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What is Corpus Stylistics? PALA Summer School, Maribor, 2014.

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1 What is Corpus Stylistics? PALA Summer School, Maribor, 2014

2 What is corpus stylistics? Corpus linguistics + (literary) stylistics = corpus stylistics? (Mahlberg 2007: 219)

3 What is corpus stylistics? Corpus linguistics applied to literary texts? Corpus techniques used in the service of stylistic analysis The application of stylistic models in corpus analysis Corpus theories used in stylistics (semantic prosody)? Big Corpora used to support language intuitions? (such as prosodies)

4 Corpus + Stylistics? corpus – serves as a reminder of the various methodological and theoretical borrowings from corpus linguists stylistics – "[...] the study of the relationship between linguistic form and literary function [...]” (Leech and Short 2007:3) – But not just literary

5 Approaches to Corpus Stylistics Top down: – uses the intuitions of literary critics or the analyst as a starting point for further analysis.

6 Approaches to Corpus Stylistics Bottom up: – data driven; – uses quantitative information to steer the linguistic and literary enquiry; – (cf. O’Halloran’s 2007 corpus-informed analysis).

7 Stages of Corpus Stylistics Descriptive stylistics Explanatory stylistics (Leech 2008)

8 Objectivity and subjectivity Corpus Linguistics adds objectivity. – possibly – fully objective corpus stylistic analysis is not achievable, due to factors such as the analyst’s choice and interpretation of the data (Fischer- Starcke 2010:18-19) – Cycles of data generation and interpretation – Combination of top-down and bottom-up – Descriptive and explanatory

9 Objectivity and subjectivity "[...] the essential role of intuition in formulating hypotheses and analysing data" (Stubbs 2007:234). “Corpus stylistic analysis is a relatively objective methodological procedure that at its best is guided by a relatively subjective process of interpretation.” (Carter 2010:67).

10 Systematicity Corpus linguistics adds systematicity. – possibly – Automated tagging, frequency lists, key-words – But what about the interpretative element? “[...] simply generating keywords does not constitute an analysis” (Mahlberg and McIntyre, 2011:206)

11 Systematicity Short points out, “[...] being systematic applies not just to methodology and analysis but also to one’s general interpretive approach.” (Short 2011:37).

12 Arbitrariness Corpus linguistics can reduce arbitrariness. – Possibly – The fish hook - stylisticians first come up with an interpretation and then look for the evidence to support it. – Bottom-up approaches - formal analyses to functional. – But, what if you only analyse a selection of forms?

13 Corpus linguistics used in the service of stylistic analysis Possible approaches: Deductive Use literary critical claims as hypotheses for testing Inductive Use corpus techniques to interpret target text

14 Corpus linguistics used in the service of stylistic analysis ‘Within his form, Hemingway embedded a further commentary upon language’s depleted capacity for expression. For example, his paratactic syntax – which juxtaposes clauses and like syntactic units without subordinating conjunctions – creates static, abrupt sentences that seem to stammer or bark’ (Trodd 2007: 8)

15 Corpus linguistics used in the service of stylistic analysis Hypothesis Subordinating conjunctions are significantly under-represented in Hemingway’s writing

16 Method Corpus of 7 novels & 1 short story collection 774,527 tokens Tag corpus for parts-of-speech Compare tagged corpus against a reference corpus of fiction Determine whether subordinating conjunctions are under-represented in Hemingway If yes, hypothesis is validated If no, hypothesis is invalidated?

17 Results ITEMO1%1O2%2LL CC23, CC = coordinating conjunction

18 Results ITEMO1%1O2%2LL CC23, CS CC = coordinating conjunction CS = subordinating conjunction Subordinating conjunctions not under-represented in Hemingway’s writing – in fact, the opposite. Hypothesis validated?

