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Www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Outline: Plagiarism Defining plagiarism Is it or isn’t it? Using sources: paraphrasing vs. quotation Selecting sources:

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Presentation on theme: "Www.le.ac.uk/studentdevelopment Outline: Plagiarism Defining plagiarism Is it or isn’t it? Using sources: paraphrasing vs. quotation Selecting sources:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Outline: Plagiarism Defining plagiarism Is it or isn’t it? Using sources: paraphrasing vs. quotation Selecting sources: printed vs. website

2 Plagiarism, n ‘The action or practice of taking someone else's work, idea, etc., and passing it off as one's own; literary theft.’ Defining plagiarism What is plagiarism?

3 What your handbook says You must be sure that you credit ideas, data, information, quotations and illustrations to their original author … At its crudest, plagiarism is simply copying someone else’s work and presenting it as your own, whether … in an examination … coursework or copying text, figures or other material from a textbook, journal article or web site. Plagiarism may also result from taking notes that closely paraphrase an original work and then writing them up without any attempt to impose your own structure, arguments or ideas.

4 Plagiarism detection service

5 Range of penalties for plagiarism Zero for the piece of work, required to repeat the work plus official warning Zero for the module and withdrawal of the right to resit Or worse!!

6 But there is good news!

7 What exactly is plagiarism? Study the paragraph, below, taken from Pharmacology (4th edition, 1999) by Rang, Dale & Ritter. During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced. Look at each of the following essay extracts and decide whether or not you consider the author is guilty of plagiarism. Exercise courtesy of Dr C. Willmott

8 During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced. Is it or isn’t it plagiarism? (1/7) 1.Yes 2.No Original text: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced.

9 Right! (1) Right! This is a word-for-word account but no reference appears. It is seriously guilty of plagiarism. During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced. Original text: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced.  

10 Wrong! (1) Wrong! This is a word-for-word account but no reference appears. It is seriously guilty of plagiarism. During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced. Original text: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced.

11 During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced (Rang et al., 1999). Is it or isn’t it plagiarism? (2/7) 1.Yes 2.No Original text: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced.

12 Right! (2) Right! It is marginally better than extract 1 but still not acceptable. The original work has been acknowledged but no indication had been made that the text itself has been reproduced. During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced (Rang et al., 1999). Original text: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced.  

13 Wrong! It is marginally better than extract 1 but still not acceptable. The original work has been acknowledged but no indication had been made that the text itself has been reproduced. Wrong! (2) During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced (Rang et al., 1999). Original text: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced.

14 “During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced.” (Rang et al., 1999) Is it or isn’t it plagiarism? (3/7) 1.Yes 2.No Original text: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced.

15 Right! (3) “During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced.” (Rang et al., 1999) Right! The quotation marks make it clear that the author is acknowledging that both the ideas and the words have come from the textbook, so it’s not plagiarised. However, stringing together a series of quoted chunks is a poor way to construct an essay… Original text: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced.  

16 Wrong! (3) Wrong! The quotation marks make it clear that the author is acknowledging that both the ideas and the words have come from the textbook, so it’s not plagiarised. However, stringing together a series of quoted chunks is a poor way to construct an essay… “During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced.” (Rang et al., 1999) Original text: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced.

17 In the 4th edition of their textbook Pharmacology (1999), Rang, Dale and Ritter state that: “During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced.” Such a bold assertion understates the ongoing threat posed by microbial infection. It is estimated, for example, that worldwide there were over 8 million cases of tuberculosis in 1998 (WHO, 2000). Is it or isn’t it plagiarism? (4/7) 1.Yes 2.No Original text: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced.

18 Right! (4) In the 4th edition of their textbook Pharmacology (1999), Rang, Dale and Ritter state that: “During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced.” Such a bold assertion understates the ongoing threat posed by microbial infection. It is estimated, for example, that worldwide there were over 8 million cases of tuberculosis in 1998 (WHO, 2000). Right! The quotation is indicated and used in an appropriate way; it is being critiqued by the author and contrasted with a view supported by a second reference. Original text: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced.  

