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The Basics on BASICS: An Effective Brief Intervention With College Students Jason R. Kilmer, Ph.D. University of Washington The Evergreen State College.

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Presentation on theme: "The Basics on BASICS: An Effective Brief Intervention With College Students Jason R. Kilmer, Ph.D. University of Washington The Evergreen State College."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Basics on BASICS: An Effective Brief Intervention With College Students Jason R. Kilmer, Ph.D. University of Washington The Evergreen State College

2 College student drinking Studies evaluating “traditional” interventions Goals of interventions with college students Theories informing brief interventions  Stages of change model  Motivational interviewing Putting it all together: The components of BASICS Implications for the college campus Points for Consideration

3 What does research show about college student drinking? Up to ninety percent of college students drink alcohol Twenty-five to fifty percent are “heavy episodic” or “binge” drinkers Students who abuse alcohol are at high risk for a number of negative consequences

4 Specialized Treatment Primary Prevention Brief Intervention None Mild Moderate Severe Thresholds for Action Spectrum of Intervention Response

5 College student drinking Studies evaluating “traditional” interventions Goals of interventions with college students Theories informing brief interventions  Stages of change model  Motivational interviewing Putting it all together: The components of BASICS Implications for the college campus Points for Consideration

6 College student drinking Studies evaluating “traditional” interventions Goals of interventions with college students Theories informing brief interventions  Stages of change model  Motivational interviewing Putting it all together: The components of BASICS Implications for the college campus Points for Consideration

7 A focus on reducing risks The ultimate goal of the intervention is abstinence – this is clearly the best way to reduce and eliminate negative consequences. However, in the intervention, it is acknowledged that any steps toward reduced risk are steps in the right direction

8 How are these principles implemented in an intervention with college students? Legal issues are stressed – if you are under the age of 21, it is illegal to drink. For those who want to abstain, appropriate skills and strategies are reviewed. However, if one makes the choice to drink, skills are described on ways to do so in a less dangerous and less risky way. A clinician or program provider must elicit personally relevant reasons for changing. This is done using the Stages of Change model and Motivational Interviewing.

9 College student drinking Studies evaluating “traditional” interventions Goals of interventions with college students Theories informing brief interventions  Stages of change model  Motivational interviewing Putting it all together: The components of BASICS Implications for the college campus Points for Consideration

10 The Stages of Change Model (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1982, 1984, 1985, 1986) Precontemplation Contemplation Preparation/Determination Action Maintenance

11 Precontemplation Stage Relapse Stage Contemplation Stage Action Stage Maintenance of Recovery Stage MOTIVATIONAL ENHANCEMENT STRATEGIES ASSESSMENT AND TREATMENT MATCHING RELAPSE PREVENTION & MANAGEMENT Stages of Change in Substance Abuse and Dependence: Intervention Strategies

12 Motivational Interviewing Basic Principles (Miller and Rollnick, 1991, 2002) 1.Express Empathy 2.Develop Discrepancy 3.Roll with Resistance 4.Support Self-Efficacy

13 OARS: Building Blocks for a Foundation Ask Open-Ended Questions  Cannot be answered with yes or no  Provider does not know where answer will lead “What do you make of this?” “Where do you want to go with this now?” “What thoughts do you have about what you might want to do about this?” “What ideas do you have about things that might work for you?”

14 OARS: Building Blocks for a Foundation Affirm  Takes skill to find positives  Should be offered only when sincere  Has to do with characteristics/strengths “It is important for you to be a good student” “You’re the kind of person that sticks to your word”

15 Listen Reflectively  Effortful process: Involves Hypothesis Testing  Can be used strategically (amplify meaning or evaluation or contrast) OARS: Building Blocks for a Foundation

16 Summarize  Periodically through sessions  Demonstrates to client you are listening  Provides opportunity for shifting OARS: Building Blocks for a Foundation

17 Building Blocks for a Foundation Strategic goal: Elicit Self-Motivational Statements  “Change talk”  Self motivational statements indicate client concern or recognition of need for change  Arrange the conversation so that client makes arguments for change

18 College student drinking Studies evaluating “traditional” interventions Goals of interventions with college students Theories informing brief interventions  Stages of change model  Motivational interviewing Putting it all together: The components of BASICS Implications for the college campus Points for Consideration

19 A non-confrontational, harm reduction approach that helps students reduce their alcohol consumption and decrease the behavioral and health risks associated with heavy drinking. Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS)

20 BASICS BASICS is individually focused and involves the delivery of personalized feedback  Alcohol content and the skills- training information is introduced throughout the intervention when relevant, applicable, or of interest to the participant

21 Introducing you to the intervention…

22 The Basics on BASICS Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention For College Students Assessment Self-Monitoring Feedback Sheet Review of Information and Skills Training Content (Dimeff, Baer, Kivlahan, & Marlatt, 1999)

23 What to assess? Some areas used for feedback include... Drinking Patterns  Quantity/Frequency  Daily Drinking Questionnaire  BAL Estimates Drinking Problems  RAPI  YAAPST Drinking Norms Alcohol Outcome Expectancies Stages of Change

24 Examines students’ perceptions about:  Acceptability of excessive behavior  Perceptions about the rates of their peers  Perception about the prevalence of their peers Norms Clarification

25 Expectancies…

26 EXPECT Alcohol No Alcohol GET No Alcohol Alcohol

27 What Is A Standard Drink? Absorption and Oxidation Blood Alcohol Level and Effects Factors Affecting Blood Alcohol Level Tolerance Biphasic Effect Drug Interactions Information Reviewed During Feedback

28 When people start to lose their buzz, what do they usually do? Do they ever get their buzz back? For people with tolerance, is the buzz you get now as good as the buzz you used to get when you first started drinking? Questions…

29 Time Feeling Scale + __ 0 Dysphoria - Down Euphoria - Up Point of Diminishing Returns Cultural Myth About Alcohol After Tolerance Develops Alcohol’s Biphasic Effect

30 Areas In Which College Students May Experience Consequences Academic Failure Blackouts Hangovers Weight Gain Tolerance Decision making Impaired sleep

31 Sexual Assault Finances Family History Alcohol-Related Accidents Time Spent Intoxicated Relationships Legal Problems Work-Related Problems Areas In Which College Students May Experience Consequences (continued)

32 Specific Tips for Reducing the Risk of Alcohol Use Set limits Keep track of how much you drink Space your drinks Alternate alcoholic drinks w/non-alcoholic drinks Drink for quality, not quantity Avoid drinking games If you choose to drink, drink slowly Don’t leave your drink unattended Don’t accept a drink when you don’t know what’s in it

33 College student drinking Studies evaluating “traditional” interventions Goals of interventions with college students Theories informing brief interventions  Stages of change model  Motivational interviewing Putting it all together: The components of BASICS Implications for the college campus Points for Consideration

34 Implementing BASICS/ASTP Determining Assessment/Measures  For BASICS feedback, and, for both, evaluating outcome Generating Graphic Feedback/ Personalized BAC cards (for BASICS) Training of providers Supervision/Consultation  Therapist drift (issues of fidelity)  Need for ongoing assessment and, if needed, training

35 Thank you! For more information:  Jason Kilmer  All the best in your prevention and intervention efforts! Special thanks to Pam Darby, Matt Brown, and all of you for your time and interest in this topic.


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