19 cs. They were smoking cigars. When we came in they looked up. Rome een them. He must have felt it when Brett gave him her hand. He was id in English, and laughed. " So they do n't kill me. " He looke d me go. It was not pleasant. When I came back and looked in the ca. I wo n't stand it. Who cares if he is a damn bankrupt ? " His vo " " You know where she is. " " If I did I would n't tell you. " " Mike said languidly. " Is that where she is ? " Cohn turned to me. " " " She was with you. Is that where she is ? " " Go to hell ! " " I u do n't mean that. " " I do, though, " Mike said. " I 'm not one o Jake. It 's been simply hell. When I met her down here Brett treate I could not find the bathroom. After a while I found it. There was a n on the edge of the bath-tub. When I got up to go I found I had tak time to see the bulls come in, so I shoved through the crowd to th e, and I could not see the man because the crowd was so thick around hi ack and the other on my chest, where it looked as though the horn mus to come to the fiesta each year after he was married. The next day hi ve been half past three o'clock when I had gone to bed and the bands Cohn. 'I 'd be ashamed to. ' " So the bull-fighter fellow hit him carry him to the bed. He said if Cohn helped him he 'd kill him, 'd kill him anyway this morning if Cohn was n't out of town. Cohn tt what for, you know. I said if she would go about with Jews and. " I say, Jake, do you mind if I drink that bottle of yours ? S or, you know. Ninth baronet. When he came home he would n't sleep sleep on the floor. Finally, when he got really bad, he used to t ett used to take the shells out when he 'd gone to sleep. She has n' e little islands of onlookers. When the cars emptied, the onlookers wd. You did not see them again except as sport clothes, odd-looking a sh so that you did not see them unless you passed close to a table. Al Rather. I 'm going with you, if you do n't mind. " " How 's you

20 cs. They were smoking cigars. When we came in they looked up. Rome een them. He must have felt it when Brett gave him her hand. He was id in English, and laughed. " So they do n't kill me. " He looke d me go. It was not pleasant. When I came back and looked in the ca. I wo n't stand it. Who cares if he is a damn bankrupt ? " His vo " " You know where she is. " " If I did I would n't tell you. " " Mike said languidly. " Is that where she is ? " Cohn turned to me. " " " She was with you. Is that where she is ? " " Go to hell ! " " I u do n't mean that. " " I do, though, " Mike said. " I 'm not one o Jake. It 's been simply hell. When I met her down here Brett treate I could not find the bathroom. After a while I found it. There was a n on the edge of the bath-tub. When I got up to go I found I had tak time to see the bulls come in, so I shoved through the crowd to th e, and I could not see the man because the crowd was so thick around hi ack and the other on my chest, where it looked as though the horn mus to come to the fiesta each year after he was married. The next day hi ve been half past three o'clock when I had gone to bed and the bands Cohn. 'I 'd be ashamed to. ' " So the bull-fighter fellow hit him carry him to the bed. He said if Cohn helped him he 'd kill him, 'd kill him anyway this morning if Cohn was n't out of town. Cohn tt what for, you know. I said if she would go about with Jews and. " I say, Jake, do you mind if I drink that bottle of yours ? S or, you know. Ninth baronet. When he came home he would n't sleep sleep on the floor. Finally, when he got really bad, he used to t ett used to take the shells out when he 'd gone to sleep. She has n' e little islands of onlookers. When the cars emptied, the onlookers wd. You did not see them again except as sport clothes, odd-looking a sh so that you did not see them unless you passed close to a table. Al Rather. I 'm going with you, if you do n't mind. " " How 's you

21 The application of stylistic models in corpus analysis The story of 15 year old Christopher Boone, who discovers his neighbour’s dog, Wellington, dead in her garden and sets out to solve the mystery First person narration from Christopher Christopher has Asperger Syndrome

