6Great book to get started: The Differentiated School: Making Revolutionary Changes in Teaching and Learning Carol Ann Tomlinson, Kay Brimijoin, Lane Narvaez ASCD 2008
7Also, to Get Started:Transforming School Culture: How to Overcome Staff DivisionAnthony Muhammad, Solution Tree Press, 2009Talk About Teaching! Leading Professional Conversations, NASSP/Corwin/NSDC, 2009Leading Change in your School: How to Conquer Myths, Build Commitment, and Get Results, ASCD, 2009Breaking Ranks: A Field Guide to Leading Change, NASSP, 2009 (Don’t forget BRIM – Breaking Ranks in the Middle – and new Breaking Ranks: The Comprehensive Guide to School Improvement
8Two new, substantial study guides for Fair Isn’t Always EqualQ&A’s - abbreviated versions of correspondence with teachers and administratorsVideo and audio podcasts on assessment and grading issuesTestimonials from educatorsArticles that support the book’s main themesAnnouncing a New and FREE Website for Perspective and Practicality on Assessment and Grading Issues!
10Until Report Card Formats catch up to pedagogy, we may have to translate into three languages: Report Card Rubric Symbol English Symbol 4 Mastery Just below 90 mastery
11Three Reasons to Not Refer to Average, Above Average, Below Average Society changes its perception of what is average.“Criterion-reference” is standards-based and more helpful to everyone involved, not “norm-reference.”Averaging was invented in statistics to get rid of sample error, but in order to apply it, the experimental (assessment) design must be constant. Classroom assessments are not constant, and error is inherent.
12A Perspective that Changes our Thinking: “A ‘D’ is a coward’s ‘F.’ The student failed, but you didn’t have enough guts to tell him.”-- Doug Reeves
13ABCI, IP, NE, or NTYOnce we cross over into D and F(E) zones, does it really matter? We’ll do the same two things: Personally investigate and take corrective action
14This assignment had no legitimate educational value. If we do not allow students to re-do work, we deny the growth mindset so vital to student maturation, and we are declaring to the student:This assignment had no legitimate educational value.It’s okay if you don’t do this work.It’s okay if you don’t learn this content or skill.None of these is acceptable to the highly accomplished, professional educator.
15Conclusions from Sample DNA Essay Grading The fact that a range of grades occurs among teacherswho grade the same product suggests that:Assessment can only be done against commonly accepted and clearly understood criteria.Grades are relative.Teachers have to be knowledgeable in their subject area in order to assess students properly.Grades are subjective and can vary from teacher to teacher.Grades are not always accurate indicators of mastery.
16Avoid hunt-and-peck, call-on-just-a-sampling-of-students-to-indicate-the-whole-class’s-understanding assumptions: “Does everyone understand?” “Does anyone have any questions?” “These two students have it right, so the rest of you must understand it as well.” Get evidence from every individual!
17What is Mastery?“Tim was so learned, that he could name a horse in nine languages; so ignorant, that he bought a cow to ride on.”Ben Franklin, 1750, Poor Richard’s Almanac
18Working Definition of Mastery (Wormeli) Students have mastered content when they demonstrate a thorough understanding as evidenced by doing something substantive with the content beyond merely echoing it. Anyone can repeat information; it’s the masterful student who can break content into its component pieces, explain it and alternative perspectives regarding it cogently to others, and use it purposefully in new situations.
19Non-mastery…The students can match each of the following parts of speech to its definition accurately: noun, pronoun, verb, adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction, gerund, and interjection.
20…and MasteryThe student can point to any word in the sentence and explain its role (impact) in the sentence, and explain how the word may change its role, depending on where it’s placed in the sentence.
21What is the standard of excellence when it comes to tying a shoe? Now describe the evaluative criteria for someone who excels beyond the standard of excellence for tying a shoe. What can they do?
22Consider Gradations of Understanding and Performance from Introductory to Sophisticated Introductory Level Understanding: Student walks through the classroom door while wearing a heavy coat. Snow is piled on his shoulders, and he exclaims, “Brrrr!” From depiction, we can infer that it is cold outside. Sophisticated level of understanding: Ask students to analyze more abstract inferences about government propaganda made by Remarque in his wonderful book, All Quiet on the Western Front.
23Which one qualifies for an “A” in the gradebook? Determine the surface area of a cube.Determine the surface area of a rectangular prism (a rectangular box)Determine the amount of wrapping paper needed for another rectangular box, keeping in mind the need to have regular places of overlapping paper so you can tape down the corners neatlyDetermine the amount of paint needed to paint an entire Chicago skyscraper, if one can of paint covers 46 square feet, and without painting the windows, doorways, or external air ventsWhich one qualifies for an “A” in the gradebook?
24Standards are Positives in our Lives: When a plane lands, it’s landing gear supports its weight.Water flows to our homes, and it’s healthy enough to drink.When a house is built, it withstands the wind.When we depress a key on the keyboard, it makes the letter we wish it to make.Locks lock and keys unlock.Cameras take clear pictures.Hotel beds are clean.Thermometers indicate the correct temperature.
