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Tim Lewis, Ph.D. University of Missouri

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1 Moving up the Continuum: Building Systems to Support Tier II and III Interventions  
Tim Lewis, Ph.D. University of Missouri OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

2 Starting Point…. We can’t “make” students learn or behave
We can create environments to increase the likelihood students learn and behave Environments that increase the likelihood are guided by a core curriculum and implemented with consistency and fidelity

3 Positive Behavior Support Social Competence & Academic Achievement
OUTCOMES Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior SYSTEMS DATA PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior

4 Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success
Academic Systems Behavioral Systems Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based High Intensity Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures 1-5% 1-5% Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response 5-10% 5-10% Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Universal Interventions All students Preventive, proactive 80-90% Universal Interventions All settings, all students Preventive, proactive 80-90%

5 Across the Continuum Teams - Administrator
Social behavior curriculum developed / adapted Data-based decision making Problem solving logic Access to Technical Assistance Working toward district/regional support SW-PBS is a Marathon, not a sprint Focus across is on what students should be learning versus what they should not be doing

6 Creating Environments
Environments that increase the likelihood are guided by a core curriculum and implemented with consistency and fidelity

7 Creating Environments to Increase the Likelihood: Universals
Annually: Revisit your set of expectations and teaching activities Assess and address “problem spots” across school environments Assess effective instruction and management in each classroom High Rates of Positive Feedback

8 Teach & Practice……..

9 Post expectations across school settings…

10 4:1 Positive Ratio?

11 Creating Environments to Increase the Likelihood: Classrooms
Keep in mind: Most problem behaviors occur in the classroom Effective social and academic instruction is essential for ALL classrooms Classrooms are “personal”

12 Inverse relationship between increased probability of compliance induced by effective teaching on the rate of disruptive behavior (Gunter, Shores, Jack, Denny, & DePaepe, 1994)

13 Importance of Effective Instruction (Sanders, 1999)
The single biggest factor affecting academic growth of any population of youngsters is the effectiveness of the classroom. The answer to why children learn well or not isn't race, it isn't poverty, it isn't even per-pupil expenditure at the elementary level. The classroom's effect on academic growth dwarfs and nearly renders trivial all these other factors that people have historically worried about.

14 So one of our own is now blaming everything on the teacher!!
If classroom teachers are struggling, it is a systems issue NOT an individual teacher issues

15 Creating Effective Classroom Environments
Insuring ALL faculty and staff engaging in effective instruction and classroom management Align resources to challenges Work within existing organization structure Raze and rebuild Must build an environment that simultaneously supports student and adult behavior

16 Top Eight Classroom expectations/rules defined and taught
Classroom routines defined and taught “4:1” positive feedback Active supervision Students actively engaged Multiple opportunities to respond Minors are addressed quickly and quietly/privately School wide procedures for majors are followed

17 Creating Environments
Focus on socially important behaviors Inviting atmosphere / Friendly & Helpful Connections / relationships between: Staff-staff Staff-students Students- adults Is your school a place where you would want your own child to attend?

18 Core Curriculum Environments that increase the likelihood are guided by a core curriculum and implemented with consistency and fidelity

19 Core Curriculum Based on local issues/problems – “What do you want them to do instead” Clear goal/purpose Matched to student need Research-based Accompanying training and support for all staff to implement Mini-modules + “tip sheets” Performance feedback

20 Meaningful PD Outcomes
Staff Development Change in Teacher Practice Change in Student Outcomes Change in Teacher Beliefs A Model of the Process of Teacher Change Guskey, 1986

21 Peer Coaching with Performance Feedback
2 schools – one high SES, one low SES 4 teacher “cool tools” on instructional talk, prompts, feedback, and wait time Implemented school-wide; provided a tip sheet and mini in-service on each, weekly reminders from administrators Each cool tool 4 weeks long - cumulative


23 Consistency and Fidelity
Environments that increase the likelihood are guided by a core curriculum and implemented with consistency and fidelity

24 Consistency & Fidelity
On-going, sustained, and purposeful training On-going access to technical assistance Periodic checks Student outcomes Student perceptions Adult perceptions Working toward a District-Wide PBS initiative that will sustain over time

25 Assess for Fidelity of Implementation

26 Consistency & Fidelity
Boosters based on data Apply logic of SW-PBS to adult learners Tell-show-practice Data / Feedback Data Decisions Align Initiatives to SW-PBS work Eliminate competing initiatives that do not produce measurable outcomes

27 Aligning Initiatives

28 Tier II & III Essential Features
Emphasis is on continuum and interrelated components of data, practices, systems

29 Are School Teams Ready? Universals in place (80% or better on SET)
Action plan to maintain Universals Use data in team meetings Create a decision rule to identify students in need Assessment to identify what supports students need Strategy to implement classroom-based supports Equal emphasis on practices, data and system supports

30 Tier II & III Basics Teach/build pro-social replacement behaviors
Attend to possible function of the problem behavior Build maintenance and generalization strategies to promote use Connect points to universals

31 Tier II & III Interventions
Consider Not fixed group of students Student’s needs vary across continuum over time and within academic/social area Least intrusive but matched to student need Response may be environmental changes without direct student intervention

