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Knowledge Translation in BC Physiotherapy

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1 Knowledge Translation in BC Physiotherapy
Alison M. Hoens Physical Therapy Knowledge Translation Broker UBC Dept of PT, FOM; Physiotherapy Association of BC; BC RSRNet (VCH, PHC, BCC&W) Clinical Associate Professor, UBC Dept of PT Clinical Coordinator, Physiotherapy, PHC

2 Objectives To define & understand knowledge translation
To appreciate why KT is important To provide a framework for knowledge translation in physical therapy in PT End of grant KT Integrated KT To outline the role of the KT Broker To identify possibilities for your involvement

3 What is KT? Translational Knowledge Research (KT1) Translation (KT2)
Lab Clinical Research Health Care Does it refer to translation from bench to bedside? From the ivy towers to the every day world? CIHR reserves to bench to bedside as TR, and KT as IT to EDW. Certainly not universal CIHR; Hulley et al, 2007

4 Many terms, same basic idea …
Applied health research Diffusion Dissemination Getting knowledge into practice Impact Implementation Knowledge communication Knowledge cycle Knowledge exchange Knowledge management Knowledge translation Knowledge to action Knowledge mobilization Knowledge transfer Linkage and exchange Participatory research Research into practice Research transfer Research translation Transmission Utilization In fact there are zillions of terms used to mean essentially the same thing as KT

5 Knowledge Translation
CIHR definition Knowledge translation is the exchange, synthesis and ethically-sound application of researcher findings within a complex system of relationships among researchers and knowledge users. CIHR How does CIHR define KT

6 KT “closing the know-do gap”
As described in the CIHR Act, knowledge translation is a broad concept. It encompasses all steps between the creation of new knowledge and its application to yield beneficial outcomes for society. This includes knowledge dissemination, communication, technology transfer, ethical context, knowledge management, knowledge utilization, two-way exchange between researchers and those who apply knowledge, implementation research, technology assessment, synthesis of results within a global context, development of consensus guidelines, and more.  

7 But, fails to account for …
Ask Answer As described in the CIHR Act, knowledge translation is a broad concept. It encompasses all steps between the creation of new knowledge and its application to yield beneficial outcomes for society. This includes knowledge dissemination, communication, technology transfer, ethical context, knowledge management, knowledge utilization, two-way exchange between researchers and those who apply knowledge, implementation research, technology assessment, synthesis of results within a global context, development of consensus guidelines, and more.  

8 KT key concepts Ask Answer Know Do
As described in the CIHR Act, knowledge translation is a broad concept. It encompasses all steps between the creation of new knowledge and its application to yield beneficial outcomes for society. This includes knowledge dissemination, communication, technology transfer, ethical context, knowledge management, knowledge utilization, two-way exchange between researchers and those who apply knowledge, implementation research, technology assessment, synthesis of results within a global context, development of consensus guidelines, and more.  

9 Knowledge translation is about ensuring that:
Researchers Users Knowledge translation is about ensuring that: ‘users’ are aware of and use research evidence to inform their decision making Research is informed by current available evidence and the experiences and information needs of ‘end users’

10 WHY IS KT IMPORTANT IN PT?
Mikhail et al, 2005: Physical Therapists’ use of interventions with high evidence of effectiveness in the management of a hypothetical typical patient with acute LBP 68% of PTs used interventions with strong or mod evidence of effectiveness 90% used interventions with limited evidence 96% used interventions with absence of evidence of effectiveness

11 WHY IS KT IMPORTANT IN PT?
Stevenson, T et al. (2005). Influences on Treatment Choices in Stroke Rehabilitation: Survey of Canadian Physiotherapists. Physiotherapy Canada. Ranking of importance of factors influencing current practice: Experience Continuing education (practical) Colleague Influence Continuing Education (theory) Professional Literature * secondary sources Entry Level Training Most impt infuence Least impt infuence

12 BARRIERS I had considerable freedom of clinical choice of therapy: my trouble was that I did not know which to use and when. I would gladly have sacrificed my freedom for a little knowledge. Sir Archie Cochrane. Effectiveness and Efficiency: Random Reflections on Health Services

13 There seems to be little relation between the quality of the evidence and its diffusion into practice (Fitzgerald et al 2002)

14 BARRIERS Lack of time, computing resources, not enough evidence, lack of access; lack of skills for searching, appraising, and interpreting; lack of incentives (Bennett S. et al, Australian OT Journal, 50, ) Relevant literature not compiled all in one place (Closs & Lewin, Br J of Therapy & Rehab, 5, ). Publication bias, indexing issues, language issues, assessing internal validity, access to electronic databases, access to full text, assessing applicability, drawing conclusions (Maher. C. et al. Phys Ther, 84: ).

