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Academic Integrity and proper citation. Plagiarism Types of plagiarism: Types of plagiarism: Failure to cite borrowed ideas. Failure to cite borrowed.

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Presentation on theme: "Academic Integrity and proper citation. Plagiarism Types of plagiarism: Types of plagiarism: Failure to cite borrowed ideas. Failure to cite borrowed."— Presentation transcript:

1 Academic Integrity and proper citation

2 Plagiarism Types of plagiarism: Types of plagiarism: Failure to cite borrowed ideas. Failure to cite borrowed ideas. Failure to cite quotations of others’ work. Failure to cite quotations of others’ work. Paraphrasing too closely, especially long passages or multiple paragraphs. Paraphrasing too closely, especially long passages or multiple paragraphs. Self plagiarism. Self plagiarism.

3 Borrowed ideas Did you get an idea directly from a source? Did you get an idea directly from a source? Cite it. Cite it. Example: Example: Author claims that the French Revolution was caused by the Monarchy’s massive debts. Author claims that the French Revolution was caused by the Monarchy’s massive debts. The author did the research, give the author credit. The author did the research, give the author credit.

4 Did you get an idea indirectly from a source? Did you get an idea indirectly from a source? Example: Example: The French Monarchy lost power due to its massive debts (Author’s Idea). This power vacuum allowed the middle class to rise in political prominence. (Your idea). The French Monarchy lost power due to its massive debts (Author’s Idea). This power vacuum allowed the middle class to rise in political prominence. (Your idea). Cite the Author’s idea. Don’t cite your idea. Cite the Author’s idea. Don’t cite your idea. Good practice: establish your facts with solid sources, cite them, then provide your interpretation of what those facts indicate. Good practice: establish your facts with solid sources, cite them, then provide your interpretation of what those facts indicate.

5 Citing quotations Are you using a direct quote from someone else? Are you using a direct quote from someone else? Put it between quotation marks and cite it. Put it between quotation marks and cite it. Easy, isn’t it? Easy, isn’t it?

6 Three or more words What constitutes a quote: What constitutes a quote: Technically: taking three or more words in a row from your source material. Technically: taking three or more words in a row from your source material. So, taking the phrase “uncertain political climate” from your source without putting it quotes is plagiarism. So, taking the phrase “uncertain political climate” from your source without putting it quotes is plagiarism. But in practice, you’ll never be called on “In other words” or “The next year” or any other extremely common string of words. But in practice, you’ll never be called on “In other words” or “The next year” or any other extremely common string of words.

7 One-word plagiarism Exception to the three-word rule: Presenting someone else’s new term or phrase as your own invention. Exception to the three-word rule: Presenting someone else’s new term or phrase as your own invention. “This new form of civil disobedience, which I’ll call ecoterrorism, took many forms…” “This new form of civil disobedience, which I’ll call ecoterrorism, took many forms…” Better: “This new form of civil disobedience, which Jane Robbins dubbed ‘ecoterrorism’, took many forms.” Better: “This new form of civil disobedience, which Jane Robbins dubbed ‘ecoterrorism’, took many forms.”

8 Good Quoting Good practice: quote only the quotable. Good practice: quote only the quotable. American Revolutionary Patrick Henry said “Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death!” American Revolutionary Patrick Henry said “Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death!” Is this quote interesting? Is this quote interesting? Yes. Yes. Would paraphrasing the information improve it? Would paraphrasing the information improve it? No. No.

9 Bad quoting Don’t quote the less-than-quotable. Don’t quote the less-than-quotable. Robert Reich, Secretary of Labor during the Clinton administration, said that “the Employment rate increased 1.3% in the second quarter of 1994.” Robert Reich, Secretary of Labor during the Clinton administration, said that “the Employment rate increased 1.3% in the second quarter of 1994.” Is this quote interesting? No. Is this quote interesting? No. The information might be interesting, or relevant to your point, but there’s little reason for the exact quote. The information might be interesting, or relevant to your point, but there’s little reason for the exact quote.

10 Online Resources for Plagiarists Any relevant article on the internet. Any relevant article on the internet. Term-paper sites offer a variety of papers on different subjects. Term-paper sites offer a variety of papers on different subjects. Some require payment Some require payment Some make money on advertising revenue, or by collecting addresses to resell elsewhere Some make money on advertising revenue, or by collecting addresses to resell elsewhere

11 Online resources for Instructors Anti-plagiarism websites and software: (www.turnitin.com and others) Anti-plagiarism websites and software: (www.turnitin.com and others) Collect frequently-used online term papers and compares them to submitted student papers Collect frequently-used online term papers and compares them to submitted student papers Collects submitted student-written papers for a given class and compares them to other students’ papers. Collects submitted student-written papers for a given class and compares them to other students’ papers. Easiest method: google search engine + one unusual phrase Easiest method: google search engine + one unusual phrase Students who plagiarize don’t usually dig deep for their source material. Students who plagiarize don’t usually dig deep for their source material.

