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IOT AND FOURTH ORDER CYBERNETICS GISFI - 5G “NETWORKED SOCIETY” SEPTEMBER 01, 2014 Bipin Pradeep Kumar 1.

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Presentation on theme: "IOT AND FOURTH ORDER CYBERNETICS GISFI - 5G “NETWORKED SOCIETY” SEPTEMBER 01, 2014 Bipin Pradeep Kumar 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 IOT AND FOURTH ORDER CYBERNETICS GISFI - 5G “NETWORKED SOCIETY” SEPTEMBER 01, 2014 Bipin Pradeep Kumar 1

2 Cybernetics "the scientific study of control and communication in the animal and the machine.” John: “You're like a machine underneath, right? But sort of alive outside?” Terminator: “I'm a cybernetic organism. Living tissue over a metal endoskeleton” John: “You're like a machine underneath, right? But sort of alive outside?” Terminator: “I'm a cybernetic organism. Living tissue over a metal endoskeleton” Norbert Wiener (Cybernetics: Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, 1948) Κυβερνητική: kyverni ̱ tikí ̱ - steer, navigate, govern “the study of self-governance” Plato (Alcibiades, 350 BC) John and the Terminator (Terminator II, 1991) 2

3 Automatic Regulatory System (Self Regulatory Mechanisms) Water Clock (Ktesibios) 250 BC Steam Engine (James Watt) 1781 Negative Feedback Amplifier (Harold Stephen) 1927 Meta-materials Emergence Medical Cybernetics Autopoiesis 20XX Learning Thermostat (Nest Labs) 2011 Feedback loop 3

4 Types of Cybernetics “Principles of Systems and Cybernetics: an evolutionary perspective”, Heylighen 6 principles and 2 Laws ( subsumed from Laws of Control Systems) Two major types of Cybernetic systems Syste m New System State System internally dynamic Structurally Stable Governed by negative feedback loops Feedback loops contained within system Ex: Thermostat System internally dynamic Dynamic structure Governed by negative & positive feedback loops Feedback loops to external systems Ex: Living organisms, human society MorphogeneticMorphostatic Evolving new structure 4 Orders of Cybernetics 4

5 Holons and Holarchies Holon - Is something that is simultaneously a part of a whole and a whole itself “Ghost in the machine”, Arthur Koestler, 1967 Holons are autonomous, self-reliant units that possess a degree of independence and handle contingencies without asking higher authorities for instructions. Holarchy – A form of hierarchy. Is a whole that is also a structure of parts that are in themselves wholes. Molecules Cells Tissues Organs Me 5

6 Holons and IoT A Holon will look as a whole to those parts beneath it in the hierarchy, but it will look as a part to the wholes above it. Individual/ Wearables Smart Homes/ offices Smart Infrastructure Smart Cities Smart Nation (Digital India) Part vs. Whole creates dichotomies of: Independence versus integration, Individuality versus unity, Competition versus cooperation, Cause versus effect, To an individual, s/he is a whole. A home/office/industry is a whole Civic infrastructure is a whole A City is a whole A Nation is a whole To an individual, s/he is a whole. A home/office/industry is a whole Civic infrastructure is a whole A City is a whole A Nation is a whole 6

7 Orders of Cybernetics LevelThe kind of systems that are applicable at this level Defining characteristics First Order Cybernetics Self regulated mechanisms. No act of observation Negative feedback; homeostasis; isolated/closed process Second Order Cybernetics The process of self regulation is affected by observer/s, but this is insufficiently complex to encourage new values to emerge Positive and negative feedback can lead to morphogenesis Third Order Cybernetics The process is understood as an interaction that affects or is affected by the observer, but does not address what this means for the response-ability or responsibility of the participant observer The system acknowledges its surroundings Fourth Order Cybernetics Multiple realities emerge by the freedom of choice of the creative observer, that determine the outcome for both the system and the observer. 4 th order systems are Holarchic. The system is contextualised, embedded and integrated into the context 7

8 Complex Interacting Systems; Adaptive Systems Individual/ Personal Wearables Smart Homes/Industries /Malls Smart Infrastructure/ Utilities Smart Cities/ Villages (Digital India) Smart Water Mngmt Perenni al water Smart Grid Sufficient Energy for all Evolving new structure Integrate d City Ops Trans- disciplinary; Collaborative Other civic/ environmental/ social/ cultural systems 8

9 Concluding: Bringing it all together 5G: ??? For 5G to succeed: Not enough to just build high speed networks, Not enough to create fixed- mobile convergence, Not enough to think about small cells Not enough to say ‘I will give you 4K quality video communication’ Not enough to just build high speed networks, Not enough to create fixed- mobile convergence, Not enough to think about small cells Not enough to say ‘I will give you 4K quality video communication’ 1.We need software, applications, ecosystems that will leverage these 2.We need I.Complex Interacting Systems, II.Large Adaptive Systems III.Creation of Massive Multi-Agent Ecosystems IV.Terra’mous’ Transdisciplinary Systems 3.We need Interconnected Ambient Intelligence- Intelligence at the periphery as much as at the core 4.There is more value in Interconnected Ambient Intelligence than individual intelligent systems 5.We need more Holons; more socially beneficial Emergence 6.We need large systems that interact with themselves and with each other and even produce for themselves 9

10 THANK YOU 10

11 DATA AND BACK UP SLIDES 11

12 6 principles of Cybernetics 1. The Principle of Selective Retention Stable configurations are retained, unstable ones are eliminated. 2. The Principle of Autocatalytic Growth Stable configurations that facilitate the appearance of configurations similar to themselves will become more numerous 3. The Principle of Asymmetric Transitions: entropy and energy A transition from an unstable configuration to a stable one is possible, but the converse is not. 4. The Principle of Blind Variation At the most fundamental level variation processes “do not know” which of the variants they produce will turn out be be selected 5. The Principle of Selective Variety The larger the variety of configurations a system undergoes, the larger the probability that at least one of these configurations will be selectively retained. 6. The Principle of Recursive Systems Construction BVSR processes recursively construct stable systems by the recombination of stable building blocks 12

13 2 Laws of Control Systems The Law of Requisite Variety The larger the variety of actions available to a control system, the larger the variety of perturbations it is able to compensate. The Law of Requisite Knowledge In order to adequately compensate perturbations, a control system must “know” which action to select from the variety of available actions. 13


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