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Kevin Eagan, Tanya Figueroa, Sylvia Hurtado, Josephine Gasiewski AIR Annual Forum, New Orleans, LA June 6, 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Kevin Eagan, Tanya Figueroa, Sylvia Hurtado, Josephine Gasiewski AIR Annual Forum, New Orleans, LA June 6, 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kevin Eagan, Tanya Figueroa, Sylvia Hurtado, Josephine Gasiewski AIR Annual Forum, New Orleans, LA June 6, 2012

2 Background Importance of student-faculty interaction in STEM Academic performance Motivation Persistence Critique of introductory STEM courses as cold and intimidating classes that encourage passive learning Accessibility cues and an ethic of care as antecedents to interaction Signal faculty’s interest in undergraduates Students use these cues in deciding whether, when, and how to interaction with faculty

3 Purpose To examine the individual- and classroom-level factors that predict the extent to which students perceive their professors as demonstrating an ethic of care in introductory STEM courses.

4 Theoretical Frameworks Development of rapport Mutual attentiveness Positivity (e.g., mutual liking, friendliness) Coordination (e.g., balance and harmony in interaction) Importance of nonverbal cues Interactional justice Quality of interpersonal relationships Emphasis on individual dignity and respect

5 Accessibility Cues and Ethic of Care Accessibility: physical and psychological Attitudes, beliefs, and values of faculty regarding interaction with students Actual presence and availability of faculty Accessibility (Positive Behaviors) Demonstrate interest Reassure students by welcoming their inquiries Treat students as individuals

6 Faculty Behaviors and Characteristics Signaling an Ethic of Care Empathy Sense of humor Belief that professors play an important role in students’ lives Valuing teaching and investing time in instructional improvement Avoid intimidation or embarrassment of students

7 Sequential, Explanatory Mixed Methods Design Collected, analyzed, and integrated both quantitative and qualitative data during the research process Quantitative data collected first; informed selection of institutional sites for qualitative data collection Data fully integrated during the analysis Quantitative data provided a broad picture of students’ engagement Qualitative data more deeply explored student views regarding their introductory classroom experience

8 QUANTITATIVE Data Collection Integrating Quantitative & Qualitative Results Connecting Quantitative & Qualitative Phases Qualitative Data Collection Qualitative Data Analysis QUANTITATIVE Data Analysis

9 Quantitative Methodology Four data sources Pre- and post-survey for students in introductory course One-time survey for faculty teaching introductory course Sample 15 colleges and universities 76 introductory STEM courses 3,205 students 52% White 61% Women 42% aspired to earn a medical degree 21% aspired to earn a Ph.D. or an Ed.D. 75% reported majoring in a STEM discipline.

10 Quantitative Methodology Outcome variable – Student Perception of Faculty Ethic of Care Alpha = 0.88 Items: faculty provided feedback, cared about students’ well-being, encouraged questions, valued diverse life experiences, was open to alternative viewpoints, effectively handled classroom controversy, was sensitive to multicultural issues

11 Quantitative Methodology Independent variables Background characteristics High school preparation Introductory STEM course experiences Faculty behaviors and attitudes

12 Quantitative Methodology Weighted data to adjust for non-response bias Missing values analysis Hierarchical linear model

13 Qualitative Methodology Eight sites 1 HBCU, 1HSI, 6 PWIs Two data sources Students: 41 focus groups (n = 241 students) 54% White 21% Asian/Asian America 14% African American 8% Latino 3% Native American 62% Women Faculty: 25 in-depth interviews with faculty Chemistry, biology, mathematics, & engineering

14 Qualitative Methodology Semi-structured interview protocol Experiences in introductory STEM courses, motivation, course structure, learning, instruction, & assessment Goals and objectives for introductory STEM courses, pedagogical approaches, structure, forms of assessment, & institutional support for teaching Emergent code development Open coded in NVivo8 Inter-rater reliability: 80-85% Re-validated coding architecture Linked codes to participant attributes

15 Background and Pre-College Predictors Women (+) URM (-) Higher HS biology grades (+) Honors/AP chemistry courses in HS (-)

16 Caring about Students’ Well-Being I have to feel like I’m cared for, not necessarily that I need to learn. If the professor shows that, oh, you were sick one day. “Oh, well, how are you?” or “You seem like you didn’t do too well on the last test or something. Did something go wrong with you?” or kind of stuff like that…More about caring about me as a person more than a student. (Western Private Masters University)

17 Learning Students’ Names and Their Stories On our first recitation [the professor] called each one of us up and was like, “I connect names with stories so tell me your name and tell me something about you,” and then by the second recitation class he knew everyone’s name. He actually took the time out of his daily schedule and he went home to really, really understand who each of us were, first name, last name out of his over 150 students... it was amazing that he actually cared to do that while it was such a big lecture, and I wouldn’t have expected that. (Scott, Northeastern Private Master’s College

