3 Module 1 An Introduction to Risk Communication Module 2 Food Defense & the Psychology of Terrorism Module 3 Message Development & Delivery Module 4 Risk Communication Preparedness & Planning Module 5 Media Relations & Practice Risk Communicator Training Modules
An Introduction to Risk Communication Module One An Introduction to Risk Communication National Center for Food Protection & Defense Risk Communicator Training
6 topic one Defining Risk Communication: What It IS & What It Isn’t topic two Risk Perception: Facts & Feelings topic three We’re All Risk Communicators: It Is Your Job! An Introduction to Risk Communication
7 Learner Outcomes Module One Learner Outcomes Apply the risk communication goals to a foodborne outbreak. Describe the function of risk communication within the risk management model. Identify the factors that drive perceptions of risk. Compare and contrast communicator roles from various segments of the food system.
An Introduction to Risk Communication module one An Introduction to Risk Communication topic one Defining Risk Communication: What It Is & What It Isn’t
9 Risk communication defined An open, two-way exchange of information and opinion about risk leading to better understanding and better risk management decisions. Source: USDA, 1992
10 Risk communication goals Tailor communication so it takes into account the emotional response to an event. Empowers audience to make informed decision-making. Prevent negative behavior and/or encourage constructive responses to crisis or danger.
risk comm clipping file CDC official Seasonal flu vaccination September, 2006 "The best way to guard against the flu is to get vaccinated, which helps to protect you, your loved ones, and your community."
risk comm clipping file State emergency response spokesperson Pandemic preparedness October, 2006 “We are very concerned for those who became ill and our thoughts are with them as we continue to work closely with health officials as they try to determine the root cause of this. While the authorities do not know the source of this contamination, they have said there haven't been any new cases since Nov 29, so they are confident that it is most likely no longer a threat."
risk comm clipping file University Food Studies & Public Health Specialist E. coli – spinach outbreak September, 2006 … “The idea that salad greens have become a source of E. coli is very shocking, and it means we have a real problem in the food system. This is very serious."
risk comm clipping file CDC spokesperson Re: Listeriosis - hot dogs outbreak December, 1998 “We have not with certainty traced the illness to any specific product or source. But people in high-risk groups for developing listeriosis, particularly pregnant women, the elderly and persons with compromised immune systems should take precautions.”
risk comm clipping file County Dietitian Following E.coli – spinach outbreak, October, 2006 “…Spinach is high in antioxidants, which can protect against heart disease and cancer. If you’re having a hard time finding spinach, there are lots of other greens with nutritional value. We should not forget about mustard greens, bok choy, kale and chard, broccoli and Brussel sprouts. I would suggest things like romaine lettuce and arugula.”
risk comm clipping file Industry association spokesperson E. coli – spinach outbreak September, 2006 …Concerning restoring public trust following the outbreak: "Farmers approach it as the most serious concern that they have. The most important commodity that we have is the public trust."
17 Communication models Basic Communication Model Uni-directional or we tell “them” approach Who says - what - when - to whom - through what channel - with what effect Risk Communication Model Multi-directional Actively involves the audience as an information source
18 Risk Communication elements Multi-directional & actively involves the audience as an information source Logistics Metamessaging Listening Self-assessment Evaluation Audience assessment Audience involvement Message
19 Risk communication outcomes Decrease illness, injury & deaths Build support for response plan Assist in executing response plan Prevent misallocation & wasting of resources Keep decision-makers well informed Counter or correct rumors Foster informed decision-making concerning risk
20 Contributing disciplines Environmental Science Social Psychology Philosophy Political Science Communication Chemistry Public Health Epidemiology Risk Communication is trans-disciplinary: Love Canal (’78) & Three Mile Island (’79)
22 Applying the concepts UnpackingtheMessageUnpackingtheMessage
23 Summary What Risk Communication is NOT: Spin Public relations Damage control Crisis management How to write a press release How to give a media interview Always intended to make people “feel better” or reduce their fear