25Clarifying theCurriculumIdentify ourverbs.Practicemaking theintrinsic,extrinsic; theinvisible,visible.Divide and conquer.Identify the standards that provide leverage.Share our thinking.Move from standards to evidence or outcome.
26(As taken from www.p21.org) 21st Century Skills Sets(As taken fromMastery of core subjects and 21st century themes is essential to student success. Core subjects include English, reading or language arts, world languages, arts, mathematics, economics, science, geography,history, government and civics.In addition, schools must promote an understanding of academic content at much higher levels by weaving 21st century interdisciplinary themes into core subjects:• Global Awareness• Financial, Economic, Business and Entrepreneurial Literacy• Civic Literacy• Health Literacy• Environmental Literacy
27Learning and Innovation Skills Creativity and InnovationCritical Thinking and Problem SolvingCommunication and CollaborationInformation, Media and Technology SkillsInformation LiteracyMedia LiteracyICT (Information, Communications and Technology) Literacy
28• Initiative and Self-Direction • Social and Cross-Cultural Skills Life and Career Skills• Flexibility and Adaptability• Initiative and Self-Direction• Social and Cross-Cultural Skills• Productivity and Accountability• Leadership and Responsibility
29What if they can write the expressions but can’t evaluate them? Grade 6: Write and evaluate numerical expressions involving whole-number exponents.(From the Common Core Standards)What if they can write the expressions but can’t evaluate them?Does the standard require students to add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole number exponents, too?Some teachers think whole numbers includes zero and negative integers, so should we require students to demonstrate proficiency with negative exponents as well?Does the standard mean students can recognize mistakes others make while evaluating such expressions?
30What if they can do this by rote, but can’t explain the math behind the algorithm? What if they can do the standard this week, but can’t do it two months from now?How many times and over what period of time do students need to be able to do this in order to be considered proficient?What does it mean to exceed this standard, if that’s what our “A” grade represents?
31SIX + 1 Writing Traits Sample Rubric -- Ideas and Content [From Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory, 101 SW Main, Suite 500, Portland, OR 97204]5 = This paper is clear and focused. It holds the reader's attention. Relevant anecdotes and details enrich the central theme or storyline. Ideas are fresh and original. The writer seems to be writing from knowledge or experience and shows insight: an understanding of life and a knack for picking out what is significant. Relevant, telling, quality details give the reader important information that goes beyond the obvious or predictable. The writer develops the topic in an enlightening, purposeful way that makes a point or tells a story. Every piece adds something to the whole.
33Spelling test non-example No echoing or parroting What will you and your colleagues accept as evidence of full mastery and of almost mastery?Spelling test non-exampleNo echoing or parrotingRegular conversations with subject-like colleaguesOther teachers grading your students’ workPacing GuidesCommon Assessments
34Quick Reference: Differentiated Lesson Planning Sequence A. Steps to take before designing the learning experiences:1. Identify your essential understandings, questions, benchmarks, objectives, skills, standards, and/or learner outcomes.2. Identify your students with unique needs, and get an early look at what they will need in order to learn and achieve.3. Design your formative and summative assessments.4. Design and deliver your pre-assessments based on the summative assessments and identified objectives.5. Adjust assessments or objectives based on your further thinking discovered while designing the assessments.
35B. Steps to take while designing the learning experiences: 1 B. Steps to take while designing the learning experiences: 1. Design the learning experiences for students based on pre-assessments, your knowledge of your students, and your expertise with the curriculum, cognitive theory, and students at this stage of human development. 2. Run a mental tape of each step in the lesson sequence to make sure things make sense for your diverse group of students and that the lesson will run smoothly. 3. Review your plans with a colleague. 4. Obtain/Create materials needed for the lesson. 5. Conduct the lesson. 6. Adjust formative and summative assessments and objectives as necessary based on observations and data collected while teaching.
36C. Steps to take after providing the learning experiences: 1 C. Steps to take after providing the learning experiences: 1. Evaluate the lesson’s success with students. What evidence do you have that the lesson was successful? What worked and what didn’t, and why? 2. Record advice on lesson changes for yourself for when you do this lesson in future years.
37Feedback vs Assessment Feedback: Holding up a mirror to students, showing them what they did and comparing it what they should have done – There’s no evaluative component!Assessment: Gathering data so we can make a decisionGreatest Impact on Student Success: Formative feedback
38What does our understanding of feedback mean for our use of homework What does our understanding of feedback mean for our use of homework? Is homework more formative or summative in nature? Whichever it is, its role in determining grades will be dramatically different.
39Does this sentiment cross a line? “If we don’t counthomework heavily,students won’t do it.”Do you agree with this?Does this sentiment cross a line?
40Two Homework Extremes that Focus Our Thinking If a student does none of the homework assignments, yet earns an “A” (top grade) on every formal assessment we give, does he earn anything less than an “A” on his report card?If a student does all of the homework well yet bombs every formal assessment, isn’t that also a red flag that something is amiss, and we need to take corrective action?
