A Model of Language http://video.search.yahoo.com/video/play?vid=1289153507&vw=g&b=0 &pos=15&p=slim+shady&fr=yfp-t-501 Y'all act like you never seen a white person before Jaws all on the floor like Pam, like Tommy just burst in the door … I'm like a head trip to listen to, cause I'm only givin you things you joke about with your friends inside your living room The only difference is I got the balls to say it in front of y'all and I don't gotta be false or sugarcoated at all I just get on the mic and spit it…
Applying the model ► Syntax: Sentence structure Parts of speech ► Morphemes Locate different types of morphemes: ► Bound, unbound ► Derivational, inflectional ► Phonemes ► Semantics ► Context
Language Systems Elements of Language: Once over Lightly… ► Phonetics: the sounds of a language ► Phonology: how sounds are put together ► Morphology: the breaking up of sounds into words: ► Ihavetogohomeearlytoday. ► I have to go home early today ► Rhaidimifyndadre’ngynnarheddiw ► Rhaid I mi fynd adre’n gynnar heddiw the parts of sounds that have meaning, can work together: “coffeelike”; “bookly” “incentivate”
Language Systems (continued) ► Syntax: the arrangement of sounds into grammatical sentences You up pick at o’clock will eight I will picks you up at eight o’clock I will pick you up at eight o’clock At eight o’clock, I will pick you up ► Grammaticality (is it correct?) versus semantic acceptability (does it make sense?)
Language Systems (continued) Semantics: the meaning of utterances ► Ambiguity (more than one possible meaning) I like chocolate cakes and pies. I’ll meet you at the bank. Visiting relatives can be dreadful I saw her duck ► Semantic “equivalence”? John is an unmarried male = John is a bachelor? The car bumped the truck = The truck was bumped by the car? Spanish: “Las llaves se me perdieron.”
Language Systems (continued) ► Pragmatics: the relation of language to context; social conventions, etc. ► How (when, to whom) would you… ask a favor? point out something potentially embarrassing? Tell a joke ► Styles of Speech: Registers, dialects ► Discourse? Social ideas (ideologies) embedded within the other elements of speech
Language Elements 2 ► Phonemic: the sounds ► Phonology: the relation of sounds to sounds ► Morphemic: the relation of sounds to meaning ► Syntax: the relation of words to each other ► Semantics: the relation of words to what they represent ► Pragmatics: the relation of utterances to social settings ► Discourse: the relation of utterances to ideas
► An exercise… www.engrish.com www.engrish.com Thought questions ► What does/can language do? ► How is human language different from what other animals do?
Language in a System: Communication Sending Receiving Interpreting All of These Meaning Pragmatic Conceptual
ALL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS HAVE ► A MODE OF TRANSMISSION SIGNS SIGNALS
ALL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS HAVE ► PRAGMATIC FUNCTION
TRUE LANGUAGE-BASED COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS HAVE ► CONCEPTUAL FUNCTION ► INTERCHANGEABILITY ► CULTURAL TRANSMISSION ► ARBITRARINESS ► DISCRETENESS ► DISPLACEMENT ► PRODUCTIVITY
Language productivity (continued) ► EMERGENT ► EVOLVES ► BUT ALWAYS RULE GUIDED (set by language and culture) Phonetic Semantic Syntactic Pragmatic
Now…in more detail: Phonetics ► What are the phonemes in the following words? “wash” “strength” “milieu” “foyer” “limber” ► Explain how you produce these sounds? ► What are some phoneme types in other languages that English does not have? What are some phonetic confusions with other languages?
Phonemes and the mouth… http://www.ich.ucl.ac.uk/factsheets/families/F000368/images/diagram.gif
(phonetics) ► http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/ http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/ ► What are some types of phonemes? (how would you label them)? Useful terms in describing them? Consonants / vowels / semi-vowels The Phonetic Alphabet ► What are some phonemes that do not go together in English? ► Why is this information useful?