15 BARRIERS Information overload xx
Rich with diversity yet highly chaotic Need tools/processes that can reliably and sensibly address the info Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality xx

16 BARRIERS Structural (e.g. financial disincentives)
Organisational (e.g. inappropriate skill mix, lack of facilities or equipment) Peer group (e.g. local standards of care not in line with desired practice) Individual (e.g. knowledge, attitudes, skills) Professional - patient interaction (e.g. problems with information processing)

17 ‘Knowledge to Action’ Cycle Ian Graham, VP, KT, CIHR
KT framework ‘Knowledge to Action’ Cycle Ian Graham, VP, KT, CIHR

18 Types of KT Integrated KT End of grant
Traditional approach Knowledge creation by researchers disseminated by publication & presentation Improvements: Targeted messages to key stakeholders More interactive strategies Eg. interactive material; e-classroom Opinion leader Integrated KT Clinician involved in research process from it’s inception Collaboration through research question, study & dissemination

19 How effective are various implementation strategies?
Grimshaw JM, Thomas RE, MacLennan G, Fraser C, Ramsay C, Vale L et al. Effectiveness and efficiency of guideline dissemination and implementation strategies. Health Technol Assess 2004. Single interventions Intervention Number of CRCTs Range Median effect size Educational materials 4 +3.6%, +17.0% +8.1% Audit and feedback 5 +1.3%, +16.0% +7.0% Reminders 14 –1.0%, +34.0% +14.1%

20 What is effective? Little to no effect Sometimes effective
Educational materials Didactic sessions Sometimes effective Audit & feedback Local opinion leaders Local consensus project Patient mediated interventions Consistently effective Reminders Interactive education (with discussion of practice) Social marketing (Bero et al., 1998, Grimshaw et al., 2001)

21 An example: Inspiratory Muscle Training & COPD
Knowledge to Action Cycle • Identify a problem that needs addressing Highly effective but greatly underutilized • Identify, review, and select knowledge relevant to the problem Demonstrate value • Adapt this knowledge to the local context PT vs Nrsg vs RT led respiratory rehab programs • Assess the barriers to using the knowledge Knowledge of how to do it? Accessibility to equipment? Time?

22 An example: Inspiratory Muscle Training & COPD
Knowledge to Action Cycle • Design transfer strategies to promote the use of this knowledge • Monitor how the knowledge diffuses throughout the user group • Evaluate the impact of the users’ application of the knowledge • Sustain the ongoing use of knowledge by users

23 THE ROLE OF THE KT BROKER

24 THE ROLE OF THE KT BROKER
Knowledge Broker Definitions of ‘Broker” Business person who buys and sells for another in exchange for a commission A party who mediates between buyer & seller An agent involved in the exchange of messages or transactions Definitions of ‘Knowledge Broker”: An intermediary who connects individuals to knowledge providers Core function is connecting people to share & exchange knowledge Dr. David Yetman - Knowledge Mobilization Manager, Harris Center

25 THE ROLE OF THE KT BROKER
Engage stakeholders; promote interaction Involve partners in knowledge generation & dissemination Identify champions Build awareness Build relationships Strategic communication Facilitate capacity for ‘evidence-informed’ decision making Incorporate evaluation to ensure accountability Dobbins et al (2009). Implementation Science Dr. David Yetman - Knowledge Mobilization Manager, Harris Center

26 THE ROLE OF THE KT BROKER
1. Needs evaluation Identify knowledge gaps Identify opportunities Inventory of resources (current studies, areas of expertise, areas of interest); contact list of researchers & clinicians for specific areas of practice 2. Acquire Strategies to acquire ‘best’ knowledge Tools to enhance acquiring knowledge (summary of adv/disadv of search engines, databases and key skills to enhance retrieval) E-alerts of publications *In conjunction with existing infrastructure eg. PABC librarian, UBC Rehab Sciences librarian Dobbins et al. (2009). A description of a KTB role implemented as part of a RCT evaluating 3 KT strategies

27 THE ROLE OF THE KT BROKER
3. Appraise Strategies to enhance ability to critically appraise quality of evidence Tools for appraisal of RCTs, systematic reviews, Meta-analyses 4. Apply Strategies to enhance application of clinically relevant evidence Development of Clinical Practice Guidelines Development of on-line learning (pre-test, instructional video, e-classroom, post-test) Inclusion into policy (CPTBC) Developing targeted resources *Evidence-informed decision-making! Dobbins et al. (2009). A description of a KTB role implemented as part of a RCT evaluating 3 KT strategies

