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Conflict in Lebanon Historical roots David D. Peck, Ph.D. BYU-Idaho Academic Society September 7, 2006 Historical roots David D. Peck, Ph.D. BYU-Idaho.

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Presentation on theme: "Conflict in Lebanon Historical roots David D. Peck, Ph.D. BYU-Idaho Academic Society September 7, 2006 Historical roots David D. Peck, Ph.D. BYU-Idaho."— Presentation transcript:

1 Conflict in Lebanon Historical roots David D. Peck, Ph.D. BYU-Idaho Academic Society September 7, 2006 Historical roots David D. Peck, Ph.D. BYU-Idaho Academic Society September 7, 2006

2 Colonial Legacy  Modern Middle East  Nation-building  Colonial Powers shaped region to own interests  Indigent responses  Often patterned on Western political concepts  Nationalism  Alternatives: cultural and religious patterns  Modern Middle East  Nation-building  Colonial Powers shaped region to own interests  Indigent responses  Often patterned on Western political concepts  Nationalism  Alternatives: cultural and religious patterns

3 Nationalism  Two elements  A “people”  A “place”  Defining the legitimate “people”  Race/ethnicity, language, religion, culture  Defining the legitimate “place”  Historical location: Home, father/mother, or holy land  Exclusivist, confrontational, “Us” versus “them”  “This land is mine, God gave this land to me.”  Ethnic cleansings and genocides are extremes  Two elements  A “people”  A “place”  Defining the legitimate “people”  Race/ethnicity, language, religion, culture  Defining the legitimate “place”  Historical location: Home, father/mother, or holy land  Exclusivist, confrontational, “Us” versus “them”  “This land is mine, God gave this land to me.”  Ethnic cleansings and genocides are extremes

4 Theme from “Exodus” This land is mine, God gave this land to me This brave and ancient land to me And when the morning sun reveals her hills and plains Then I see a land where children can be free. So take my hand and walk this land with me And walk this golden land with me Though I am just a man, when you are by my side With the help of God, I know I can be strong. This land is mine, God gave this land to me This brave and ancient land to me And when the morning sun reveals her hills and plains Then I see a land where children can be free. So take my hand and walk this land with me And walk this golden land with me Though I am just a man, when you are by my side With the help of God, I know I can be strong. To make this land our home If I must fight, I'll fight to make this land our own Until I die, this land is mine.

5 What “they” hear… This land ’ s not yours, God gave this land to me I ’ ll take this ancient land from you. And when the morning sun reveals her hills and plains Then I see a land where my children can run free. With the help of God, I know I can be stronger than you. To make this land our home If I must fight, I'll fight to make this land our own Until you die, this land is mine. This land ’ s not yours, God gave this land to me I ’ ll take this ancient land from you. And when the morning sun reveals her hills and plains Then I see a land where my children can run free. With the help of God, I know I can be stronger than you. To make this land our home If I must fight, I'll fight to make this land our own Until you die, this land is mine.

6 Theme of Hezbollah? This land ’ s not yours, God gave this land to me I ’ ll take this ancient land from you. And when the morning sun reveals her hills and plains Then I see a land where my children can run free. With the help of God, I know I can be stronger than you. To make this land our home If I must fight, I'll fight to make this land our own Until you die, this land is mine. This land ’ s not yours, God gave this land to me I ’ ll take this ancient land from you. And when the morning sun reveals her hills and plains Then I see a land where my children can run free. With the help of God, I know I can be stronger than you. To make this land our home If I must fight, I'll fight to make this land our own Until you die, this land is mine.

7 Where Children Can Run Free?

8 Mid-East Borders (post WWI)

9 The “Mandate System”  League of Nations  “Big Brother” program on national level  Guide nations to full sovereignty on day  Thin guise for outright colonialism  Britain granted mandate for Palestine  France granted mandate for Syria  Implementation of Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916  League of Nations  “Big Brother” program on national level  Guide nations to full sovereignty on day  Thin guise for outright colonialism  Britain granted mandate for Palestine  France granted mandate for Syria  Implementation of Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916

10 British Mandate of Palestine  June,  1917, Balfour Declaration: “ establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people … it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice existing non- Jewish communities in Palestine ”  September, 1922: “Transjordan” split off  June,  1917, Balfour Declaration: “ establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people … it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice existing non- Jewish communities in Palestine ”  September, 1922: “Transjordan” split off