12 …wait, whose intellectual property? Any communications or material of any kind that you , post, or transmit through the Site…will be treated as non- confidential and non-proprietary. You grant iParadigms a non- exclusive, royalty-free, perpetual, world-wide, irrevocable license to reproduce, transmit, display, disclose, and otherwise use your Communications on the Site or elsewhere for our business purposes. We are free to use any ideas, concepts, techniques, know-how in your Communications for any purpose, including, but not limited to, the development and use of products and services based on the Communications. Any communications or material of any kind that you , post, or transmit through the Site…will be treated as non- confidential and non-proprietary. You grant iParadigms a non- exclusive, royalty-free, perpetual, world-wide, irrevocable license to reproduce, transmit, display, disclose, and otherwise use your Communications on the Site or elsewhere for our business purposes. We are free to use any ideas, concepts, techniques, know-how in your Communications for any purpose, including, but not limited to, the development and use of products and services based on the Communications. - From turnitin.com’s Usage Policy:

13 “Medicaments” “The use of medicaments in professional sports…” “The use of medicaments in professional sports…” Medicaments: a term for medicines or pharmaceuticals. Used widely in the early and mid 1800’s, but outdated by Medicaments: a term for medicines or pharmaceuticals. Used widely in the early and mid 1800’s, but outdated by Occasionally still in use among students of English outside the US, particularly in schools in India and the Middle East. Occasionally still in use among students of English outside the US, particularly in schools in India and the Middle East. My personal record: identified plagiarism four words into a paper. My personal record: identified plagiarism four words into a paper.

14 Figures, Illustrations, Photos. Did you draw the illustration, plot the graph, or take the photo? Did you draw the illustration, plot the graph, or take the photo? No? No? Cite it. Cite it. If you don’t cite it, the reader will assume you created it yourself. If you don’t cite it, the reader will assume you created it yourself. (Note: if you make the graph but found the data elsewhere, cite the source of the data) (Note: if you make the graph but found the data elsewhere, cite the source of the data)

15 Simultaneous discovery Simultaneous discovery: Simultaneous discovery: If you generate your own idea about a subject, and the idea is nearly identical to a source you haven’t read yet, you aren’t obligated to cite it. If you generate your own idea about a subject, and the idea is nearly identical to a source you haven’t read yet, you aren’t obligated to cite it. This can be hard to distinguish from genuine plagiarism. This can be hard to distinguish from genuine plagiarism.

16 Unintentional Plagiarism Comes from: Comes from: Paraphrasing sources, then editing and accidentally changing it to something too close to the original. Paraphrasing sources, then editing and accidentally changing it to something too close to the original. Forgetting to note the source of an idea or quote you’ve found, and then forgetting it was your own. Forgetting to note the source of an idea or quote you’ve found, and then forgetting it was your own. It can be difficult or impossible to prove this mistake was accidental. It can be difficult or impossible to prove this mistake was accidental.

17 Self plagiarism How can you plagiarize yourself? How can you plagiarize yourself? By turning in the same paper to two different classes. By turning in the same paper to two different classes. Note: not all instructors consider this plagiarism. Note: not all instructors consider this plagiarism. (For instance, I don’t) (For instance, I don’t) Always ask first. Always ask first. Also: your TAs and your instructors can have different ideas about what constitutes plagiarism. Also: your TAs and your instructors can have different ideas about what constitutes plagiarism.

18 General Knowledge You do not need to cite general knowledge. You do not need to cite general knowledge. What’s general knowledge? What’s general knowledge? Force equals mass times acceleration. Force equals mass times acceleration. Romeo and Juliet was written by William Shakespeare. Romeo and Juliet was written by William Shakespeare. The United States of America declared its independence in The United States of America declared its independence in 1776.

19 Is this general information? Is this general information? Human and chimpanzee DNA are 99% identical. Human and chimpanzee DNA are 99% identical. A wide variety of mental illnesses are mislabeled as Schizophrenia. A wide variety of mental illnesses are mislabeled as Schizophrenia. Roosevelt knew about the impending Pearl Harbor attack days before December 7 th, Roosevelt knew about the impending Pearl Harbor attack days before December 7 th, Note: as you advance in a field, what’s considered “General Knowledge” can change. Note: as you advance in a field, what’s considered “General Knowledge” can change. When in any doubt, though, cite. When in any doubt, though, cite. You’ll never get in trouble for over-citing. You’ll never get in trouble for over-citing.