22 ⑰ The policeman looked at me for a while without speaking. Then he said, "I am arresting you for assaulting a police officer." This made me feel a lot calmer because it is what policemen say on television and in films. Then he said, "I strongly advise you to get into the back of the police car, because if you try any of that monkey business again, you little shit, I will seriously lose my rag. Is that understood?" I walked over to the police car, which was parked just outside the gate. He opened the back door and I got inside. He climbed into the driver's seat and made a call on his radio to the policewoman, who was still inside the house. He said, "The little bugger just had a pop at me, Kate. Can you hang on with Mrs. S. while I drop him off at the station? I'll get Tony to swing by and pick you up." And she said, "Sure. I'll catch you later." The policeman said, "Okeydoke," and we drove off. (Mark Haddon, The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time)

23 ⑰ The policeman looked at me for a while without speaking. Then he said, "I am arresting you for assaulting a police officer." This made me feel a lot calmer because it is what policemen say on television and in films. Then he said, "I strongly advise you to get into the back of the police car, because if you try any of that monkey business again, you little shit, I will seriously lose my rag. Is that understood?" I walked over to the police car, which was parked just outside the gate. He opened the back door and I got inside. He climbed into the driver's seat and made a call on his radio to the policewoman, who was still inside the house. He said, "The little bugger just had a pop at me, Kate. Can you hang on with Mrs. S. while I drop him off at the station? I'll get Tony to swing by and pick you up." And she said, "Sure. I'll catch you later." The policeman said, "Okeydoke," and we drove off. (Mark Haddon, The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time) Hypothesis: Christopher uses more direct speech than is usual in narration

24 Foregrounding Formally, foregrounding is a deviation, or departure, from what is expected in the linguistic code or the social code expressed through language; functionally, it is a special effect or significance conveyed by that departure. (Leech 2008: 3) Question: Are our intuitions supported statistically?

25 Method Compare speech presentation in The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time against speech presentation in fiction generally Use a model of discourse presentation developed in stylistics Target corpus: The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time: (63087 tokens) Reference corpus: Fiction section of the Lancaster Speech, Writing and Thought Presentation Corpus (87570 tokens)

26 DISCOURSE PRESENTATION Speech presentationWriting presentationThought presentation (F)DS Free Direct Speech When he did come home to his house his wife sayd, where is my brandiron or trefete (The Mad Men of Gotham) (F)DW Free Direct Writing he began and wrote again – Be mine, with all your poverty. (Tom Jones) (F)DT Free Direct Thought Very well, thought I (Moll Flanders) IS Indirect Speech The Princesse told her, that she had beene lately troubled with a most untoward and fearfull dreame (Cloria and Narcissus) IW Indirect Writing Middleton also writes to them out of Holland, that Colonel Dezmond was shipped away… (Every Day’s Intelligence) IT Indirect Thought And he shou’d have been entirely comforted, but for the Thought that she was possess’d by his Grandfather. (Ooroonoko) FIS Free Indirect Speech The rougues presented each a pistol to them, and bid them deliver, or they would blow the brains out of their heads (The Country Journal) FIW Free Indirect Writing No occurrence in the corpusFIT Free Indirect Thought But Dedalus finding, he could not build his determinations upon these uncertainties, wherein both the safety of the towne and his own honour might probably suffer (Cloria and Narcissus) NRSA Narrator’s Presentation of a Speech Act The wynde also began to blow agayne: wherfore we were glad and lauded and thanked god (Hevy newes of an horryble earthquake) NRWA Narrator’s Presentation of a Writing Act and commytted unto hym the same by Instruccyon sygned and subscrybed with his owne hande (An account of the Battle of Flodden) NRTA Narrator’s Presentation of a Thought Act All this, you may be sure, was as I wished. (Moll Flanders) NI Narrator’s Presentation of an Internal State His arguments and divisions being so many, that they caused a great confusion in his brain. (The Blazing World) NV Narrator’s Presentation of Voice My lord then made another and a longer speech of the same sort (Tom Jones) NW Narrator’s Presentation of Writing The late Parliament having upon their dissolution delivered up the Power which they received from his Excellency at their first sitting, by a Writing under their Hands and Seal (Every Day’s Intelligence) NT Narrator’s Presentation of Thought filled her imagination with some unprofitable thoughts (Cloria and Narcissus) NRS Narrator’s Report of Speech When he did come home to his house his wife sayd, where is my brandiron or trefete (The Mad Men of Gotham) NRW Narrator’s Report of Writing he began and wrote again – Be mine, with all your poverty. (Tom Jones) NRT Narrator’s Report of Thought Very well, thought I (Moll Flanders)