Morphology ► Morphemes in word structure Conjugation Declension Prefixes and suffixes ► Rules on prefixes and suffixes Stems with a given affix usually combine to form the same part of speech: -able, -un, -dis Words joined with an affix usually result in the same part of speech: -usable, disuse, abuse
Conjugation English ► I know ► He/she/it knows ► You know ► We know ► Y’all know ► They know ► [yo] conosco ► [tu] conoces ► [él/ella/Ud.] conoce ► [nosotros] conocemos ► [vosotros] conocéis ► [ellos/ellas/Uds] conocen English Greek ► ginosko ► ginoskeis ► ginoskei ► ginoskomen ► ginoskete ► ginoskousin
Declension The boy ► Subj: The boy(s) ► Poss: Of the boy(s)/the boy’s(s’) ► IO: (to) the boy(s) ► DO: the boy(s) ► (Vocative): Oh boy! ► Subj:Der Junge/ die jungen ► Gen: Des Jungen/der jungen ► Dat: Dem Jungen/den Jungen ► Acc: Den Jungen/Die Jungen German Greek ► Nom: logos ► Gen: logou ► Abl: logou ► Loc: logo ► Inst: logo ► Dat: logo ► Acc: logon ► Voc: loge
Morphology Categorizing Morphemes ► Bound: Needs to be attached to a word Affixes ► Prefix ► Suffix Inflectional ► Conjugation : verbs ► Declension: nouns ► Free: Can exist by itself
Morphology ► Categorizing Morphemes Derivational: Change the meaning of the word or the part of speech ► Ex: happy (ADJ) + un = unhappy (ADJ) ► Ex: happy (ADJ) + ness =happiness (N) Inflectional: Root meaning of word stays the same, as does part of speech ► Conjugation: Ex: She runs; he walked ► Declension: Megan’s; Megans ► [A bad joke]
Syntax Lexical Categories: clusters or groups of words according to function ► Nouns (N) ► Verbs (V) ► Adjectives (ADJ) ► Adverbs (ADV) ► Determiners (DET) ► Auxiliary Verbs (AV) ► Prepositions (P): (P + NP = PP!) ► Pronouns (PRO)
Content and Function Words ► Content words (contentives): “Carry the principal meaning of the sentence” —”name the objects, events, and characteristics that lie at the heart of the message the sentence is meant to convey” (Clark & Clark, 1977, p. 21) ► Function words: The “glue” that holds the content words together, “to indicate what goes with what and how.”
Syntax Ways to Organize Sentences ► Linear Order ► Hierarchical Structure: Propositions and Constituents: “Semantically coherent groups” Ex: Most executives eat at really fancy restaurants Ex: Enraged Cow Injures Farmer with Ax
Clark & Clark Ch. 1 exercises ► Sentence: Wellington’s fresh, young troops defeated Napoleon’s well-trained army.” Find the “propositions” (p. 10-11) Diagram the sentence (p. 12) ► Main phrases (NP & VP, or “subject” and “predicate” ► Adjectives, articles, and so on ► Adjective and Adverb clauses Different ways to say the same thing? Why is this useful!?
Give me Ambiguity, or… ► Defining Ambiguity: ► Types of Ambiguity: Structural: when constituents can be grouped in more than one way Lexical: when a word can be a member of more than one lexical category Semantic: when a word or phrase (or gesture) can mean more than one thing. [Also frequently called lexical!] http://www.gally.net/leavings/01/0137.html
Examples: Ambiguity ► Larry raises miniature badgers and racoons. ► We need more intelligent leaders. ► Iraq Bombs Gut Factory (headline) ► Free Wales ► Wet Paint ► The little girl hit the child with the toy ► Squad Helps Dog Bite Victim (headline) ► Teacher Strikes Idle Kids (headline)
Student Quotes ► “She said she was having problems with her job [at a school]. She said it was because of a bad principle.” ► There was a high degree of gender differentiation within her family, with her father resting on the top. ► Where I work if a person comes in by them self to eat the customers sometimes expect me to sit down and converse with them.
► The only information given about the college was that it was a liberal arts college off the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. ► “Stella was flapping and fighting the currants in the river…” ► “In our findings, a variety of beauty definitions arouse.” ► Barthes felt this was the problem with mythic shits. ► The sample could have screwed our data.
Applications ► Learning structure and clearer speaking: PP = preposition + object of preposition ► “This is important for both Susan or myself” ► “This is important for both Susan and I” ► “This is important for both Susan and me” VT versus VI: “It’s good to be able to critique” Adjective or Noun?: “lots of positives,” “prejudice,” “the dominate characteristic” Help! I need an AV: “I would of been there…” http://www.englishforums.com/English/FunnyS entences/vqlc/post.htm http://www.englishforums.com/English/FunnyS entences/vqlc/post.htm http://www.englishforums.com/English/FunnyS entences/vqlc/post.htm