Presentation on theme: "Soviet Union and Satellite Nations 1989: Tiananmen Square in China 1950: Korean War Timeline of Communism in the 20 th Century 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950."— Presentation transcript:
Soviet Union and Satellite Nations
1989: Tiananmen Square in China 1950: Korean War Timeline of Communism in the 20 th Century Communism in the USSR (1917 – 1989) Communism in China (1949 – present) “Cold War” Communist Revolution in Russia (1917) Communist Revolution in China (1949) 1966: China’s “Cultural Revolution” Vietnam War 1989: Fall of Communism in the USSR
Origins of Communism Karl Marx: Father of Communism wrote Communist Manifesto Asked workers (proletariat) of the world to revolt and take control of the “means of production”
Communism Socialism: a type of economic system in which gov’t runs the economy for the entire society Communism: socialism with totalitarian dictatorship Marxism: communism with violent radical revolution – CLASS STRUGGLE
Communism comes to Russia Life under the Czar: Too many poor peasants Not enough land or food Hate being involved in WW1
By 1915, many soldiers do not have weapons or ammunition Russia remained unindustrialized No supplies for the troops (not enough railroads or factories)
I FEEL RIGHT AT HOME! MAMMA’S HAPPY!
Group of nobles Prince Felix YusPrince Felix Yus
moika palace WELCOME TO MY CRIB ! Prince Felix Yusupov
I’M FEELING OK !
I’M STILL FEELING OK !
FUNNY… MY BACK IS ITCHY !
POW ! BAM ! BOOM !
I DON’T FEEL SO HOT…
! HELP… I’M DROWNING !
I’LL BE BACK !
The Provisional Government Czar Nicholas II abdicated (gave up the throne) A moderate temporary gov’t was created
The Bolsheviks Name of the Communist Party in Russia Began the Communist Revolution Led by Vladimir Lenin - RADICAL Offered the poor “Bread, land, and peace”
1917 Revolution Bolsheviks overthrew provisional gov’t Created new Communist nation USSR
Russian Civil War Red Army (communists) vs. White Army (supporters of Czar) Red Army won! Killed millions
Cheka (secret police)
Assassination of Czar & family
Lenin’s U.S.S.R. The U.S.S.R. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics – aka “Soviet Union” “The most striking thing was the utter unexpectedness of it, like a train crash in the night, like a bridge crumbling beneath your feet, like a house falling down”
Russia lost: Most of its land in Europe 32% of its farmland 34% of its population 54% of its industry 89% of its coalmines
The Russian banks were all nationalized. Control of the factories was given to the soviets. Private bank accounts were confiscated. The Church's properties (including bank accounts) were seized. Wages were fixed at higher rates than during the war and a shorter, eight-hour working day was introduced.
Decree on Land Private Property
Treatment of the Wealthy
Princess Golitsyn sold homemade pies on the street Baroness Wrangel sold knitwear One baroness sold a diamond broach for 5,000 rubles (the cost of a bag of flour) =
New Economic Policy Lenin’s plan to help the economy The gov’t would control only major businesses People could control small businesses and earn profit (limited capitalism)
Stalin’s U.S.S.R. Joseph Stalin: Took over after Lenin’s death Became a brutal dictator
Totalitarian State: Only one political party allowed → the Communist Party Controlled all aspects of life Put state concerns ahead of your own
Collectivization Stalin’s plan to improve farming Eliminated small farms – they were “collected” onto large, state-run farms If you refused, you DIED
5-Year Plan Stalin’s plan to industrialize Focused on heavy industry (military, steel, mining, farm machines) Not on consumer goods (things for people’s lives)
Purges Stalin’s attempt to eliminate anyone that could threaten his control Many government officials were imprisoned or executed
Ex. Trotsky exiled and killed
World War II Stalin signed a non- aggression pact with Hitler Germany attacked the USSR → the USSR joined the “Allies”
The Cold War I’ll help fight Japan and I’ll totally allow free elections in Eastern European countries soon. Yeah RIGHT
The Cold War Roots of the Cold War: There was a war of ideas between two sides (U.S. and U.S.S.R.) There was a great deal of mistrust after World War II The way Europe was divided up after WW II caused an uneasy tension
Cold War Terms: From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an "iron curtain" has descended across the Continent. Iron Curtain: name for the imaginary dividing line between the Democratic Western European nations and the Communist East European nations
Cold War Terms: Eastern Bloc: the group of nations – that were communist – in Eastern Europe (behind the “Iron Curtain”)
“satellites”: Another name for the “Eastern Bloc” nations Countries that were “controlled” by and near the USSR
The 2 Sides Alliance Leading Nation Foreign Policy Economic System Type of Government
Command Economy “Central Planning” State-control of production, quotas, distribution All economic decisions made by gov’t NO private business only GOV’T ownership
Events of the Cold War Marshall Plan / Truman Doctrine: U.S. offered billions of $ to help rebuild European nations after WW2 as long as they were NOT communist
You can go, But I’m not leaving! Germany should stay weak! Berlin Airlift
No road travel in or out of West Berlin Help! We need food! We’re starving! Eventually, I Hope that Allies will just give up West Berlin to the USSR Communists tried a blockade to force the allies out of Berlin (in East Germany)
Operation Little Vittles
Fine! Forcing Stalin to give up the blockade
Arms Race: a race between 2 “super powers” (U.S. vs. U.S.S.R.) to gather bigger, better and more weapons
MAD – Mutually Assured Destruction
Space Race A race for national pride mostly It began when the Soviets put the first satellite, “Sputnik” into orbit
Berlin Wall The wall became the symbol of the Cold War The Communists put up a wall to keep East Berliners from escaping to West Berlin
Cuban Missile Crisis The Soviets put nuclear missiles in Cuba
U.S. President JFK ordered a blockade of Cuba and told the USSR to remove the missiles
The closest the world ever came to nuclear destruction
The Soviet Union backed down and pulled the missiles out
By détente Détente: French noun – (a) relaxation of a person; – release of a spring, – slackening of a rope, – easing of relations
A “warming” of tensions between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. (1970’s – 1980’s) Relieves Cold War tension!
President Nixon met with the leaders of
USSR and China
SALT I (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks)
reduce # of ICBMs and submarine missiles
Treaties were signed that limited nuclear weapons in each nation (ex. SALT)
Fall of the USSR - CAUSES Changing of the Guard A new, younger generation leader was chosen – Mikhail Gorbechev
FALL OF THE USSR Fall of the Berlin Wall (1989) symbol of the end of the Cold War
Fall of the USSR - CAUSES Glasnost: “openness” examples: some freedom of religion and press Perestroika: “restructuring” examples: allow some capitalism
Failure of the economy: Too much sacrificing “butter for guns” (too much military spending-not consumer!) Perestroika weakened an already poor economy
Challenges to the Soviet control of satellite nations Began with workers in Poland Other “Eastern Bloc” nations did the same It’s time to break free!
Break-up of the USSR After seeing Warsaw Pact nations end communism, Soviet citizens wanted the same thing Protests were not stopped and the Republics turned into separate independent nations
Results of the fall of the USSR New nations formed: Russia became the largest most important Some of the Republics formed an economic alliance called the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
Results of the fall of the USSR Effects on world communism: other Communist nations suffered (no more support from the U.S.S.R.) Ending of the Cold War: no more U.S.S.R., no more cold war
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