27 An example of annotation The policeman looked at me for a while without speaking. Then he said, "I am arresting you for assaulting a police officer." This made me feel a lot calmer because it is what policemen say on television and in films. Then he said, "I strongly advise you to get into the back of the police car, because if you try any of that monkey business again, you little shit, I will seriously lose my rag. Is that understood?"

28

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33 Result Hypothesis validated Christopher does indeed use significantly more direct speech than is usual in prose fiction Functional effect? Indicative of an abnormal mind style (Fowler 1986)

34 Investigation of the character/narrators in a novel using a combination of corpus linguistics and stylistics

35

36 Three main narrators: Stuart, Oliver and Gillian Moseley notes that Barnes’ ‘... creation of these three very different voice-personalities is a matter of vocabulary, references, reticences, syntax, and cadence.’ (Moseley 1997: 140). Stuart, Oliver and Gillian

37 Others who have written about the novel : Stuart – ‘dull’ (Guignery 2006: 73), ‘unclever, unimaginative’ (Moseley 1997: 140), ‘stolid and unglamorous’ (Pateman 2002: 54), and ‘a plodder, teetering on the edge of full-blown wallyhood’ (Heller 1991: 28) Stuart, Oliver and Gillian

38 Oliver – ‘flamboyant and erudite’ (Pateman 2002: 54), ‘dashing, quick... witty, cultivated, charming’ (Moseley 1997:125), ‘foppish, learned, showy, precious’ (Moseley 1997: 141), ‘pedantic and self-centered’ (Guignery 2006: 75), and ‘a clever dick’ (Heller 1991: 28) Stuart, Oliver and Gillian

39 Gillian – ‘reticent and deliberate’ (Levenson 1991: 44), self-protective (Moseley 1997:139), ‘sensible’ (Humphreys 1991), and ‘cool and opaque’ (Heller 1991: 28). Stuart, Oliver and Gillian

40 Research questions How are the impressions of these 3 characters created? Are there differences in the narrations and do these differences relate to character?

41 Method Compare the different narrations with each other Do any differences relate to character? Analysis constrained by Culpeper’s (2001) checklist of textual character cues.

42 Culpeper’s (2001) checklist

43 The contributions of one of the MAIN narrators compared with the contributions of ALL the OTHER narrators combined Comparison process carried out automatically by Wmatrix. Key-concepts Method

44 Key-concepts: StuartKey-concepts: OliverKey-concepts: Gillian PRONOUNS (4018), DISCONTENT (22), MONEY GENERALLY (56), EXCESSIVE DRINKING (15), EXISTING (877), MONEY : DEBTS (27), TIME (90), PEOPLE : FEMALE (60), SPEECH : NOT COMMUNICATING (6) UNMATCHED (785), ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY (312), GENERAL APPEARANCE AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES (64), LIVING CREATURES : ANIMALS, BIRDS, ETC. (89), GRAMMATICAL BIN (6755), MUSIC AND RELATED ACTIVITIES (41), INVESTIGATE, EXAMINE, TEST, SEARCH (46), COLOUR AND COLOUR PATTERNS (100), SHORT AND NARROW (9), WARFARE, DEFENCE AND THE ARMY ; WEAPONS (34), MENTAL ACTIONS AND PROCESSES (18), SENSORY : TOUCH (19), ARTS AND CRAFTS (58), SMOKING AND NON - MEDICAL DRUGS (32), RELIGION AND THE SUPERNATURAL (58), SELFISH (31) SPEECH : COMMUNICATIVE (232), PRONOUNS (2911), SOUND : QUIET (17), SUBSTANCES AND MATERIALS : LIQUID (24), LINEAR ORDER (159), EVALUATION : ACCURATE (20), THOUGHT, BELIEF (178)