41Be clear: We mark and grade against standards/outcomes, not the routes students take or techniques teachers use to achieve those standards/outcomes. Given this premise, marks/grades for these activities can no longer be used in the academic report of what students know and can do regarding learner standards: maintaining a neat notebook, group discussion, class participation, homework, class work, reading log minutes, band practice minutes, dressing out in p.e., showing up to perform in an evening concert, covering textbooks, service to the school, group projects, signed permission slips, canned foods for canned food drive…
42Accuracy of Final Report Card Grade Accuracy of the Final Report Card Grade versus the Level of Use of Formative Assessment Scores in the Final Report GradeHigh Final Grade AccuracyAccuracy of Final Report Card GradeLow FinalGrade AccuracyLow Use ofFormative Scoresin the Final GradeHigh Use ofFormative Scores in the Final Grade
43Set up your gradebook into two sections: Formative SummativeAssignments and assessments Final declarationcompleted on the way to of mastery ormastery or proficiency proficiency
44Assessment AS/FOR Learning Grades rarely used, if everMarks and feedback are usedShare learning goals with students from the beginningMake adjustments in teaching a result of formative assessment dataProvide descriptive feedback to studentsProvide opportunities for student for self-and peer assessment-- O’Connor, p. 98, Wormeli
45Result on Student Achievement Teacher ActionResult on Student AchievementJust telling students # correct and incorrectNegative influence on achievementClarifying the scoring criteriaIncrease of 16 percentile pointsProviding explanations as to why their responses are correct or incorrectIncrease of 20 percentile pointsAsking students to continue responding to an assessment until they correctly answer the itemsGraphically portraying student achievementIncrease of 26 percentile points-- Marzano, CAGTW, pgs 5-6
47The chart on the previous slide is based on an idea found in the article below: Stiggins, Rick. “Assessment Through the Student’s Eyes,” Educational Leadership, May 2007, Vol. 64, No. 8, pages 22 – 26, ASCD
48Evaluating the Usefulness of Assessments What are your essential and enduring skills and content you’re trying to assess?How does this assessment allow students to demonstrate their mastery?Is every component of that objective accounted for in the assessment?Can students respond another way and still satisfy the requirements of the assessment task? Would this alternative way reveal a student’s mastery more truthfully?Is this assessment more a test of process or content? Is that what you’re after?
49Clear and Consistent Evidence We want an accurate portrayal of a student’s mastery, not something clouded by a useless format or distorted by only one opportunity to reveal understanding. Differentiating teachers require accurate assessments in order to differentiate successfully.
50Great differentiated assessment is never kept in the dark. “Students can hit any target they can see and which stands still for them.” -- Rick Stiggins, Educator and Assessment expert If a child ever asks, “Will this be on the test?”.….we haven’t done our job.
51Successful Assessments are Varied and They are Done Over Time Assessments are often snapshot-in-time, inferences of mastery, not absolute declarations of exact masteryWhen we assess students through more than one format, we see different sides to their understanding. Some students’ mindmaps of their analyses of Renaissance art rivals the most cogent, written versions of their classmates.
52Why Do We Grade? Provide feedback Document progress Guide instructional decisionsMotivatePunishSort studentsWhat about incorporating attendance, effort, and behavior in the final grade?
53Standards-based Grading Impacts Behavior, not just Report Cards: “When schools improve grading policies – for example, by disconnecting grades from behavior – student achievement increases and behavior improves dramatically.”(Doug Reeves, ASCD’s Educational Leadership, 2008, p. 90, Reeves)
54Consider… Teaching and learning can and do occur without grades. We do not give students grades in order to teach them.Grades reference summative experiences only – cumulative tests, projects, demonstrations, NOT formative experiences.Students can learn without grades, but they must have feedback.Grades are inferences based upon a sampling of student’s work in one snapshot moment in time. As such they are highly subjective and relative.
55PremiseA grade represents a valid and undiluted indicator of what a student knows and is able to do – mastery. With grades we document progress in students and our teaching, we provide feedback to students and their parents, and we make instructional decisions.
56‘Time to Change the Metaphor: Grades are NOT compensation. Grades are communication: They are an accurate report of what happened.
5710 Practices to Avoid in a Differentiated Classroom [They Dilute a Grade’s Validity and Effectiveness]Penalizing students’ multiple attempts at masteryGrading practice (daily homework) as students come to know concepts [Feedback, not grading, is needed]Withholding assistance (not scaffolding or differentiating) in the learning when it’s neededGroup gradesIncorporating non-academic factors (behavior, attendance, and effort)
58Assessing students in ways that do not accurately indicate students’ mastery (student responses are hindered by the assessment format)Grading on a curveAllowing Extra CreditDefining supposedly criterion-based grades in terms of norm-referenced descriptions (“above average,” “average”, etc.)Recording zeroes on the scale for work not done
590 or 50 (or 60)?100-pt. Scale:0, 100, 100, 100, 100, % (C+)60, 100, 100, 100, 100, % (B+)When working with students, do we choose the most hurtful, unrecoverable end of the “F” range, or the most constructive, recoverable end of the “F” range?
