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Soviet Union and Satellite Nations 1989: Tiananmen Square in China 1950: Korean War Timeline of Communism in the 20 th Century 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950.

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Presentation on theme: "Soviet Union and Satellite Nations 1989: Tiananmen Square in China 1950: Korean War Timeline of Communism in the 20 th Century 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950."— Presentation transcript:


2 Soviet Union and Satellite Nations

3 1989: Tiananmen Square in China 1950: Korean War Timeline of Communism in the 20 th Century 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 Communism in the USSR (1917 – 1989) Communism in China (1949 – present) “Cold War” Communist Revolution in Russia (1917) Communist Revolution in China (1949) 1966: China’s “Cultural Revolution” Vietnam War 1989: Fall of Communism in the USSR

4 Origins of Communism Karl Marx: Father of Communism  wrote Communist Manifesto Asked workers (proletariat) of the world to revolt and take control of the “means of production”

5 Communism Socialism: a type of economic system in which gov’t runs the economy for the entire society Communism: socialism with totalitarian dictatorship Marxism: communism with violent radical revolution – CLASS STRUGGLE

6 Communism comes to Russia Life under the Czar: Too many poor peasants Not enough land or food Hate being involved in WW1

7 By 1915, many soldiers do not have weapons or ammunition Russia remained unindustrialized No supplies for the troops (not enough railroads or factories)

8 Hello!


10 Group of nobles Prince Felix YusPrince Felix Yus

11 moika palace WELCOME TO MY CRIB ! Prince Felix Yusupov






17 BAM !


19 POW ! BAM ! BOOM !





24 HELP !!!




28 The Provisional Government Czar Nicholas II abdicated (gave up the throne) A moderate temporary gov’t was created

29 The Bolsheviks Name of the Communist Party in Russia Began the Communist Revolution Led by Vladimir Lenin - RADICAL Offered the poor “Bread, land, and peace”

30 1917 Revolution Bolsheviks overthrew provisional gov’t Created new Communist nation  USSR

31 Russian Civil War Red Army (communists) vs. White Army (supporters of Czar) Red Army won! Killed millions

32 Cheka (secret police)

33 Assassination of Czar & family










43 Lenin’s U.S.S.R. The U.S.S.R. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics – aka “Soviet Union” “The most striking thing was the utter unexpectedness of it, like a train crash in the night, like a bridge crumbling beneath your feet, like a house falling down”

44 Bye!

45 Russia lost: Most of its land in Europe 32% of its farmland 34% of its population 54% of its industry 89% of its coalmines

46 The Russian banks were all nationalized. Control of the factories was given to the soviets. Private bank accounts were confiscated. The Church's properties (including bank accounts) were seized. Wages were fixed at higher rates than during the war and a shorter, eight-hour working day was introduced.

47 Decree on Land Private Property


49 Treatment of the Wealthy

50 Princess Golitsyn sold homemade pies on the street Baroness Wrangel sold knitwear One baroness sold a diamond broach for 5,000 rubles (the cost of a bag of flour) =

51 New Economic Policy Lenin’s plan to help the economy The gov’t would control only major businesses People could control small businesses and earn profit (limited capitalism)

52 Stalin’s U.S.S.R. Joseph Stalin: Took over after Lenin’s death Became a brutal dictator

53 Totalitarian State: Only one political party allowed → the Communist Party Controlled all aspects of life Put state concerns ahead of your own

54 Collectivization Stalin’s plan to improve farming Eliminated small farms – they were “collected” onto large, state-run farms If you refused, you DIED

55 5-Year Plan Stalin’s plan to industrialize Focused on heavy industry (military, steel, mining, farm machines) Not on consumer goods (things for people’s lives)

56 Purges Stalin’s attempt to eliminate anyone that could threaten his control Many government officials were imprisoned or executed

57 Ex. Trotsky exiled and killed


59 + =

60 World War II Stalin signed a non- aggression pact with Hitler Germany attacked the USSR → the USSR joined the “Allies”