45 RankUSAS CategoryFreq. OliverFreq. othersLL 1 Z 99 [ UNMATCHED ]785 (3.24)307 (0.73) B 1 [ ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY ]312 (1.29)318 (0.76) O 4.1 [ GENERAL APPEARANCE AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES ]64 (0.26)31 (0.07) L 2 [ LIVING CREATURES : ANIMALS, BIRDS, ETC.]89 (0.37)57 (0.14) Z 5 [ GRAMMATICAL BIN ]6755 (27.91)10696 (25.6) K 2 [ MUSIC AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ]41 (0.17)16 (0.04) X 2.4 [ INVESTIGATE, EXAMINE, TEST, SEARCH ]46 (0.19)21 (0.05) O 4.3 [ COLOUR AND COLOUR PATTERNS ]100 (0.41)78 (0.19) N 3.7- [ SHORT AND NARROW ]9 (0.04)0 (0) G 3 [ WARFARE, DEFENCE AND THE ARMY ; WEAPONS ]34 (0.14)19 (0.05) X 2 [ MENTAL ACTIONS AND PROCESSES ]18 (0.07)6 (0.01) X 3.3 [ SENSORY : TOUCH ]19 (0.08)7 (0.02) C 1 [ ARTS AND CRAFTS ]58 (0.24)48 (0.11) F 3 [ SMOKING AND NON - MEDICAL DRUGS ]32 (0.13)20 (0.05) S 9 [ RELIGION AND THE SUPERNATURAL ]58 (0.24)51 (0.12) S [ SELFISH ]31 (0.13)20 (0.05)12.15 Key concepts in Oliver’s narration

46 Oliver’s UNMATCHED group achortle, aestival, aestivate, afflatus, albid, amatoriously, apothegm, appurtenances, atop, beagling, bedewed, bedizened, besmirched, bespatted, bespy, cartologists, costive, crespucularity, curvous, danegeld, despoiling, dirigents, doff, dormitor, dotards, duncical, dwelleth, effulgent, estivant, farouchely, febrifuge, foliar, fomenter, frangible, groweth, hie, inspissated, jocosity, lachrymose, lachrymosity, laggardly, limpid, lilting, mayhap, milady, miscegenation, mogadonic, moidore, oaken, oleaginous, pensile, plashing, plodden, quailing, quaveringly, quinquennium, quotidian, quiddity, rebarbatively, rubescent, runically, saturnine, sempiternal, scurrile, slaked, sloughed, sog, steatopygous, swain, swaddle, sward, termitic, trepidatiously, triste, trysting, uranian, venery, vomitorium, wist, yeoman, yore

47 Oliver’s UNMATCHED group propanol, isobutyraldehyde, auscultatory, embryonically, xylene, sulphurous, spectroscopic, pheromones, pachydermatous, deliquesce, rectal, colonic, faecal, gonads, micturition, ejaculatory, jugular, mucous, corporeal, lactating, tricep, sputum, subcutaneously, carcinogenic, goitrous, propranolol, valerian. Beowulf, Berlitz, Casanova, Cartier-Bresson, Dorabella, Ganymede, Goliath, Halley, Herod, Kafka, Lares, Morpheus, Mélisande, Orfeo, Palladio, Patrodus, Pelléas, Poulenc, Schreker, Shostakovich, Silenius, Rossini, Rimsky, Tatyana, Thalia, Tiepolo, Tristan, Uccello, Oskar Werner, Orson Welles, Voltaire

48 Oliver’s character The unmatched items suggest that – Oliver regularly opts for ostentatious and less conventional words – Avoids more obvious, more commonly used, and perfectly adequate alternatives. Barnes creates a character who shows off lexically. Relates to descriptions: – “showy”, “clever dick”, “erudite” and “learned”.

