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**Chart Deception Main Source: How to Lie with Charts, by Gerald E. Jones**

Dr. Michael R. Hyman, NMSU

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**Information Information = Data + Labels 5056465238 = data**

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**Summaries Can Hide Needed Detail**

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**Pie Charts Pie charts denote percentages**

Label slices with percentages, not raw values True of two pie figures Most important slice Right-hand slice Exploded slice Bottom slice of 3-D pie seems overly important

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**Pie Charts Pie charts denote percentages**

Label slices with percentages, not raw values True of two pie figures Most important slice Right-hand slice Exploded slice Bottom slice of 3-D pie seems overly important

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**Pie Charts Pie charts denote percentages**

Label slices with percentages, not raw values True of two pie figures Most important slice Right-hand slice Exploded slice Bottom slice of 3-D pie seems overly important

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**Pie Charts Pie charts denote percentages**

Label slices with percentages, not raw values True of two pie figures Most important slice Right-hand slice Exploded slice Bottom slice of 3-D pie seems overly important

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Pie Charts Multi-sized pies on same figure (to denote trend) biased by dissimilar diameter-area rates of growth Large ‘Other’ slice can hide needed detail Use pie-column chart for more detail on a slice Donut charts confusing Omitting missing data increases relate size of all slices

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Pie Charts Multi-sized pies on same figure (to denote trend) biased by dissimilar diameter-area rates of growth Large ‘Other’ slice can hide needed detail Use pie-column chart for more detail on a slice Donut charts confusing Omitting missing data increases relate size of all slices

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Pie Charts Multi-sized pies on same figure (to denote trend) biased by dissimilar diameter-area rates of growth Large ‘Other’ slice can hide needed detail Use pie-column chart for more detail on a slice Donut charts confusing Omitting missing data increases relate size of all slices

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Pie Charts Multi-sized pies on same figure (to denote trend) biased by dissimilar diameter-area rates of growth Large ‘Other’ slice can hide needed detail Use pie-column chart for more detail on a slice Donut charts confusing Omitting missing data increases relate size of all slices

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**Attend to Cultural Bias in Orienting Charts**

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Argo Sales Increase Sales, in units or dollars, listed along the y axis Avoid 3D effects

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**Bar Chart—Avoid 3D and Sideways**

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**Bar and Area Charts Stacked vs. clustered bar charts**

Mixing cumulative and clustered bars can confuse viewers When stacking, place least variable component on bottom Avoid paired-bar charts Viewers can misread 3-D bars

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**Bar and Area Charts Stacked vs. clustered bar charts**

Mixing cumulative and clustered bars can confuse viewers When stacking, place least variable component on bottom Avoid paired-bar charts Viewers can misread 3-D bars

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**Bar and Area Charts Stacked vs. clustered bar charts**

Mixing cumulative and clustered bars can confuse viewers When stacking, place least variable component on bottom Avoid paired-bar charts Viewers can misread 3-D bars

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**Bar and Area Charts Stacked vs. clustered bar charts**

Mixing cumulative and clustered bars can confuse viewers When stacking, place least variable component on bottom Avoid paired-bar charts Viewers can misread 3-D bars

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Bar Graph—Avoid 3D

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Avoid 3-D Effects

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Line Graph—Avoid 3D

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**XY (or Scatter) Charts Label data points**

Start axes at coordinates (0,0) Avoid distorting axes Avoid broken axes Cumulative charts seem optimistic because upward sloping Avoid dissimilar data on same chart Semi-log charts can minimize trends If x axis isn’t time axis, connecting dots can mistakenly suggest a trend Interpolation and extrapolation are subjective

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**XY (or Scatter) Charts Label data points**

Start axes at coordinates (0,0) Avoid distorting axes Avoid broken axes Cumulative charts seem optimistic because upward sloping Avoid dissimilar data on same chart Semi-log charts can minimize trends If x axis isn’t time axis, connecting dots can mistakenly suggest a trend Interpolation and extrapolation are subjective

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**XY (or Scatter) Charts Label data points**

Start axes at coordinates (0,0) Avoid distorting axes Avoid broken axes Cumulative charts seem optimistic because upward sloping Avoid dissimilar data on same chart Semi-log charts can minimize trends If x axis isn’t time axis, connecting dots can mistakenly suggest a trend Interpolation and extrapolation are subjective

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**XY (or Scatter) Charts Label data points**

Start axes at coordinates (0,0) Avoid distorting axes Avoid broken axes Cumulative charts seem optimistic because upward sloping Avoid dissimilar data on same chart Semi-log charts can minimize trends If x axis isn’t time axis, connecting dots can mistakenly suggest a trend Interpolation and extrapolation are subjective

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**XY (or Scatter) Charts Label data points**

Start axes at coordinates (0,0) Avoid distorting axes Avoid broken axes Cumulative charts seem optimistic because upward sloping Avoid dissimilar data on same chart Semi-log charts can minimize trends If x axis isn’t time axis, connecting dots can mistakenly suggest a trend Interpolation and extrapolation are subjective

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**XY (or Scatter) Charts Label data points**

Start axes at coordinates (0,0) Avoid distorting axes Avoid broken axes Cumulative charts seem optimistic because upward sloping Avoid dissimilar data on same chart Semi-log charts can minimize trends If x axis isn’t time axis, connecting dots can mistakenly suggest a trend Interpolation and extrapolation are subjective

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**XY (or Scatter) Charts Label data points**

Start axes at coordinates (0,0) Avoid distorting axes Avoid broken axes Cumulative charts seem optimistic because upward sloping Avoid dissimilar data on same chart Semi-log charts can minimize trends If x axis isn’t time axis, connecting dots can mistakenly suggest a trend Interpolation and extrapolation are subjective

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**XY (or Scatter) Charts Label data points**

Start axes at coordinates (0,0) Avoid distorting axes Avoid broken axes Cumulative charts seem optimistic because upward sloping Avoid dissimilar data on same chart Semi-log charts can minimize trends If x axis isn’t time axis, connecting dots can mistakenly suggest a trend Interpolation and extrapolation are subjective

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**XY (or Scatter) Charts Label data points**

Start axes at coordinates (0,0) Avoid distorting axes Avoid broken axes Cumulative charts seem optimistic because upward sloping Avoid dissimilar data on same chart Semi-log charts can minimize trends If x axis isn’t time axis, connecting dots can mistakenly suggest a trend Interpolation and extrapolation are subjective

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Radar Charts Beware non-uniform scales on axes

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**Depicting Confidence Intervals**

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Headers and Footers Use footnotes to source table (avoid plagiarism charge) Font rules Use proportional font Don’t mix fonts in a chart Use upper and lower case letters Spell out numbers 1 through 9 unless a measure

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**Examples of Bad Graphics**

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**Examples of Bad and Better Graphics**

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Example #1

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Example #2

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Example #3

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Example #4

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Example #5

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Example #6

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Example #7

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Example #8

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