24 Summary Considers human perceptions of risk Multi-directional communication among communicators, publics and stakeholders Activities before, during and after an event An integral part of an emergency response plan Empowers people to make their own informed decisions And what Risk Communication IS:
An Introduction to Risk Communication module one An Introduction to Risk Communication topic two Risk Perception: Facts & Feelings
26 Risk analysis paradigm Everything we do involves risk Zero risk is unachievable Options exist for managing every risk
27 Risk management All potentially effected parties are engaged in: Hazard Identification Hazard Identification Risk Assessment Risk Assessment Risk Communication Risk Communication RISK MANAGEMENT
28 Interpreting risk Communicating about risk is difficult because of the way people interpret risk Involves competing perspectives: objective vs subjective
29 Developed by a leading research university Experience short term memory boost Enjoy pleasant feelings in times of stress
30 Developed by a leading research university 16 years in the making Provides short term memory boost & pleasant feeling in times of stress 24-36 hours in duration Multiple trials examining potential short term & long term side effects
31 What shapes perceptions of risk Hazard – something that can go wrong Probability – likelihood of it happening Consequences – implications of hazard Value – subjective evaluation of the relative importance of what might be lost
32 What shapes perceptions of risk Hazard – something that can go wrong Probability – likelihood of it happening Consequences – implications of hazard Value – subjective evaluation of the relative importance of what might be lost FEELING THINKING
33 Scientist - Consumer disconnect SCIENTIST EXPERT knows thinks CONSUMER PUBLIC feels believes Fact-based: hazard, probability Value-based: consequences, value
risk comm clipping file "In fact, probably getting out of your automobile and walking into the store to buy beef, has a higher probability than you'll be hit by an automobile than... the probability of any harm coming to you from eating beef." U.S. Agriculture Undersecretary Japanese import ban on U.S. beef January, 2006
35 With permission from the Star Tribune Scientists focus on danger - consumers on the ‘whole cow’ Mad Cow, 2003
36 Peter Sandman “The risks that upset people are completely different than the risks that kill people.”
38 Perceptions of risk Risk = Hazard + Outrage SOURCE: Peter Sandman
39 A variety of risk comm approaches Hazard (danger) High Low High Outrage Management Crisis / Emergency Communication Public Relations Precaution Advocacy Outrage (fear, anger)
40 Goal: Reduce outrage so people don’t take unnecessary precautions Hazard (danger) High Low High Crisis / Emergency Communication Public Relations Precaution Advocacy Outrage Management Outrage (fear,anger)
41 Goal: Increase concern for a real hazard to motivate preventive action Hazard (danger) High Low High Outrage Management Crisis / Emergency Communication Public Relations Precaution Advocacy Outrage (fear,anger)
42 Hazard (danger) High Outrage (fear,anger) Low High Outrage Management Public Relations Precaution Advocacy Crisis / Emergency Communication Goal: Acknowledge hazard, validate concern, give people ways to act
43 Applying the concepts Hazard +Outrage and Your Organization Hazard +Outrage and Your Organization
An Introduction to Risk Communication module one An Introduction to Risk Communication topic three We’re All Risk Communicators: It IS Your Job!
45 Prevailing model Risk communication is centralized in PIO or spokesperson functions Industry CEO Organization or agency head Communications director Other “official spokespersons”
46 Food system risk communicators Official spokespersons Industry CEO, food agency director, labor union officer, consumer organization head Communication staff members Public information officers, technical writers, web managers Subject matter experts Scientists, food system experts, terrorism experts, quality assurance officers FEMA
47 Food system risk communicators Educators & outreach specialists Extension staff, consumer educators, outreach workers, public health educators, consumer hotline staff Public health & health care specialists Agency directors, food inspectors, physicians, nurses, lab specialists, sanitarians
48 Alternative model: We’re ALL risk communicators Including informal channels & networks Neighbor to neighbor Rumor mill Online blogs “Person on the street” interviews Talk radio Others??? CSREES
49 Case Study: Schwan’s salmonella outbreak, 1994 Company features home delivered food products Est. 224,000 persons were exposed to ice cream contaminated with salmonella Contamination traced to tanker trucks that hauled ice cream premix Interaction between Schwan’s door-to- door delivery drivers & customers was key recovery and restoring trust
50 for Effective Message Development Risk & crisis communication is an ongoing process For Effective Risk Communication BestPractices
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