Presentation on theme: "What is ATTITUDE? Attitude is part of the Appraisal Theory which concerns our evaluations of events that cause specific reactions in different people Developed."— Presentation transcript:
What is ATTITUDE? Attitude is part of the Appraisal Theory which concerns our evaluations of events that cause specific reactions in different people Developed in the 1990s by Peter White and Jim Martin
Attitude: AFFECT The emotional evaluation of things, processes and states of affairs Process (mental or behavioural) Affect Quality Comment
Analysis: the 20 th chapter of Pinocchio Now we will show you how affect, judgment and appreciation are realized through some examples from our extract. Pinocchio is coming back to the Fairy, finally freed from prison.
«Fancy the happiness of Pinocchio on finding himself free! » Happiness = state of being, example of AFFECT as process. «Tormented by the wish to see his father… » «How unhappy I have been » “To be tormented”, “to be unhappy” The writer conveys the bad feelings of that moment. *words related to basic emotion (sadness, happiness, angriness) are part of this semantic region.
«It is so long, poor man, since I have seen him…» “Poor man” = AFFECT: aside referring to Pinocchio’s father «He stopped suddenly, frozen with terror.» Frozen with terror AFFECT as mental process, synonymous of «being terrified»
«The Serpent laughed so heartily » Example of AFFECT as behavioural process. To laugh, to smile, to cry, are all ways of expressing emotions. «full of life, quiet, still » Attributes, examples of AFFECT as quality.
«to feel brave » Brave attribute, AFFECT as quality. In another context “bravely” Judgment of esteem. But… What is judgment?
Attitude: JUDGMENT Judgment deals with assessing people and their behaviour from an ethical point of view Social esteem Judgment Social sanction
Attitude: JUDGMENT JUDGMENT OF ESTEEM: Normality ( how unusual someone is ) Capacity ( how capable someone is ) Tenacity ( how resolute someone is ) JUDGMENT OF SANCTION: Propriety ( how truthful someone is ) Veracity (how ethical someone is)
Attitude: JUDGMENT Pinocchio as the representation of the negative sense of “veracity”. « But he kept on bravely. » Positive social esteem JUDGMENT; it belongs to the “tenacity”
«And yet I deserve everything, for I am certainly very stubborn and stupid! » The verb ‘deserve’ denotes a positive social sanction JUDGMENT; it belongs to “propriety”. ‘Stubborn’ and ‘Stupid’ are explicit and negative social esteem JUDGMENT in the sense of “capacity”. «But from now on, I'll be different and I'll try to become a most obedient boy.» The word ‘different’ is implicitly positive social esteem JUDGMENT; it is a positive social sanction in relation with “propriety”. ‘Obedient boy’ is a positive social sanction in relation with “propriety”.
«..disobedient boys are certainly far from happy..» This sentence shows the relation between JUDGMENT and AFFECT. Bad actions, which are committed by ‘disobedient boys’, reflect their emotional situation. The expression ‘disobedient boys’ is a negative sanction in the sense of “propriety”. «She who has been so good to me.. » ‘Good’ is explicitly positive social esteem JUDGMENT, "propriety". The appraised is the Fairy.
«..unable to withstand them, he jumped into a field to pick a few grapes that tempted him.» ‘Unable to withstand’ is a negative social esteem JUDGMENT and it belongs to “capacity”, the appraised is Pinocchio. «..Weasels which came every night to steal his chickens. » The verb ‘to steal’ is a negative action in the sense of social sanction JUDGMENT, it belongs to “propriety”. The appraised are the weasels which are seen as dishonest animals.
Attitude: APPRECIATION Appreciation involves evaluations of semiotic and natural phenomena Aesthetic evaluation Appreciation Functional evaluation
Attitude: APPRECIATION Impact (does it catch your attention?) REACTION Quality (like/dislike) COMPOSITION (balance and complexity) VALUATION (how useful/useless, relevant/irrelevant something is)
«lovely Fairy» This is an example of APPRECIATION as reaction (specifically positive quality) « his fairy sister with azure hair » In this case it cannot be considered as “appreciation” because it is an objective statement.
«An immense Serpent lays stretched across the road» It’s an aesthetic evaluation, and in particular is an APPRECIATION as reaction (“impact”); in fact the Serpent is immense related to Pinocchio.
«A Serpent with a bright green skin, fiery eyes which glowed and burned, and a pointed tail» “bright green skin” and “fiery eyes” are aesthetic evaluation because it is Pinocchio’s subjective point of view. The verbs “glow” and “burn” are examples of APPRECIATION as reaction, since the Serpent’s aesthetic features have the power to trigger such feelings.
«the flash of his red eyes» This aesthetic evaluation has a strong “impact” on Pinocchio, who is terrified. « Pinocchio said in a sweet, soothing voice... » APPRECIATION as “valuation”: Pinocchio’s voice is an instrument to instil a sense of kindness in the serpent. Here we can see it: «Would you be so kind to step aside…?»
«...he jumped into a field to pick a few grapes that tempted him.» Probably it can’t be considered as appreciation. There is still uncertainties in the academic studies about collocating entities in the appraisal system.
Bibliography J.R. Martin and P.R.R. White. (2005). The Language Of Evaluation. Great Britain: Palgrave Macmillan. English Language and Literature Studies; Vol. 3, No. 1; (2013). Appraisal Perspective on Attitudinal Analysis of Public Service. Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education. Mick O’Donnell. (2011). Language, Function, Cognition. Week 6: Appraisal: The Speaker’s evaluation of things in the text. Retrieved from: http://web.uam.es/departamentos/filoyletras/filoinglesa/Course s/LFC11/LFC-2011-APPRAISAL.pdf