60Be clear: Students are not getting points for having done nothing Be clear: Students are not getting points for having done nothing. The student still gets an F. We’re simply equalizing the influence of the each grade in the overall grade and responding in a way that leads to learning.
61Imagine the Reverse…A = 100 – 40 B = 39 – 30 C = 29 – 20 D = 19 – 10 F = 9 – 0What if we reversed the proportional influences of the grades? That “A” would have a huge, yet undue, inflationary effect on the overall grade. Just as we wouldn’t want an “A” to have an inaccurate effect, we don’t want an “F” grade to have such an undue, deflationary, and inaccurate effect. Keeping zeroes on a 100-pt. scale is just as absurd as the scale seen here.
62Consider the Correlation 100908070604321A (0) on a 100-pt. scale is a (-6) on a 4-pt. scale. If a student does no work, he should get nothing, not something worse than nothing. How instructive is it to tell a student that he earned six times less than absolute failure? Choose to be instructive, not punitive. [Based on an idea by Doug Reeves, The Learning Leader, ASCD, 2006]5040302010-1-2-3-4-5-6
63Temperature Readings for Norfolk, VA: 85, 87, 88, 84, 0 (‘Forgot to take the reading) Average: 68.8 degrees This is inaccurate for what really happened, and therefore, unusable.
64Clarification:When we’re talking about converting zeroes to 50’s or higher, we’re referring to zeroes earned on major projects and assessments, not homework, as well as anything graded on a 100-point scale. It’s okay to give zeroes on homework or on small scales, such as a 4.0 scale. Zeroes recorded for homework assignments do not refer to final, accurate declarations of mastery, and those zeroes don’t have the undue influence on small grading scales.
65Grading Late WorkOne whole letter grade down for each day late is punitive. It does not teach students, and it removes hope.A few points off for each day late is instructive; there’s hope.Yes, the world beyond school is like this.
66Helpful Consideration for Dealing with Student’s Late Work: Is it chronic….…or is it occasional?We respond differently, depending on which one it is.
67This quarter, you’ve taught: 4-quadrant graphingSlope and Y-interceptMultiplying binomialsRatios/Proportions3-dimensional solidsArea and Circumference of a circle.The student’s grade: BWhat does this mark tell us about the student’s proficiency with each of the topics you’ve taught?
681 3 2 10 12 6 Student Dimension A Dimension B Total Score Unidimensionality – A single score on a test represents a single dimension or trait that has been assessedStudentDimension ADimension BTotal Score12101236Problem: Most tests use a single score to assess multiple dimensions and traits. The resulting score is often invalid and useless. -- Marzano, CAGTW, page 13
69Setting Up Gradebooks in a Differentiated Classroom Avoid setting up gradebooks according to formats or media used to demonstrate mastery: tests, quizzes, homework, projects, writings, performancesInstead, set up gradebooks according to mastery: objectives, benchmarks, standards, learner outcomes
71Everything is clearly communicated, easily understood Gradebooks and Report Cards in the Differentiated Classroom: Ten Important AttributesEverything is clearly communicated, easily understoodUse an entire page per studentSet up according to Standards/OutcomesDisaggregate!No averaging – Determine grades based on central tendency, trend, mode
72Gradebooks and Report Cards in the Differentiated Classroom: Ten Important Attributes 6. Behavior/Effort/Attendance separated from Academic Performance7. Grades/Marks are as accurate as possible8. Some students may have more marks/grades than others9. Scales/Rubric Descriptors readily available, even summarized as possible10. Grades/marks revisable
73Responsive Report Formats Adjusted Curriculum Approach: Grade the student against his own progression, but indicate that the grade reflects an adjusted curriculum. Place an asterisk next to the grade or check a box on the report card indicating such, and include a narrative comment in the cumulative folder that explains the adjustments.
74Responsive Report Formats Progression and Standards Approach: Grade the student with two grades, one indicating his performance with the standards and another indicating his own progression. A, B, C, D, or F indicates the student’s progress against state standards, while 3, 2, or 1 indicates his personal progression.
75Responsive Report Formats Multiple Categories Within Subjects Approach:Divide the grade into its component pieces. For example, a “B” in Science class can be subdivided into specific standards or benchmarks such as, “Demonstrates proper lab procedure,” “Successfully employs the scientific method,” or “Uses proper nomenclature and/or taxonomic references.”The more we try to aggregate into a single symbol, the less reliable that symbol is as a true expression of what a student knows and is able to do.