20 Outside Academia Plagiarism is a purely academic crime. Plagiarism is a purely academic crime. It isn’t, in fact, a crime – either criminal or civil. It isn’t, in fact, a crime – either criminal or civil. But it’s a violation of academic ethics and you can be punished for it. But it’s a violation of academic ethics and you can be punished for it. By attending a school, you agree to the school policies whether or not you’ve read them. By attending a school, you agree to the school policies whether or not you’ve read them. Outside academia, it’s still a good idea to give credit where it’s due. Outside academia, it’s still a good idea to give credit where it’s due. Copyright infringement, while technically different from plagiarism, can be grounds for a lawsuit. Copyright infringement, while technically different from plagiarism, can be grounds for a lawsuit.

21 Proper Citations Step one: pick a style guide. Step one: pick a style guide. Any style guide is better than no style guide. Any style guide is better than no style guide. Saves time. Saves time. Prevents stylistic inconsistencies. Prevents stylistic inconsistencies. Your instructor will notice. Your instructor will notice. Some instructors may insist on a specific style guide. (Not such a frequent issue at the undergraduate level.) Some instructors may insist on a specific style guide. (Not such a frequent issue at the undergraduate level.)

22 Style Guides… Dictate whether: Dictate whether: Are books and movies underlined? In Italics? Are books and movies underlined? In Italics? Do I center justify text? Left justify only? Do I center justify text? Left justify only? July 19, 1969?; or Jul. 19, 1969; or 19 Jul 1969?; or 7/19/69?... July 19, 1969?; or Jul. 19, 1969; or 19 Jul 1969?; or 7/19/69?... Do I write “5” or “five”? If it’s “five”, do I spell out 14,768? Do I write “5” or “five”? If it’s “five”, do I spell out 14,768? Most importantly: how do I cite my sources? Most importantly: how do I cite my sources?

23 Style Guides General interest: Chicago Manual of Style General interest: Chicago Manual of Style Arts and Humanities: MLA (Modern Language Association) Arts and Humanities: MLA (Modern Language Association) Chemistry: ACS (American Chemical Society) Chemistry: ACS (American Chemical Society) Engineering: IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) Engineering: IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) * Note: IEEE uses Chicago Manual of Style for all style matters not explicitly outlined in IEEE style guide. Social Sciences: APA (American Psychological Association) Social Sciences: APA (American Psychological Association) Note: Sociology, while also a Social Science, has its own style: ASA (American Sociological Association) Note: Sociology, while also a Social Science, has its own style: ASA (American Sociological Association) Many, many others. Many, many others.

24 Simple, One-Author Book Citation Chicago : Last name, first name. Italicized Title. (Place of publication: publisher, date of publication). Chicago : Last name, first name. Italicized Title. (Place of publication: publisher, date of publication). Kerouac, Jack. Atop an Underwood. (New York: Penguin, 2000). Kerouac, Jack. Atop an Underwood. (New York: Penguin, 2000). APA: Last name, author’s initial (date of publication). Italicized Title. Place of publications, publisher. APA: Last name, author’s initial (date of publication). Italicized Title. Place of publications, publisher. Kerouac, J. (2000). Atop an Underwood. New York: Penguin. Kerouac, J. (2000). Atop an Underwood. New York: Penguin.

25 Citing Electronic Sources Check your style guide for specifics. Check your style guide for specifics. Typically includes: Typically includes: Name of the author (if given) Name of the author (if given) Site title Site title Names of any editors Names of any editors Date of publication or last update Date of publication or last update Date of access Date of access The URL The URL

26 Examples: Examples: Peterson, Susan Lynn. The Life of Martin Luther, 1999, Accessed Jan 7, Peterson, Susan Lynn. The Life of Martin Luther, 1999, Accessed Jan 7, United States, Environmental Protection Agency. Values and Functions of Wetlands., May 25, Accessed March 24, United States, Environmental Protection Agency. Values and Functions of Wetlands., May 25, Accessed March 24, (Examples taken from A Pocket Style Guide, Fourth Edition, Diana Hacker 2004) (Examples taken from A Pocket Style Guide, Fourth Edition, Diana Hacker 2004)

27 Other forms of citation: Citing interviews Citing interviews Citing multiple or unknown authors Citing multiple or unknown authors Citing a musical composition Citing a musical composition Citing a pamphlet Citing a pamphlet Citing a personal letter Citing a personal letter Instructor’s note: if it’s a type of information source, you’re probably not the first one to discover it. Instructor’s note: if it’s a type of information source, you’re probably not the first one to discover it. It’s faster to look it up than to invent your own mode of citation. It’s faster to look it up than to invent your own mode of citation.

28 Any questions? Any questions?


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