11 French Mandate of Syria  official  1920, France separates “Lebanon”  Republic of Mt. Lebanon formed.  Allowed greater French control  official  1920, France separates “Lebanon”  Republic of Mt. Lebanon formed.  Allowed greater French control

12 Lebanon: Milestones  1926: France “gives” Lebanon constitution  mithaq system, 6:5 Christian/Muslim ratio  1932 last census taken; representation fixed  1958: First Civil War  U.S. military intervention (Eisenhower)  : Lebanese Civil War (9 phases)  Dead: 150,000; Cost: $14 billion  1982: Israeli invasion/Syrian occupation  2000: Israeli withdrawal  1926: France “gives” Lebanon constitution  mithaq system, 6:5 Christian/Muslim ratio  1932 last census taken; representation fixed  1958: First Civil War  U.S. military intervention (Eisenhower)  : Lebanese Civil War (9 phases)  Dead: 150,000; Cost: $14 billion  1982: Israeli invasion/Syrian occupation  2000: Israeli withdrawal

13 1970: Black September  Palestinian Refugees  Southern Lebanon: 250,000  Jordan: 600,000  Jordan used as PLO base  Israel and Jordan force PLO out of Jordan  PLO in Lebanon  Palestinian Refugees  Southern Lebanon: 250,000  Jordan: 600,000  Jordan used as PLO base  Israel and Jordan force PLO out of Jordan  PLO in Lebanon

14  Second Israeli invasion, Sharon Min. Def.  Operation Litani  13 September, PM Gemayel assassinated  Israel occupies Beirut (13th-29th), Christian allies  Phlangists allowed to massacre  Sept., 2,000+ unarmed Palestinians raped/killed  Sharon resigns  PLO HQ moved to N. Africa, but survives  Second Israeli invasion, Sharon Min. Def.  Operation Litani  13 September, PM Gemayel assassinated  Israel occupies Beirut (13th-29th), Christian allies  Phlangists allowed to massacre  Sept., 2,000+ unarmed Palestinians raped/killed  Sharon resigns  PLO HQ moved to N. Africa, but survives

15 (cont.)  Iranian involvement  1953 US-Backed coup, undoes democracy  Installs unpopular Shah  1979, Khomeini returns from Exile, Hostage crisis  1980, Islamic Republic of Iran created  1982, Hezbollah created (Iran funds/arms, Syrian OK)  1983, Marine Barracks in Beirut bombed  Truck with 12K pounds of TNT  242 killed  Iranian involvement  1953 US-Backed coup, undoes democracy  Installs unpopular Shah  1979, Khomeini returns from Exile, Hostage crisis  1980, Islamic Republic of Iran created  1982, Hezbollah created (Iran funds/arms, Syrian OK)  1983, Marine Barracks in Beirut bombed  Truck with 12K pounds of TNT  242 killed

16 Hezbollah  1982: formed  1985: “Manifesto” announced  Three planks:  Eradicate Western imperialism in Lebanon  Transform Lebanon into an Islamic State  Total destruction of the “Zionist Entity”  2000: Claims victory Israeli withdrawal  Some regard as legitimate resistance movement  “Civilian” authority improves life for Arabs  Clinics/hospitals, food banks, day care  1982: formed  1985: “Manifesto” announced  Three planks:  Eradicate Western imperialism in Lebanon  Transform Lebanon into an Islamic State  Total destruction of the “Zionist Entity”  2000: Claims victory Israeli withdrawal  Some regard as legitimate resistance movement  “Civilian” authority improves life for Arabs  Clinics/hospitals, food banks, day care

17 Conclusions  Lebanon: example of failed nation-building  “Confessional System” (mithaq) a failure  Foreign interventions, domestic disunity  Nationalism becomes factionalism  Fundamentalism combines with nationalism  Is there a “Lebanon”?  No unified institutions  No unified army; private militias  Economic ruin  Current war makes it worse  Hezbollah the victor?  Lebanon: example of failed nation-building  “Confessional System” (mithaq) a failure  Foreign interventions, domestic disunity  Nationalism becomes factionalism  Fundamentalism combines with nationalism  Is there a “Lebanon”?  No unified institutions  No unified army; private militias  Economic ruin  Current war makes it worse  Hezbollah the victor?


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