76Report Cards without Grades Course: Standard Standards RatingEnglish Descriptor (1) (2) (3) (4)_____________________________________________________________________Standard Usage/Punct/SpellingStandard Analysis of LiteratureStandard Six + 1 Traits of WritingStandard Reading ComprehensionStandard Listening/SpeakingStandard Research SkillsAdditional Comments from Teachers:Health and Maturity Records for the Grading Period:
77100 point scale or 4.0 Scale?A 4.0 scale has a high inter-rater reliability. Students’ work is connected to a detailed descriptor and growth and achievement rally around listed benchmarks.In 100-point or larger scales, the grades are more subjective. In classes in which teachers use percentages or points, students, teachers, and parents more often rally around grade point averages, not learning.
78Consider:Pure mathematical averages of grades for a grading period are inaccurate indicators of students’ true mastery.A teacher’s professional judgment via clear descriptors on a rubric actually increases the accuracy of a student’s final grade as an indicator of what he learned.A teacher’s judgment via rubrics has a stronger correlation with outside standardized tests than point or average calculations do.(Marzano)
79Office of Educational Research and Improvement Study (1994): Students in impoverished communities that receive high grades in English earn the same scores as C and D students in affluent communities. Math was the same: High grades in impoverished schools equaled only the D students’ performance in affluent schools.
80Accurate grades are based on the most consistent evidence Accurate grades are based on the most consistent evidence. We look at the pattern of achievement, including trends, not the average of the data. This means we focus on the median and mode, not mean, and the most recent scores are weighed heavier than earlier scores. Median: The middle test score of a distribution, above and below which lie an equal number of test scores Mode: The score occurring most frequently in a series of observations or test data
81Suggested Language to Use in Parents’ Handbook: Parents, as we are basing students' grades onstandards for each discipline, final grades are first andforemost determined by our teachers' professionalopinion of your child's work against those standards,not by mathematical calculations. Teachers havebeen trained in analyzing student products againststandards and in finding evidence of that learningusing a variety of methods. Please don't hesitate toinquire how grades for your child were determined ifyou are unsure.
82Allowing Students to Re-do Assignments and Tests for Full Credit: Always, “…at teacher discretion.”It must be within reason.Students must have been giving a sincere effort.Require parents to sign the original assignment or test, requesting the re-do.Require students to submit a plan of study that will enable them to improve their performance the second time around.
83Allow Students to Re-do Assignments and Tests for Full Credit: Identify a day by which time this will be accomplished or the grade is permanent.With the student, create a calendar of completion that will help them achieve it.Require students to submit original with the re-done version so you can keep track of their developmentReserve the right to give alternative versionsNo-re-do’s the last week of the grading periodSometimes the greater gift is to deny the option.
84Grading Inclusion Students Question #1:“Are the standards set for the whole class also developmentally appropriate for this student?”If they are appropriate, proceed to Question #2.If they are not appropriate, identify which standards are appropriate, making sure they are as close as possible to the original standards. Then go to question #2.
85Grading Inclusion Students Question #2:“Will these learning experiences (processes) we’re using with the general class work with the inclusion student as well?”If they will work, then proceed to Question #3.If they will not work, identify alternative pathways to learning that will work. Then go to Question #3.
86Grading Inclusion Students Question #3:“Will this assessment instrument we’re using to get an accurate rendering of what general education students know and are able to do regarding the standard also provide an accurate rendering of what this inclusion student knows and is able to do regarding the same standard?If the instrument will provide an accurate rendering of the inclusion student’s mastery, then use it just as you do with the rest of the class.If it will not provide an accurate rendering of the inclusion student’s mastery, then identify a product that will provide that accuracy, and make sure it holds the student accountable for the same universal factors as your are asking of the other students.
87Grading Gifted Students Insure grade-level material is learned.If it’s enrichment material only, the grade still represents mastery of on-grade-level material. An addendum report card or the comment section provides feedback on advanced material.If the course name indicates advanced material (Algebra I Honors, Biology II), then we grade against those advanced standards.If the student has accelerated a grade level or more, he is graded against the same standards as his older classmates.