18 Caring about Student Learning He really cares that you learn the material, and he will do almost anything to help you learn it like time-wise. He’ll spend enough time, which is really rare. I had a really good Chem II teacher who would take evenings out and have his students – this was over the summer even, and the students would come in the evenings and he would just work through problem after problem. So it just, it really showed that he cared. (Kate, Southwestern Private Research University)

19 Class Discussion Predicts a Stronger Sense of Care Most of my, my professors, they’re pretty much approachable like, you know, they always ask us do you have any questions or not, like am I going too fast, do you understand, and we’re allowed to like raise your, we’re allowed to like interact with him, you know, to show that we understand. (Marc, Southeastern Public Research University) Getting the students to talk to you in class … and having the other students see your interaction is huge, yeah, and it really helps, rather than just standing up and saying stuff, but stopping and getting that interaction. It’s hard to do. It’s hard to get them—it’s hard to get them to talk, … It’s always a challenge. (Professor Reyes, Western Public Research University)

20 Affirming Students’ Participation I try to make whatever answer they say to be the right answer to some question…I’ll say, “That would be true if we were doing this, but now we’re doing this, so why is this not true?” I think you can ask without making a student feel—I think they know I care about them. I think they know that I want them to learn....I think they know when I don’t let them off the hook it’s because I care about them. I’ll kinda joke, “This is that tough love stuff. Come on, you can do it.” (Professor Alpert, Southwestern Private Research University)

21 Embarrassing Students If you ask a question he’ll like make you stand up, and explain it to the class. You’re like, “Okay clearly if I’m asking a question I don’t know what’s going on. So why should I explain it to the class?” And so you’re just kinda standing up there like really awkwardly, and you like point at something. And obviously you’re saying something’s wrong. And he’s like, “Does anybody have any comments?” And so people would be like, “Yeah that’s wrong.” And you’re like, “Okay let me sit down then. Someone else explain it.” Or I don’t know maybe you could teach. So it’s like really frustrating. (Jasmine, Midwestern Public Research University)

22 Boredom vs. Excitement in the Classroom The secret to teaching is to make it not boring. Math classes inherently are sort of boring, so you have to make jokes and things like that. (Professor Pace, Western Research University) My Stats teacher [is] just not normal. I don't know how to explain him. But the class is fun, I enjoy it, I hardly ever yawn or anything in there, even when I'm just really tired. But it makes me engaged, and it makes me wanna learn, because you know, he's always yelling or -- not yelling at us, but you know, yelling. Just to be weird. But. I mean, it makes it exciting and it makes me say, "Okay," and it actually helps when it comes time for asking questions. I ask a million and one questions in that class…I still really enjoy the class because of my teacher. (Southwestern Private Research University)

23 Office Hours and Co-Curricular Experiences She will sit down with you one-on-one. If you just, all you have to do is just ask her. She’ll sit down with you one on one. She’ll work through the problem step by step by step until you get it, and if you exhaust – for some reason if you exhaust all the problems inside of our textbook, she’ll make up other ones right on the spot and work with you step by step by step until you actually get it. (Madison, Northeastern Private Masters College) I’d rather go to my TA. Less intimidating. (Karly, Western Public Research University)

24 Faculty Awareness of Classroom Dynamics There is a huge gap between the atmosphere that you think you are creating in your course and the atmosphere that you are. I am constantly trying to remember that. I want to have a classroom where my students never feel inhibited about telling me I have just done something wrong or saying, ‘[Professor Hume], I don’t understand you.’ I am constantly getting the feedback to my students from my students so I think I am the nicest guy in the world but then I get feedback from my students that I intimidate them in class and they are afraid to point out things and so then I have to back up and apologize, and reiterate that that is not the kind of classroom atmosphere I am trying to build. (Professor Hume, Southeastern Public Research University)

25 Discussion Students seek minimal level of care Recognize students and learn something about them Large classes are no impediment Mutual responsibility of students Take advantage of office hours, other opportunities to connect with faculty Faculty signal care and attentiveness through verbal and nonverbal cues Encouraging questions and affirming participation Embarrassing students or dismissing questions

26 Conclusion Demonstrate care through enthusiasm in the classroom and dynamic instructional strategies Develop an awareness of classroom dynamics

27 Contact Info This study was made possible by the support of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, NIH Grant Numbers 1 R01 GMO71968-01 and R01 GMO71968-05, the National Science Foundation, NSF Grant Number 0757076, and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 through the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, NIH Grant 1RC1GM090776-01. This independent research and the views expressed here do not indicate endorsement by the sponsors. Papers and reports are available for download from project website: Project e-mail: Faculty/Co-PIs: Sylvia Hurtado Mitchell Chang Tanya Figueroa Gina Garcia Juan Garibay Postdoctoral Scholars: Kevin Eagan Josephine Gasiewski Administrative Staff: Dominique Harrison Graduate Research Assistants: Felisha Herrera Bryce Hughes Cindy Mosqueda

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