32 Structural Analysis Setting Factors Assessment Tool
Level 1: Classroom Set-up and Structure Level 2: Context Specific Activities Level 3: Instructional Delivery and Tasks Level 4: Student Behavior Stichter, J. P., Lewis, T. J., Johnson, N., & Trussell, R. (2004). Toward a structural assessment: Analyzing the merits of an assessment tool for a student with E/BD. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 30,



35 When Implementing Tier II & III Supports
Common misperception is that these strategies will “fix” the student and the classroom teacher does not need to be an active participant since “specialists” or outside staff are often involved in the intervention – Important to stress that these interventions will require high level of involvement among ALL staff within the school building 35

36 Critical Points for Success
Part of a continuum – must link to school-wide PBS system Efficient and effective way to identify students Intervention matched to presenting problem but not highly individualized Staff implementing interventions have skills and support ALL staff aware of interventions and their part in promoting generalization

37 Function-based Intervention
Analysis and/or Full Assessment Phase 4: Evaluate Outcomes & Make Decisions Academic Support(s) Check In/ Check Out Mentoring Social Skill Club Avoid Tasks? Obtain Attention? Obtain Attention? Skill Deficit? Phase 3: Function-based Intervention Targeted Environmental Interventions Step 2: Teacher & Team synthesize data to 1) Define Problem 2) Develop Hypothesis 3) Identify Replacement 4) Select Intervention Step 1: Teacher and Team Partner collect data. Nonresponder as compared to typical peer? Full access to Tier 1 supports? Is Identification process accurate and durable? Phase 2: Identification Process Teacher/Parent Nomination Data Decision Rules Universal Screening Instrument Tier 1 implemented with fidelity? If Yes, then Phase 1: Provide Adequate Instruction Classroom System Nonclassroom System Schoolwide System

38 Process for Accessing Support
Gentry Middle School



41 Process for Disseminating Practice
SAT Process Teacher Training and Support Targeted Interventions Individual Student Plans SAT Team Administrator Counselor Behavior Specialist STAT Team Core Team/Classrooms Implement AIS Monitor Progress Refer to SAT Core Team Representative SAT Partner Core Team Teachers *Meets Weekly RRKS Team School-Wide Systems Matrix Lesson Plans School-Wide Data Acknowledgement Communication Core Team Representative District PBS Support Building Administrator and Counselors *Meets Monthly

42 Provide Skills-Based Training
Training Model SAT members with behavior specialist Behavior basics and management SAT process Function-linked strategies SAT members with STAT team representative SAT and STAT with core team teachers

43 Provide Tools Tools for Teachers SAT flowchart Pyramid to Success
RRKS TOC AIS guide (Alternative Intervention Strategies)

44 Pyramid to Success for All
Office Issues Bus referrals, Truancy, Chronic offender, Threatening student or adult, Fighting, Refusal to go to or Disruptive in Buddy Room, Sexual harassment, Weapons, Drug/cigarettes/ tobacco/alcohol, Assault – physical or verbal Teacher Method for handling student behaviors Referral Form – send student to office with completed form Process with student before re-entry Office Method for handling student behaviors Proactive: RRKS Review, Parent Contact Corrective: Loss of Privilege, Saturday detention, Opportunity Center, Suspension, etc. Team Issues Repeated minor & major disruptions in multiple classrooms, Throwing things, Hallway/Lockers problems, Attendance, Repeated disrespect to peers or adults, Cheating, Inappropriate to substitute, Insubordination, Chronic Disruptions Method for handling student behaviors Proactive: Parent contact (mandatory), RRKS review, Team conference, Team conference with student, Team conference with Parents, Team conference with Administrator/Counselor, Triage in the AM with the student, Triage at lunch with the student, Team Focus, etc. Corrective: Removal of privilege on team, Recovery Study Hall, Buddy Room, etc. Classroom Teacher Issues Out of seat, Talking to classmates, Talking out, Off-task, Violation of class rules, Inappropriate language, Lack of materials, Gum, Disrespect, Cheating, Tardies, Minor destruction of property Method for handling student behaviors Proactive: Positive call to parents, Use praise, Use Rewards, Daily/Weekly Goal sheets, Proximity to instructor, Provide choices, One-to-One assistance, Pre-correct for transitions/trouble situations, Regular breaks for exercise, Give a job, RRKS Review, Reward lunch with teacher, etc. Corrective: One and only one REDIRECT, RRKS Review, Safe-seat, Buddy Room, Think Sheet, Parent Phone call, Lunch Detention, Recovery Study Hall, Removal of privilege in classroom, etc.

45 On Building a Continuum of Supports
Some Final Thoughts On Building a Continuum of Supports

46 Remember, Building a Complete Continuum is a Marathon not a Sprint

47 All of us will have set-backs on the journey

48 Allow yourself plenty of time to get there

49 Remember to bring the kids along

50 No matter how tempting….. Stay Positive!

51 Teach & Practice, Teach & Practice, Teach & Practice……

52 Big Ideas Understand interaction between behavior and the teaching environment Behavior is functionally related to the teaching environment Build Positive Behavior Support Plans that teach pro-social “replacement” behaviors Create environments to support the use of pro-social behaviors (practice, practice, practice) Around individual student need / self-management Classroom School-wide 52

53 Moving up the Continuum: Building Systems to Support Tier II and III Interventions  
Tim Lewis, Ph.D. University of Missouri OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

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