have 2 meanings:  Extra = more ◦ e.g. I did not want the extra work.  Extra = outside of ◦ e.g. I enjoyed the extra-curricular activities on the course. 30

31 In the the 2 previous cases did you notice the hyphen? An omitted hyphen in many cases may not make too much difference because of the context. In some cases, however, the placing of the hyphen will make a noticeable difference to meaning, as in the use of extra since it has 2 meanings: 31

32  Letter in Amnesty Magazine Nov/Dec 2009 ‘Apologies for seeming facetious about a serious issue (but it did make us laugh) and double apologies for being pedantic, but I doubt very much that anyone in the Maldives has ever been flogged for extra marital sex. In fact most religions (and it is probably religion behind this punishment) condone extra marital sex, even when one of the parties doesn’t want it – though they are usually amazingly censorious and punitive about extra-marital sex’. From Marilyn Mason, Kingston Upon Thames 32

33  The semi-colon has 2 main uses:  Linking 2 sentences  In complex lists 33

34  Examples:  Some of the programs are very user-friendly; others are more difficult to learn.  This workshop is about punctuation; last week’s was about grammar.  Think of two arms of a balance. On each side of the semi-colon (the pivot) there needs to be a complete sentence. 34

35  The lecturer did not show the diagram; the students obviously understood. Compare:  The lecturer did not show the diagram. The students obviously understood.  The lecturer did not show the diagram, as the students obviously understood. All are correct ways to express this. 35

36  A number of suspects had been held, including Roger Hunt, the husband of the deceased, Ruth Ellis, his wife’s best friend, Jane Osborne, his former girlfriend, and Hugh Thomas, an old family friend.  How many people are involved here? 7? 4? Anything in between? Is Jane Osborne his wife’s best friend or she his old girlfriend? What is everyone’s relationship to the deceased? 36

37  A number of suspects had been held: Roger Hunt, the husband of the deceased; Ruth Ellis, his wife’s best friend; Jane Osborne, his former girlfriend; and Hugh Thomas, an old family friend.  Now there is no ambiguity. Only 4 people were held. 37

38  Do not overuse the semi-colon.  Do not confuse it with a comma. They have very different jobs to do.  Do not confuse it with a colon (: ) which introduces a list (see next slide). 38

39 Don’t confuse the semi-colon with a colon. A colon is for:  introducing a list e.g. Several people visited: the priest, the doctor, his boss and the children.  acting rather like an equals sign e.g. Britain is facing a huge problem: no-one can spell! (Note: here, you could substitute namely or i.e. in the place of the colon). 39

40  That is the end of the explanation of the more complex punctuation marks.  In the following slides you can check how well you understood the main points.  Click the mouse to display the answer and further questions (in some cases). 40

41 a) Mother and child have had and are continuing to experience difficulties, the origins of which can be traced back to the mothers childhood. mother’s (just one mother) b) The United States ability to undertake this operation is admirable or foolhardy. States’ c) Bowlbys theories were developed by researchers including Ainsworth. Bowlby’s d) The seven dwarves luck was in! dwarves’ 41

42  Would you add commas to these sentences? If so, where? a) Because of the difficult current economic climate the UK grocery market was affected by rising food prices. a) Because of the difficult current economic climate, the UK grocery market was affected by rising food prices. b) My sister who is a doctor advised me not to go. b) My sister, who is a doctor, advised me not to go = simply extra info about my sister b) My sister who is a doctor advised me not to go = the sister who’s a doctor advised me, not one of my other sisters. 42

43  Is this sentence demonstrating correct use of commas? If not, how would you correct it?  Health needs assessment and health impact assessment are similar terms used in current practice, both use the same planning process, however, they differ in terminology (Hooper and Longworth, 2002).  Health needs assessment and health impact assessment are similar terms used in current practice; both use the same planning process. However, they differ in terminology (Hooper and Longworth, 2002). OR  Health needs assessment and health impact assessment are similar terms used in current practice. Both use the same planning process; however, they differ in terminology (Hooper and Longworth, 2002). 43

44 a) Some of the programs are very user-friendly; others are more difficult to learn. ☺ OK b) There are various ways to lose friends; tell them lies, stand them up, forget their birthdays and ignore their calls.  No. There are various ways to lose friends: tell them lies, stand them up, forget their birthdays and ignore their calls. (Use a colon before a list) c) However; the issues were too complicated to explain satisfactorily.  No. However, the issues were too complicated to explain satisfactorily. (Use commas to divide extra information from the core sentence) 44

45 a) Shane Chowen 22 who has four science levels from City College Plymouth is the frontrunner in the race to be the next NUS president a contest which will be decided when student delegates gather for a national conference in Gateshead this week. Shane Chowen, 22, who has four science A- levels from City College Plymouth, is the front runner in the race to be the next NUS president, a contest which will be decided when student delegates gather for a national conference in Gateshead this week. (underlining simply shows the central, core sentence) 45

46 b) First it will need an elite athlete in tip-top condition probably one from east Africa. Second it will need to be on a fast, flat course such as Berlin London or Rotterdam. First, it will need an elite athlete in tip-top condition, probably one from east Africa. Second, it will need to be on a fast, flat course such as Berlin, London or Rotterdam. 46

47 c) It is important that all healthcare professionals from different services work together and communicate clearly if communication is poor important details can be missed resulting in the patient being cared for incorrectly and possibly important diagnosis being missed. It is important that all healthcare professionals from different services work together and communicate clearly; if communication is poor, important details can be missed resulting in the patient being cared for incorrectly and possibly important diagnosis being missed. OR It is important that all healthcare professionals from different services work together and communicate clearly. If communication is poor, important details can be missed resulting in the patient being cared for incorrectly and possibly important diagnosis being missed. 47

48 48 Smile. You’re on camera

49 49 Whose side are you on?

50  Who’s book is this?   Whose  It’s front cover is torn so it’s going cheap.  It’s  Its front cover is torn so it’s ☺ going cheap.  There are various learning styles according to different models. These include: converger, diverger, audio, kinaesthetic, visual, activist, reflector and theorist. ☺☺  Despite being a doctor himself he never looks after his health.   Despite being a doctor himself, he never looks after his health. 50

51  Peck, J. & Coyle, M. (1999) The Student’s Guide to Writing: Grammar, Punctuation and Spelling. Cardiff: Macmillan 51

52  Victor Borge made the attempt to draw on the power of punctuation to great effect # 52

53  Any feedback on the usefulness (or otherwise) of this material would be warmly welcomed.  Please contact me: Tania Horák or Ext 3055 ( ) 53


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