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metaphor simile metonymy synecdoche personification apostrophe symbol

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Presentation on theme: "metaphor simile metonymy synecdoche personification apostrophe symbol"— Presentation transcript:

1 metaphor simile metonymy synecdoche personification apostrophe symbol allusion

2 Greek for “transference”
metaphor Greek for “transference” word or phrase used in a context to evoke new meanings; usually comparative of things not commonly accepted as similar the comparison implies all similarities between the things compared total comparison extremes: conceit – elaborate metaphor, whether intricate, intellectual, or far-fetched dead metaphor – fossilized through ordinary usage: “he missed the point” (fencing)

3 Latin for “comparison”
simile Latin for “comparison” a figure of speech in which two unlike things are compared using the words “like” or “as” the comparison is either implicit (like) or explicit (as) limited similarity partial comparison types: extended (epic) simile – “As when the shudder of the west wind suddenly rising scatters across the water, and the water darkens beneath it, so darkening were settled the ranks of Achaians and Trojans in the plain.” analogy hyperbolic simile

4 Greek for “change of name”
metonymy Greek for “change of name” Word or phrase substituted for another on the basis of some material, causal, or conceptual relation (yet it cannot stand alone in function or being) substitutions: container for thing contained: “I’ll have a glass” (of milk) agent for act, product, object possessed: “reading Wordsworth” (his poetry) cause for effect: “altarwise” (for facing east) time or place for characteristics or products: “bloody decade” (ten years of war), “I’ll have a Burgundy” (wine) object for its possessor/user: “the crown” (king) body parts for states of consciousness: “head and heart” (thought and feeling) material for object: “ivories” (piano keys) attributes or abstract features for concrete entities: “Christendom” (Europe), “805” (Ventura County)

5 synecdoche Greek for “act of taking together” or “understanding one thing with another” Word or phrase denoting a part in reference to a whole in which the part retains many of the qualities of the whole (it can stand alone in function and being) substitutions: part for a whole: “wheels” for an automobile, a “building” for a city species for genus OR genus for species: a “dog” for pets, “apple” for fruit OR “fruit” for an apple, “pet” for a dog individual for group: “person” for humanity, “tree” for a forest

6 poetic reduction of words
metaphor/simile poetic reduction of words  metonymy/synecdoche rhetorical/linguistic reduction of words

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