49 Oliver’s character Relate to Moseley’s comments: – “[...] different voice-personalities is a matter of vocabulary [...]” (Moseley 1997: 140). This analysis shows specific words that form part of Oliver’s vocabulary - which help to create his “different voice-personality”. Wmatrix helps to highlight these words Culpeper’s implicit cue - lexis.

50 WMatrix Corpus tools provide systematic, automated analysis of the novel Characterisation framework from stylistics provides focus Constrains analysis of Wmatrix output Together, they allow for a more complete analysis of potential character cues across a novel

51 B1 [ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY] face (24), hair (17), hand ( 11 ), back (10), shit (8), heart (8), eyes (7), head (6), mouth (6), finger (5), ear (5), ears (5), arm (5), teeth (5), tears (4), nose (4), eye (4), skull (4), chin (4), blood (4), hands (4), palm (3), cerebral (3), shoulders (3), cheek (3), heads (3), visage (3), arms (3), forehead (3), faces (3), sleeping (3), peeing (3), lips (2), cortex (2), pee (2), nerves (2), palms (2), bum (2), derriere (2), tongue (2), sweat (2), throat (2), scowl (2), feet (2), pregnant (2), tired (2), fingers (2), lenses (2), thumb (1), spine (1), maracas (1), shoulder (1), nocturnal (1), bowels (1), wrist (1), excrement (1), sputum (1), spit (1), nipple (1), tongues (1), guts (1), oral (1), pout (1), scowling (1), brows (1), wake_up (1), foot (1), coeur (1), inhale (1), lap (1), thirst (1), moles (1), membrane (1), dental (1), artery (1), under-arm (1), tissue (1), lapping (1); pulse (1), courgettes (1), marrow (1), bitches_off (1), mitt (1), went_to_bed (1), organ (1), agile (1), muscle (1), tendons (1), jaw (1), blinking (1), moustache (1), waist (1), erection (1), fingernails (1), hip (1), wristwatch (1), pudendum (1), breathe (1), lobes (1), genetic (1), septum (1), tics (1), roused (1), bicep (1), muscles (1), hiccup (1), tan (1), snap_fingers (1), breasts (1), bitten (1), crying (1), knee (1), cheeks (1), blinked (1), physical (1), bit (1), wakes_up (1), woke_up (1), organs (1), fart (1), thumbs (1), ankles (1), skin (1), piss (1), cranium (1), duplicitous (1), stomach (1), flesh (1), breath (1), frown (1), lungs (1), brain (1), bladder (1), sleep (1), neck (1), pissed (1), waking (1), elbow (1), shiver (1), swallow (1), forearms (1), baldness (1), farted (1), quaff (1), quaffed (1) 145 types / 312 tokens

52 B1 [ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY] Look at the concordances See who the anatomical/physiological word relates to

53 B1 [ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY] der health of the yen on hiswristwatchcomputer, a barman who knows glass which concentrates thenose, Stuart sliding onto the nex You think I 'm a patronisingpudendum, do n't you ? It 's not real, that Stuart And we go wayback- way, way back, back to th d we go way back - way, wayback, back to the time when you c ion temporarily permitted tobreathethe upper air would have done. Before Gillian, I mean.Backin the days when a groat and r jest might have escaped mylips. But I was happy for him. H nearly tickled him under theears. I 'd tried not to make my a, Stuart touched her on thearm- not a gesture I had ever se n accurate simulacrum of hervisageand demeanour with the left-l ic pair of trainers. Marronhairpulled back and clipped over ed back and clipped over herears, falling freely behind ; lac ramatised her generous browneyes; petite mouth and jaunty nos generous brown eyes ; petitemouthand jaunty nose, set rather es ; petite mouth and jauntynose, set rather low on the taper w on the tapered oval of herface, thus emphasising the curved ng the curved hauteur of herforehead. Ears with practically no lo ed hauteur of her forehead.Earswith practically no lobes, I d. Ears with practically nolobes, I could n't help noticing, could n't help noticing, agenetictrait of increasing popularit ed as twitchy as a rabbit 'sseptum. She was twenty-eight, I di at these outward behaviouralticswere reliable indicators of r nefit of anaesthetic, whichrousedhim to suggest that perhaps t or interview by laying theirhandon the sofa cushion, and the wn, failing to remove theirhand? I acquainted the Principal ten lead to withering of thebicepand tricep muscles, which in ring of the bicep and tricepmuscles, which in turn led to a brea in the chain of command fromcerebralGHQ to courting finger. I to rom cerebral GHQ to courtingfinger. I told the now somewhat qui u and Gillie about my careerhiccup: a trouble shared is not, i -bummed stride, the fuck-metan, the effulgent cuff-links,