88Great New Books on Feedback, Assessment, and Grading: Elements of Grading, Doug Reeves, 2010How to Give Feedback to Your Students, Susan M. Brookhart, ASCD, 2008Developing Performance-Based Assessments, Grades 6-12, Nancy P. Gallavan, Corwin Press, 2009Measuring Up: What Educational Testing Really Tells Us, Daniel Koretz, Harvard University Press, 2008Assessment Essentials for Stnadards-Based Education, Second Edition, James H. McMillan, Corwin Press, 2008Balanced Assessment, From Formative to Summative, Kay Burke, Solution Tree, 2010
89Recommended Reading on Assessment and Grading Arter, Judith A.; McTighe, Jay; Scoring Rubrics in the Classroom : Using Performance Criteria for Assessing and Improving Student Performance, Corwin Press, 2000Benjamin, Amy. Differentiating Instruction: A Guide for Middle and High School Teachers, Eye on Education, 2002Black, Paul; William, Dylan “Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards through Classroom Assessment,” Phi Delta kappan, 80(2):Borich, Gary D.; Tombari, Martin L. Educational Assessment for the Elementary and Middle School Classroom (2nd Edition), Prentice Hall, 2003Brookhart, Susan Grading. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall
90Recommended Reading on Assessment and Grading Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy. Checking for Understanding: Formative Assessment Techniques for your Classroom, ASCD, 2007Heacox, Diane, Ed.D. Differentiated Instruction in the Regular Classroom, Grades 3 – 12, Free Spirit Publishing, 2000Lewin, Larry; Shoemaker, Betty Jean. Great Performances: Creating Classroom-Based Assessment Tasks, John Wiley & Sons, 1998Marzano, Robert. Transforming Classroom Grading, ASCD 2001Marzano, Robert. Classroom Assessment and Grading that Work, ASCD 2006Marzano, Robert; McTighe, Jay; and Pickering, Debra. Assessing Student Outcomes: Performance Assessment Using the Dimensions of Learning Model, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1993
91Recommended ReadingMillan, James H. Classroom Assessment: Principles and Practice for Effective Instruction (2nd Edition), Allyn & Bacon, 2000O’Connor, Ken; How to Grade for Learning, 2nd Edition, Thousand Oaks, CA, Corwin Press (3rd edition coming in 2009)O’Connor, Ken; A Repair Kit for Grading: 15 Fixes for Broken Grades, ETS publishers, 2007Popham, W. James; Test Better, Teach Better: The Intsructional Role of Assessment, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2003Popham, W. James; Classroom Assessment : What Teachers Need to Know (4th Edition), Pearson Education, 2004Rutherford, Paula. Instruction for All Students, Just ASK Publications, Inc (703) , 1998Stiggins, Richard J. Student-Involved Classroom Assessment (3rd Edition), Prentice Hall, 2000
92Wiggins, Grant; Educative assessment: Assessment to Inform and Improve Performance, Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1997Grant Wiggins Web site and organization:Center on Learning, Assessment, and School Structure (CLASS)Wormeli, Rick. Fair Isn’t Always Equal: Assessment and Grading in the Differentiated Classroom. Stenhouse Publishers, 2006
93“I was put on earth by God in order to accomplish a certain number of things…right now I am so far behind…I will never die!”-Calvin and Hobbes
94“Opposition to change remains inevitable “Opposition to change remains inevitable. In fact, if your proposed change does not engender opposition, then you should question whether or not what you are proposing really represents meaningful change.” - p. 11, Doug Reeves, Leading Change in your School, ASCD, 2009
95Accept the fact that there is no one way to get your whole faculty on board. Waiting for 100% buy-in is a willful act of failure.Another Act ofWillful Failure:Changing structures,programs withoutchanging teacherbeliefs as well.
96How do education leaders maintain any new building or district initiative? Remember: When asking how to maintain differentiated practices, for example, we’re really asking how to maintain effective teaching.
97Important Administrative Questions What are our own interpretations and preferences when it comes to assessment and grading: Are they accurate? What are we doing to keep informed?To what degree will we accept philosophies in our teachers that are different from our own?How can we tell if a teacher is assessing and grading successfully? How do we know if a teacher’s approach is developmentally appropriate for students?
98Important Administrative Questions What does, “Fair isn’t always equal” look like in a classroom?Does assessment inform the teacher’s practice?How can we facilitate struggling teachers’ growth in assessment and grading?
99How to interpret and use of standardized testing data... Be careful what you wish for -- If a teacher gets into standards-based assessment and grading, some conventional practices become suspect. Are you ready for the conversations to be had?How to interpret and use of standardized testing data...When a student fails to learn, teachers question their instructional approach rather than automatically blaming the student.Teachers can change their lesson plans daily, depending on the needs of students, regardless of what’s been submitted for approval earlier.Teachers need more opportunities to increase their instructional flexibility, i.e. they need to build their repertoire of responses.Teachers are asked to make decisions based on assessment data, and they are asked to explain those decisions publicly.
100Teachers will work more collaboratively with those in and out of the building. Teachers emphasize formative over summative assessment.Homework assignments will be different for some students, and it will not count heavily in the final grade, if at all.Final exams will not carry as much weight.Grading will be criterion-referenced (standards-based). This is the beginning of intense conversations on what teachers will accept as evidence of mastery, and the end of averaging, using zeroes on the 100-point scale, tabulating points, using percentages, and setting up gradebooks according to formats (Teachers will use individual standards instead).Teachers will claim that this isn’t done in upper grade levels so isn’t differentiating instruction/assessment/grading a disservice to students?Parents will need to be trained – every year.
101With colleagues, reflect on the bigger questions: Why do we grade students? What does a grade mean? Does our current approaches best serve students? How do we communicate with parents? How does assessment inform our practice? Is what we’re doing fair and developmentally appropriate? How can we counter the negative impact of poverty on our students’ learning? What role does practice play in mastery? What is mastery for each curriculum we teach? What is homework, and how much should it count in the overall grade? How are our current structures limiting us?
