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Crew Resource Management Chapter 9. AIM To define Crew Resource Management (CRM) and to learn about the factors affecting safety in aviation To appreciate.

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Presentation on theme: "Crew Resource Management Chapter 9. AIM To define Crew Resource Management (CRM) and to learn about the factors affecting safety in aviation To appreciate."— Presentation transcript:

1 Crew Resource Management Chapter 9

2 AIM To define Crew Resource Management (CRM) and to learn about the factors affecting safety in aviation To appreciate the importance of good interpersonal communication, leadership, and decision making skills in the cockpit

3 Objectives 1.Define Crew Resource Management 2.State the relationship between the ‘system’ and the ‘user’ 3.Demonstrate understanding of the dangerous personality traits, attitudes and dispositions in the CRM model 4.Describe how to form good relationships between crew members 5.Assign further reading

4 1. Define Crew Resource Management What is Crew Resource Management CRM can be defined as a system for managing and enhancing safety within the human element of the flight, making optimum use of all available resources - equipment, procedures and people CRM focuses on interpersonal communication, leadership, and decision making in the cockpit to promote safety and enhance the efficiency of operations

5 2. User-System Relationship SHELL model Developed in the 1970’s, SHELL is a conceptual model explaining the relationship between user and system As there are multiple elements which influence the operation of a system, it can be said any one of these can give rise to accidents – not just pilots! LE H L S

6 SHELL model LE H L S L – Liveware, humans & people who operate the system. Factors to consider include performance, cognitive skills, limitations, culture E – Environment, the context in which operations take place, cockpit design & ergonomics, light levels, noise, airspace, taxi ways H - Hardware, physical elements of the system, aircraft, flight controls, fuelling systems, computers, books S - Software, non physical elements of the system which govern operations, SOP’s, checklists, regulations 2. User-System Relationship

7 The 5 P’s Aeronautical decision making (ADM) can be challenging, especially as a single pilot Single-pilot Resource Management (SRM) is the process of managing resources available to the pilot, to make the best decision possible As per the SHELL model, a practical approach to SRM decision making is the “5 P check” – 5 variables that can ultimately affect a pilots decision A continuous cycle of this check can ensure a pilot considers all elements of a situation before making a critical decision 3. User-System Relationship

8 The 5 P’s Plan Has the weather changed? Was the departure on time? Is airspace active? Is a revision required due unforseen circumstances? The Plane Do you know the aircraft well, or is this a new type? Is automation being used to assist and is it doing its job? Is it performing as desired? Pilot Am I proficient? Am I comfortable? Am I IMSAFE/ADVISE? Passengers How much pressure is there to get to the destination? Are any of the pax pilots too? Exactly WHO is in command? Are the pax also aware of the risks? Programming Is the GPS reading correctly? Am I wasting too much time playing with it? How familiar am I with the systems on board? Am I current on the systems used? 3. User-System Relationship

9 4. Dangerous CRM Factors Personality Traits Anti-authoritarian/rebellious The rules don’t apply to me E.g. NTSB Identification: CEN11FA240NTSB Identification: CEN11FA240 Invulnerability It won’t happen to me. Accidents only happen to bad pilots Machoism I can do it! Never trust a pilot who says ‘Watch This…’

10 4. Dangerous CRM Factors Personality Traits (cont.) Impulsiveness Doing the first thing that pops into their mind. Either in response to an event or in normal operations. (Let’s have a go!) Complacency Don’t worry about it! It’ll be ok We’ll manage Fatalism Ahh well, it’s going to happen now – not much we can do about it Unfortunately, that’s just the way it is in this industry!

11 Dangerous CRM Factors Attitudes / Pre-Dispositions Internal Factors Refusal and denial E.g – As an extreme case, denial of alcohol or drug problems In less severe examples, a pilot may refuse to comply with SOP or requests from the Chief Pilot Avoidance Rationalisation I guess I’m not the only one that slips up occasionally Procrastination I’ll wait and see if it gets worse/better before making a firm decision

12 Dangerous CRM Factors Attitudes / Pre-Dispositions (cont.) Internal Factors (cont.) False beliefs (believing what we want) Expecting a different runway on arrival can cause inflexibility Poor leadership skills External factors Peer pressure Spouse/manhood/provider pressure Organisational pressures Financial Pressures Political pressure

13 Constructive Crew relationships Crew Communications While aeroplanes have physical maintenance requirements, CRM is the maintenance of the human crew in the cockpit Personality A captain who makes it clear that he or she wants the other crew member to sit down and shut up, or; The timid FO with a strong desire to please and not speak up if there is something their not happy with Language Clear, concise language Standard phraseology is important Studies in simulated UAS emergencies have shown that airline crews who use common aviation phraseologies are more likely to recover than those who do not

14 Crew Communications (cont.) Body Language Supporting the view of the other crew members by the tome and content of verbal and non-verbal communications Good Listener Being interested in the other members of the crew and accepting their point of view. “Ok Michael (F.O.), ATC advise there are thunderstorm cells on our route, what do you suggest we do?” Styles of communicating Avoid using emotion to convey an important message Using tone for importance (tone will give the receiver an idea of the level of negotiation) Talking to or between rather than at Constructive Crew relationships

15 Crew Communications (cont.) Culture Company and cockpit culture must not be compromised by Societal culture, ethnic culture, religious culture E.g. A First Office that does not question safety-sensitive issues of the captain due to a cultural belief of seniority, or the fatalist pilot who believes that what will be will be. E.g. - JetBlue actions show how training altered cockpit culture Constructive Crew relationships

16 Crew Communications (cont.) Constructive Crew relationships L.E.A.D.E.R.S.H.I.P. eads the way by setting example (shows rather than tells) stablishes and defines the task, team roles, priorities and the expectations of the individuals in team dvises and explains intentions prior to acting elegates clearly and cleverly valuates responses and seeks feedback esponds to crew inputs (time permitting) ets and maintains priorities as a high degree of personal knowledge, skill and integrity nvolves and invites participation of crew in the problem solving model raises and credits good results LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP

17 Crew Communications (cont.) Captaincy-Command-Leadership (CASA model - rings) Captaincy (the individual): A good captain should be aware of the skills and attributes of each crew member and sensitive to their needs (where possible) Command (the task): The task needs to be first priority (aviate, navigate, communicate) and the greater picture Leadership (the team): Completing the task should be commensurate with the needs of the crew. A good captain will ensure that the team works and each crew member is contributing appropriately Constructive Crew relationships

18 5. Heading Questions?

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