61 The Cold War I’ll help fight Japan and I’ll totally allow free elections in Eastern European countries soon. Yeah RIGHT



64 The Cold War Roots of the Cold War: There was a war of ideas between two sides (U.S. and U.S.S.R.) There was a great deal of mistrust after World War II The way Europe was divided up after WW II caused an uneasy tension

65 Cold War Terms: From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an "iron curtain" has descended across the Continent. Iron Curtain: name for the imaginary dividing line between the Democratic Western European nations and the Communist East European nations

66 Cold War Terms: Eastern Bloc: the group of nations – that were communist – in Eastern Europe (behind the “Iron Curtain”)

67 “satellites”: Another name for the “Eastern Bloc” nations Countries that were “controlled” by and near the USSR

68 The 2 Sides Alliance Leading Nation Foreign Policy Economic System Type of Government

69 Command Economy “Central Planning” State-control of production, quotas, distribution All economic decisions made by gov’t NO private business  only GOV’T ownership

70 Containment

71 Events of the Cold War Marshall Plan / Truman Doctrine: U.S. offered billions of $ to help rebuild European nations after WW2 as long as they were NOT communist

72 You can go, But I’m not leaving! Germany should stay weak! Berlin Airlift

73 No road travel in or out of West Berlin Help! We need food! We’re starving! Eventually, I Hope that Allies will just give up West Berlin to the USSR Communists tried a blockade to force the allies out of Berlin (in East Germany)






79 Operation Little Vittles

80 Fine! Forcing Stalin to give up the blockade

81 Arms Race: a race between 2 “super powers” (U.S. vs. U.S.S.R.) to gather bigger, better and more weapons

82 MAD – Mutually Assured Destruction

83 Space Race A race for national pride mostly It began when the Soviets put the first satellite, “Sputnik” into orbit

84 Berlin Wall The wall became the symbol of the Cold War The Communists put up a wall to keep East Berliners from escaping to West Berlin

85 Cuban Missile Crisis  The Soviets put nuclear missiles in Cuba



88  U.S. President JFK ordered a blockade of Cuba and told the USSR to remove the missiles

89  The closest the world ever came to nuclear destruction


91  The Soviet Union backed down and pulled the missiles out

92 Brinksmanship replaced

93 By détente Détente: French noun – (a) relaxation of a person; – release of a spring, – slackening of a rope, – easing of relations

94 A “warming” of tensions between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. (1970’s – 1980’s) Relieves Cold War tension!

95 President Nixon met with the leaders of

96 USSR and China


98 SALT I (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks)

99 reduce # of ICBMs and submarine missiles


101 Helsinki Accords

102 Treaties were signed that limited nuclear weapons in each nation (ex. SALT)

103 Fall of the USSR - CAUSES Changing of the Guard A new, younger generation leader was chosen – Mikhail Gorbechev

104 FALL OF THE USSR Fall of the Berlin Wall (1989) symbol of the end of the Cold War

105 Fall of the USSR - CAUSES Glasnost: “openness” examples: some freedom of religion and press Perestroika: “restructuring” examples: allow some capitalism

106 Failure of the economy: Too much sacrificing “butter for guns” (too much military spending-not consumer!) Perestroika weakened an already poor economy

107 Challenges to the Soviet control of satellite nations Began with workers in Poland Other “Eastern Bloc” nations did the same It’s time to break free!

108 Break-up of the USSR After seeing Warsaw Pact nations end communism, Soviet citizens wanted the same thing Protests were not stopped and the Republics turned into separate independent nations

109 Results of the fall of the USSR New nations formed: Russia became the largest most important Some of the Republics formed an economic alliance called the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

110 Results of the fall of the USSR Effects on world communism: other Communist nations suffered (no more support from the U.S.S.R.) Ending of the Cold War: no more U.S.S.R., no more cold war

111 Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Armenia Azerbaijan Georgia Ukraine Belarus Lithuania Latvia Estonia

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