102With colleagues, reflect on the bigger questions: Whose voice is not heard in our deliberations? What evidence of mastery will we accept? What do we know about differentiated practices and the latest in cognitive theory and how are those aspects manifest in our classrooms? If not, why not? Are we mired in complacency? Are we doing things just to perpetuate what has always been done? Are we open to others’ points of view – why or why not? Does our report card express what we’re doing in the classroom? How are modern classrooms different from classrooms thirty years ago? Where will our practices look like 15 years from now? To what extent do we allow state, provincial, country, or international exams to influence our classroom practices?
103Skill Sets Teachers Need in Order to Work Together to Improve Practices How to write and talk about teaching; how to make the implicit explicitFormative versus Summative AssessmentsCognitive Science applied in the classroomHow to critique each other constructivelyHow to work with mentors/coachesHow to read, critique, and share professional materials – text, Websites, videos, research.
1041. John Hattie, Visible Learning, 2008 2. Gerald Bracey’s works: Highly Recommended:1. John Hattie, Visible Learning, 20082. Gerald Bracey’s works:Bail Me Out: Handling Difficult Data and Tough Questions About Public Schools, 2000Reading Educational Research: How to Avoid Getting Statistically Snookered, 2006Setting the Record Straight: Responses to Misconceptions About Public Education in the U.S., 2004RESEARCH: “Tips for Readers of Research: 'Seeing Through' the Graphs.” Kappan, Phi Delta Kappa, Inc., February, 2003.
105Clearly Define Standards-based Assessment and Grading Create a working definitionProvide/Generate examples of what it is and is notBust mythsPractice identifying it in classrooms: videos, peer observation, written descriptions
106Discuss Hypotheticals! Students are working in small groups on an assigned task. One student isn’t cooperating with the rest of his group, however, and as a result, the group is falling farther behind the other groups. What happens when it comes to grading the group’s product?2. A student keeps re-doing an essay in order to improve his grade, but he seems to disregard the advice the teacher gives him on each attempt. He makes a few cosmetic changes and re-arranges some words, but there’s no substantive change. He and the teacher are getting frustrated at his lack of progress.
1073. Eleven students do not do the assignment from last night 3. Eleven students do not do the assignment from last night. Consequently, they are not prepared to move on with the class in today’s task. What is an effective instructional response? And when it comes to assessment?4. A student just moved into your class and school from out of state, and he seems to not have the basic foundations that you’ve already taught your class. Those foundations are very important for students to know for the next unit of study you have to teach.
108Two students struggle with graphing the intersection of two inequalities, so the teacher asks them to graph only one instead.One student turns his work in on time, but only gets a B grade. Another turns in his work, but receives an F on it. Two weeks later, he re-submits the work and it receives an “A.” Is this fair to the first student who followed the rules for the deadline?A student gets 100% on a pre-test, so the teacher asks the student to do a personal research topic related to the general subject of the unit for the duration of their studies.All students in Mr. Brown’s class keep journals in math. The type of journal matches each student’s strengths and interests. For example, one journal is for the students whose verbal skills are stronger than their math skills. Students keep a list of math terms learned in class and then use the terms in sentences. Another journal is for students have good visual-spatial skills. These students draw pictures to remind them of math vocabulary. How do we assess them fairly?
109Tips for Difficult Conversations, taken from the www. stenhouse Tips for Difficult Conversations, taken from the Website:Honor the perspectives and experiences participants bring to the group.Set the tone from the beginning: Ask everyone to play Socrates or Devil’s Advocate at every turn. If possible, make it a responsibility to be contrarian so as to help everyone fully explore the idea or principle. Unexamined concepts don’t serve us as well as fully examined ones do, and we give ideas life through debate, not quick acquiescence.One way to do this is to distribute large index cards with, “Yeah, but…” or, “Yeah, and…” written boldly across the front. Participants wave the cards when they have a concern. The card in their hands reminds that it’s okay to debate and share concerns, and waving them gives them a vehicle to introduce them.
1103. Provide the big picture perspective. When there is 3. Provide the big picture perspective. When there is serious division among the group, or one teacher is largely contrarian in an uncooperative way, ask the larger questions of what you’re studying: “What if we applied this policy to all students in all situations – Would it still be effective?” “What’s the role of homework?”4. Ask them to try the new idea on just one assessment, for just one subset of students, or for a finite period of time, then to return to the group with the results for group consideration. This helps everyone see the endeavor as analytical and clinical, and no one is panicked by permanence. (Call it a, “Pilot” program)
111Start with a Few…Identify 3 or 4 staff already differentiating or willing to give it a shot…and support their journey with everything you’ve got.Ask them to present their journey to the faculty -- ‘mistakes, successes, ‘everything.Invite a parent or three to be a part of the conversations.
112Create a Culture of Expectancy “This is our way of doing things around here.”Letter to potential new facultyImmersion -- If it’s in sight, it’s in mind, so put it in sight.Publicize at faculty meetings, newsletters, letter to parents, news organizations, WebsitePromote in public spaces used by teachersAttach differentiated instruction practices to professional goals and annual evaluation
113Changing a Building/District’s Culture Great publications for culture change can be found at: Corwin Press Solution Tree Lead and Learn ASCD NASSP NAESP NSDC Jossey-Bass
114End hypocrisy…Differentiate staff development and evaluate teachers using proper assessment protocols.