19 Wrong! (4) Wrong! The quotation is indicated and used in an appropriate way; it is being critiqued by the author and contrasted with a view supported by a second reference. In the 4th edition of their textbook Pharmacology (1999), Rang, Dale and Ritter state that: “During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced.” Such a bold assertion understates the ongoing threat posed by microbial infection. It is estimated, for example, that worldwide there were over 8 million cases of tuberculosis in 1998 (WHO, 2000). Original text: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced.

20 The development of safe and effective drugs to deal with bacterial infections has dramatically reduced the death rate arising from microbial diseases (Rang et al., 1999). Is it or isn’t it plagiarism? (5/7) 1.Yes 2.No Original text: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced.

21 Right! (5) Right! The wording and sentence construction bears very close resemblance to the source and so is guilty of plagiarism. The development of safe and effective drugs to deal with bacterial infections has dramatically reduced the death rate arising from microbial diseases (Rang et al., 1999). Original text: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced.  

22 Wrong! (5) Wrong! The wording and sentence construction bears very close resemblance to the source and so is guilty of plagiarism. The development of safe and effective drugs to deal with bacterial infections has dramatically reduced the death rate arising from microbial diseases (Rang et al., 1999). Original text: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced.

23 During the post-war years, the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has transformed medical treatment, and death and illness resulting from microbial disease has been dramatically reduced (Rang et al., 1999). Is it or isn’t it plagiarism? (6/7) 1.Yes 2.No Original text: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced.

24 Right! (6) Right! This is a ‘thesaurus-ed’ or word swapping version of the same text. A few words have been replaced with synonyms but this is not sufficient to be considered new work. During the post-war years, the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has transformed medical treatment, and death and illness resulting from microbial disease has been dramatically reduced (Rang et al., 1999). Original text: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced.  

25 Wrong! (6) Wrong! This is a ‘thesaurus-ed’ or word swapping version of the same text. A few words have been replaced with synonyms but this is not sufficient to be considered new work. During the post-war years, the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has transformed medical treatment, and death and illness resulting from microbial disease has been dramatically reduced (Rang et al., 1999). Original text: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced.

26 The availability of antimicrobial compounds has transformed healthcare in the period since the second world war. People are far less likely to die or even be seriously ill than they had been prior to the introduction of these drugs (Rang et al., 1999). Is it or isn’t it plagiarism? (7/7) 1.Yes 2.No Original text: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced.

27 Right! (7) Right! The author has made a serious attempt to produce a novel account of the subject. It is still not perfect – there are still echoes of the thought processes within the work and ideally the student should draw on a number of sources in order that the essay has genuine originality. Nevertheless, significant effort has gone into bringing freshness to the text. The availability of antimicrobial compounds has transformed healthcare in the period since the second world war. People are far less likely to die or even be seriously ill than they had been prior to the introduction of these drugs (Rang et al., 1999). Original text: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced.

28 Wrong! (7) Wrong! The author has made a serious attempt to produce a novel account of the subject. It is still not perfect – there are still echoes of the thought processes within the work and ideally the student should draw on a number of sources in order that the essay has genuine originality. Nevertheless, significant effort has gone into bringing freshness to the text. The availability of antimicrobial compounds has transformed healthcare in the period since the second world war. People are far less likely to die or even be seriously ill than they had been prior to the introduction of these drugs (Rang et al., 1999). Original text: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionised medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease have been dramatically reduced.

29 So plagiarism is about… Failing to acknowledge fully the sources of knowledge and ideas that you use in your work Incorporating the words of others into your writing as if they were your own Presenting ideas or facts taken from others without comment or analysis (even if the sources are referenced)

30 Outline Defining plagiarism Is it or isn’t it? Using sources: paraphrasing vs. quotation Selecting sources: printed vs. website

31 When making notes from sources… Keep your essay question/report brief in mind, and select sources based on this Choose between paraphrasing sources or recording direct quotations Paraphrasing should be used when the idea is of interest to you Direct quotations can be used when the wording itself is of interest to you Both need to be referenced!!