54 B1 [ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY] 71 (23%) refer to Gillian’s anatomy and physiology, 47 (15%) to Stuart’s, 65 (21%) to Oliver’s, 11 (4%) to the anatomy and physiology of other narrators in the story, and 116 (37%) relate to other people, or people in general.

55 B1 [ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY] der health of the yen on hiswristwatchcomputer, a barman who knows glass which concentrates thenose, Stuart sliding onto the nex You think I 'm a patronisingpudendum, do n't you ? It 's not real, that Stuart And we go wayback- way, way back, back to th d we go way back - way, wayback, back to the time when you c ion temporarily permitted tobreathethe upper air would have done. Before Gillian, I mean.Backin the days when a groat and r jest might have escaped mylips. But I was happy for him. H nearly tickled him under theears. I 'd tried not to make my a, Stuart touched her on thearm- not a gesture I had ever se n accurate simulacrum of hervisageand demeanour with the left-l ic pair of trainers. Marronhairpulled back and clipped over ed back and clipped over herears, falling freely behind ; lac ramatised her generous browneyes; petite mouth and jaunty nos generous brown eyes ; petitemouthand jaunty nose, set rather es ; petite mouth and jauntynose, set rather low on the taper w on the tapered oval of herface, thus emphasising the curved ng the curved hauteur of herforehead. Ears with practically no lo ed hauteur of her forehead.Earswith practically no lobes, I d. Ears with practically nolobes, I could n't help noticing, could n't help noticing, agenetictrait of increasing popularit ed as twitchy as a rabbit 'sseptum. She was twenty-eight, I di at these outward behaviouralticswere reliable indicators of r nefit of anaesthetic, whichrousedhim to suggest that perhaps t or interview by laying theirhandon the sofa cushion, and the wn, failing to remove theirhand? I acquainted the Principal ten lead to withering of thebicepand tricep muscles, which in ring of the bicep and tricepmuscles, which in turn led to a brea in the chain of command fromcerebralGHQ to courting finger. I to rom cerebral GHQ to courtingfinger. I told the now somewhat qui u and Gillie about my careerhiccup: a trouble shared is not, i -bummed stride, the fuck-metan, the effulgent cuff-links,

56 B1 [ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY] Oliver says : “[...] I failed to deposit an accurate simulacrum of her visage and demeanour with the left-luggage clerk of memory [...]” (Barnes 1991:30)

57 B1 [ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY] Marron hair pulled back and clipped over her ears, falling freely behind; lack of make-up bestowing a pallor which dramatised her generous brown eyes; petite mouth and jaunty nose, set rather low on the tapered oval of her face, thus emphasising the curved hauteur of her forehead. Ears with practically no lobes […]. Barnes (1991:30) ( B 1[ ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY ] word-forms underlined.)

58 Conclusions It’s not the case that corpus linguistics gives stylistics rigour – stylistics, if done properly, is rigorous anyway. But offers potential to extend rigour over longer texts.

59 Conclusions Combining corpus linguistics with stylistics is said to reduce subjectivity and arbitrariness and add systematicity BUT, these things should not be taken for granted Corpus stylistic analysis must be managed carefully.

60 References Trodd, Z. (2007) ‘Hemingway’s camera eye: the problem of language and an interwar politics of form’, The Hemingway Review 26(2): 7-21.


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