115Teachers LeadIdentify two or more teachers to coordinate the journey for the building. Empower them to make decisions on behalf of the faculty.Maintain a place on the school’s Intranet to post questions and have them answered by teachers or guest experts (local and national trainers and authors on differentiation).Ask these teachers to train you and the rest of the administration as well – ‘creates credence, empathy, and knowledge
116Put time, energy, people, and money into coaching/mentoring teachers. Consider:-- PLC’s-- Critical Friends Network-- Teacher Action Research Teams-- Becoming a Lab School for a local University-- Beginning TeacherInduction programs
117Standards-based Assessment and Grading Practices Professional Learning CommunitiesWhat do we want our students to learn?How will we know when they have learned it?How will we respond when some students don’t learn?How will we enrich and extend the learning for students who have demonstrated Proficiency?
118“Dipstick” frequently “Dipstick” frequently. (a John Saphier term) This includes a checklist for evidence of standards-based assessment/grading in your Walk-through observations.Ask teachers to present evidence in planning and practice. Consider both quantitative and qualitative measures. What would this look like?
119Bring at least one parent to every conference or in-service training.
120Open each Faculty Meeting with the Idea A different group shares their interactions with the topic for five to ten minutes each meeting. Rotate different departments and grade levels through the presentation duty.
121Use Department Meetings At every department meeting: Discuss an aspect of the idea and prepare a report for the administration Ask: What does this look like in our discipline?
122Conduct Instructional Roundtables One-hour or lessSomeone (not limited to leaders) posts a topic for discussion and a location for the meeting two weeks in advanceAll are invited, but ‘must have one idea to share (photocopied) as ticket to the roundtable
123Teacher Inservice Training Alberta Assessment ConsortiumSpecific subject professional organizationsAuthors and presentersSpeaker’s bureaus“Wisdom Within” – experts in the building alreadyConsider Webcasts, E-Seminars, or Videocasts
124Conduct Monthly or Quarterly meetings Gather together to debrief in small groups about how things are going with the new initiative.
125Conduct Book Study Groups Teachers and administratorsRequest study guides from publisher, if availableOne month in duration, if possible
126Disseminate articles/ideas in teacher boxes Keep the idea(s) in front of teachers so it doesn’t get moved to the back burner. Make sure to follow up with a structured interactions.
127Inform ParentsEducate parents of the school’s new emphasis and invite them to look for evidence of it in action. Invite parents to help critique the impact of the new emphasis.
128Publicize! Add the new program or emphasis to the school’s publications such asnewsletters, Website, Work Plan,accreditation materials, and promotionalschool materials.
129Regularly Affirm Small Steps public recognition at faculty gatheringsprivate notes of thanks & encouragementtake over a teacher’s class in order to giveher an extra planning periodrefer a teacher looking for help to a successfulteacherpost teacher successes somewhere visibleinvite news organizations to interview teachers who’ve been successfulask successful teachers to take on leadership roles
130Peer Observation System Create a system of collegial feedback in which teachers observe and analyze each other’s lessons in light of the new faculty emphasis.Assign someone the task of coordinating who’s partnering with whom, as well as the dates and times for observations and post-observation analysis.Observations can be in person by giving up an occasional planning (or providing a sub for a non-planning period slot), or it can be done by video-taping the class and analyzing the lesson with a colleague later.Enlist retirees and parents to do the video-taping, if that’s easier.
131Keep a Sense of Humor Humans are inconsistent and messy – embrace it. Three steps forward, two steps back.Humor bonds.
132Accept a Multi-Year Learning Curve Most big initiatives require 3 to 5 years to become the culture of a school, with vigilant attention to progress and training of new faculty members.
133C.B.A.M. -- Concerns-Based Adoption Model Teachers move through different stages of concern – for themselves, for the task, for the new idea’s impact – as well as through stages of use. If we respond to each level of concern and how teachers are using the idea, teachers are more willing to partake in the new initiative.
135Teachers Use of the New Idea 6 – Renewal5 – Integration4a/4b – Refinement/Routine3 – Mechanical2 – Preparation1 – Orientation0 – Non-use
136Great CBAM Resources:Taking Charge of ChangeShirley M. Hord, William L. Rutherford, Leslie Huling-Austin, Gene E. HallASCD, 1987Also try, Southwest Educational Development Laboratory catalog:
137Keep the timeline and accomplishments ever-visible. Stage 1Stage 2Stage 3Keep the timeline and accomplishments ever-visible.
138Gather & Analyze Data to Determine Priorities Explore Possible SolutionsAssess Readiness & Build CapacityCreate & Communicate Improvement PlanImplement PlanMonitor & AdjustFrom,Breaking RanksA Field Guide for Leading Change, NASSP, 2009(BRIM for Middle Level!)