32 Sample text to be paraphrased “There is much debate regarding the differences in the writing styles between disciplines. However, the differences can be summarised as two main areas of contrast. In the science disciplines, the style of writing can be characterised as reductive. More specifically, the aim is to distil information into its most essential elements in order to present a factual account of current knowledge. For disciplines within arts, the style can be characterised as expansive. Areas of debate and contention are explored and developed to present a range of views and ideas.” Lee R (2001), Writing across the disciplines

33 In considering the differences between disciplines, Lee’s (2001) observation emphasises the difference between science, on the one hand, and arts on the other. The former disciplines are seen to be reductive, whereas the study of literature is seen as expansive. Whilst this view may be of general use, it could be argued that it is too simplistic to cover the wide variety of writing styles used across the range of disciplines. Paraphrasing example PARAPHRASING INTRODUCTION COMMENT

34 Sample text to be quoted from “Of all the challenges facing university teachers in the current HE climate, student writing is the area where most consensus can be found. Recent surveys of lecturers’ concerns about the changing student body (e.g. Howell, 1999; Thackeray, 2000; Wellington, 2000) show that student writing is an increasing problem for lecturers in universities. A common feature in these surveys is lecturers’ beliefs that students do not value accuracy and clarity in writing. Higher Education staff in these surveys report encounters with students who claim that the content rather than the writing should be the basis of their grade. Not only do students arrive at university without the appropriate level of writing ability, they also fail to recognise the need to remedy the situation.” Jones Z, (2001) Higher Education in the 21st Century

35 In discussing the issues facing Higher Education, Jones (2001) suggests that: “student writing is an increasing problem for lecturers in universities”. This particular description of the issue as a ‘problem’ is based on two central assumptions. Firstly, it conceptualises writing as textual, placing emphasis on the surface features of writing. Secondly, it suggests a view that the issue is easy to identify and resolve. However, more recent research (such as Corbett, 2001; Lorenzini, 2003; Robbins, 2003) highlights the complexity surrounding issues of academic writing which go beyond surface features such as grammar or spelling. Quotation example INTRODUCTION QUOTATION COMMENT EVIDENCE SUMMARY OF RESEARCH

36 Extract 1 An experiment carried out by Smith (1997) showed that students do better in exams that contribute to their final grade than in those that are merely ‘pass and proceed’; this showed that motivation is an important factor in improving students’ examination performance. Patel (1995) believes that students should be given past papers to help them to increase their confidence, but Jones (1998) thinks that this can lead to students revising only those topics that come up regularly. Essay-type questions are better than short- answer questions because they test creative thinking and not just memory (McPherson, 1997).

37 Extract 2 Recent published research on the effectiveness of examinations as an assessment technique has highlighted the importance of motivation as a driving force (for example, Patel, 1995; Smith, 1997; Jones, 1998). Patel and Jones disagree about whether or not past papers can be useful in helping students, but I would agree with Patel that without some clear examples of at least the types of questions that are likely to be asked, students are not able to plan an effective revision strategy. What is important though, is not just the context in which examinations are used, but the format of the examinations themselves. McPherson (1997) argued against short-answer questions, which he saw as only capable of testing memory and not creative thinking. In his criticism of this type of examination, he has failed to acknowledge the importance of providing opportunities for students to develop a wider range of written communication skills than those developed by essay writing. The ability to write briefly and effectively is a very valuable skill for future employment; discursive essays are a form of writing that is very rarely used in the world of work.

38 Which extract is better? 1.Extract 1 2.Extract 2 An experiment carried out by Smith (1997) showed that students do better in exams that contribute to their final grade… Recent published research on the effectiveness of examinations as an assessment technique has highlighted…

39 Outline Defining plagiarism Is it or isn’t it? Using sources: paraphrasing vs. quotation Selecting sources: printed vs. website

40 Selecting sources for academic writing Academic research is about objectivity, analysis and evaluation Academic research is based on the careful selection and examination of any source of information that is used To be an effective researcher you need to be sure of your sources of information

41 Questions about source material QuestionPrintedWebsite Where is the information from? Is it authoritative? Is it up to date? Is the source biased? Is it reliable? How would you find answers to the following questions…

42 Summary: make sure you… record all bibliographic details before making any notes distinguish between your ideas and those of others use paraphrasing and reserve quotations for when the wording itself is important check your departmental referencing style and provide references for all sources that you use use sources to illustrate, provide evidence, make comparisons and show your breadth of reading seek clarification from tutors or the student learning centre is you are unsure


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