28 PT KTB Deliverables 1. Establish a web presence
2. Facilitate PT clinician / researcher partnerships 3. Enhance access to evidence-based learning resources & knowledge products 4. Identify & facilitate 1 KT initiative for each funding partner 5. 1 joint PT & OT KB activity and share outcomes from all PT KB & OT KB activities 6. Provide progress reports & year-end report

29 Goals & Deliverables Establish a web presence
UBC Dept of Physical Therapy – Knowledge Broker, under ‘Research’ PABC – members portion of website Links to other partners

30 Goals & Deliverables Facilitate PT clinician / researcher partnerships
Identify clinicians for potential partnerships Link clinicians & researchers for integrated KT and end-of-grant KT collaboration opportunities Identify PT clinicians and researchers for potential clinician / researcher partnerships Link PT clinicians and researchers for integrated KT and end-of-grant KT collaboration opportunities

31 Goals & Deliverables Enhance access to evidence-based learning resources & knowledge products Identify existing & develop new learning resources & online guides to assist clinicians in acquiring, appraising, synthesizing & applying knowledge into practice Provide on-line access to the learning resources, guides & other knowledge products Identify existing and develop new learning resources and on-line guides to assist clinicians in acquiring, appraising, synthesizing and applying knowledge into practice Provide on-line access to the learning resources, guides and other knowledge products

32 Goals & Deliverables Identify & facilitate 1 KT initiative for each funding partner Best practice for arthroplasty patients Use of outcome measurement Best practice for skin & wound management Guidelines on when it is safe to mobilize the acute medical or post-surgical client

33

34 Greatest Need - Article alerts - based on area of practice (ortho, neuro, cardioresp) Training on EBP skills - More interest in on-line resources than written resources on how to acquire, appraise and apply evidence Other needs: - Directory of researchers external to BC for specific areas of practice - Have alerts focus on systematic reviews and CPGs - Access to EBP resources that are clinician friendly - Journal clubs/discussion groups (accessed by videoconferencing) which are specific to practice areas. - Guidance on acquiring, appraising and applying evidence - Directory of resources for assistance with grant writing and statistical analysis - Alerts re upcoming courses - Organizational support: funding for clinician research, allocated time

35 Greatest Need - Directory of clinician collaborators Other Needs - KT template for grant applications - Linkage to collaborators - Forums to identify research priorities

36 Greatest Need Directory of clinician collaborators Other Needs - Inventory of current research projects - Inventory of effective organizational strategies for increasing EBP - Directory of funding sources - More KB positions

37 Best Practice for Joint Arthroplasty
Baseline: VCHRI Program Evaluation Course Regional Orthopaedic Working Group PRAG Outcome Measures SubCommittee MSc: evaluation PABC Practice Guideline Advisors Group Communications Director UBC Faculty sponsor: Dr. Elizabeth Dean CADTH? - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) CESEI? – Center for Excellence in Simulated Education and Innovation

38 Best Practice in Skin & Wound Care
VCH/PHC Skin & Wound Care PT Committee VCH/PHC OT Pressure Ulcer Guidelines – in conjunction with OT KB VCH/PHC Interdisciplinary Skin & Wound Care Committee PABC Practice Guideline Advisors Group Communications Director UBC Faculty sponsor – Alison Hoens CADTH? - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) CESEI? – Center for Excellence in Simulated Education and Innovation

39 Best Practice in Skin & Wound Care
1. To increase the awareness of the role of PTs in prevention & management of skin & wound issues 2. To increase the number of PTs who undertake a basic risk assessment & utilize basic interventions 3. To increase the number of PTs who know where to find guidance & information on more advanced assessment & interventions

40 When is it safe to mobilize the acute medical / post surgical pt?
PABC Practice Guideline Advisors Group Communications Director UBC Faculty sponsor: Dr. Darlene Reid CADTH? - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) CESEI? – Center for Excellence in Simulated Education and Innovation

41 Needs Assessment

42 Needs Assessment

43 Needs Assessment

44 Acknowledgements The content of the preceding slides was derived from:
Dr. David Johnson “Developing a KT Plan in Grant Applications” CIHR website CEBM website McMaster KT+ website Dr. DP Ryan, Director of Education & Knowledge Translation, Toronto rgps.on.ca/slides/knowledgetopracticeprocess.pdf


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