Presentation on theme: "Bipin Pradeep Kumar [firstname.lastname@example.org] IoT and Fourth Order Cybernetics GISFI - 5G “Networked Society” September 01, 2014 Bipin Pradeep Kumar [email@example.com]"— Presentation transcript:
1 Bipin Pradeep Kumar [firstname.lastname@example.org] IoT and Fourth Order Cybernetics GISFI - 5G “Networked Society” September 01, 2014Bipin Pradeep Kumar
2 Cybernetics Κυβερνητική: kyverni̱tikí̱ - steer, navigate, govern “the study of self-governance”Plato (Alcibiades, 350 BC)"the scientific study of control and communication in the animal and the machine.”Long ago when I was growing, I heard the term Cybernetics around It was in the cult movie Terminator 2 – Judgement Day, where after a bike ride where the Terminator rescues John Connor, the terminator says the line – “I’m a cybernetic organism”. Lots of cyber in that movie – The company was called Cyberdyne, they were cyborgs, etc. I was fascinated with it and it stayed sublimally. More low level, the term cybernetics – like the etymology of most words, is attributed to a Greek word - kyverni̱tikí̱ which means to steer, govern, navigate. And if it is an ancient Greek work, it is old.. And undoubtedly, yes, the earliest usage of the word is attributed to Plato in his dialogues ‘Alcibiades’ in 350 BC, in the context of ‘The study of self-governance’. There are other usages since then, but in a more recent context, Norbert Wiener defined cybernetics in 1948 as "the scientific study of control and communication in the animal and the machine.“ Norbert Wiener is a 20th century prodigy. He is considered the originator of cybernetics as a formalization of the notion of feedback, with implications for engineering, systems control, computer science, biology, philosophy, and the organization of society. For those interested in India trivia, Norbert advised the Indian government during the 1950s. And Amar Bose, the founder of BOSE is one of his doctoral students.Wiener helped develop the theories of cybernetics, robotics, computer control, and automation.John: “You're like a machine underneath, right? But sort of alive outside?”Terminator: “I'm a cybernetic organism. Living tissue over a metal endoskeleton”Norbert Wiener (Cybernetics: Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, 1948)John and the Terminator (Terminator II, 1991)
3 Automatic Regulatory System (Self Regulatory Mechanisms) Feedback loopa water clock, invented by the mechanician Ktesibios, is the first artificial truly automatic self-regulatory device that required no outside intervention between the feedback and the controls of the mechanism250 BC17811927201120XXWater Clock(Ktesibios)Steam Engine(James Watt)Negative FeedbackAmplifier(Harold Stephen)Learning Thermostat(Nest Labs)Meta-materialsEmergenceMedical CyberneticsAutopoiesis
4 Types of Cybernetics Two major types of Cybernetic systems Evolving newstructureNew System State6 principles and 2 Laws ( subsumed from Laws of Control Systems)SystemSystem“Principles of Systems and Cybernetics: an evolutionary perspective”, Heylighen4 Orders of CyberneticsMorphostaticMorphogeneticSystem internally dynamicStructurally StableGoverned by negative feedback loopsFeedback loops contained within systemEx: ThermostatSystem internally dynamicDynamic structureGoverned by negative & positive feedback loopsFeedback loops to external systemsEx: Living organisms, human society
5 Holons and Holarchies“Ghost in the machine”, Arthur Koestler, 1967Holon - Is something that is simultaneously a part of a whole and a whole itselfMeOrgansHolons are autonomous, self-reliant units that possess a degree of independence and handle contingencies without asking higher authorities for instructions.TissuesCellsThe Ghost in the Machine is a non-fiction work in philosophical psychology written by Arthur Koestler and published in Describes the dualist account of mind–body relationship. Being a whole and a part of a whole creates a dualism. Some philosophical systems regard an individual as a totally independent and self-determined unit that can and has to be fully in control of its own destiny. Other philosophical systems would regard an individual as totally a product of biological and environmental factors beyond its control.MoleculesHolarchy – A form of hierarchy. Is a whole that is also a structure of parts that are in themselves wholes.
6 Holons and IoTA Holon will look as a whole to those parts beneath it in the hierarchy, but it will look as a part to the wholes above it.Smart Nation(Digital India)To an individual, s/he is a whole.A home/office/industry is a wholeCivic infrastructure is a wholeA City is a wholeA Nation is a wholeSmart CitiesSmart InfrastructureSmart Homes/officesPart vs. Whole creates dichotomies of:Independence versus integration,Individuality versus unity,Competition versus cooperation,Cause versus effect,Individual/ Wearables
7 Orders of Cybernetics Level The kind of systems that are applicable at this levelDefining characteristicsFirst Order CyberneticsSelf regulated mechanisms. No act of observationNegative feedback; homeostasis; isolated/closed processSecond Order CyberneticsThe process of self regulation is affected by observer/s, but this is insufficiently complex to encourage new values to emergePositive and negative feedback can lead to morphogenesisThird Order CyberneticsThe process is understood as an interaction that affects or is affected by the observer, but does not address what this means for the response-ability or responsibility of the participant observerThe system acknowledges its surroundingsFourth Order CyberneticsMultiple realities emerge by the freedom of choice of the creative observer, that determine the outcome for both the system and the observer.4th order systems are Holarchic. The system is contextualised, embedded and integrated into the context
8 Complex Interacting Systems; Adaptive Systems Integrated City OpsTrans-disciplinary; CollaborativeSmart Cities/ Villages(Digital India)Perennial waterSufficient Energy for allEvolving new structureSmart Water MngmtSmart GridSmart Infrastructure/ UtilitiesOther civic/ environmental/ social/ cultural systemsSmart Homes/Industries/MallsIndividual/ Personal Wearables
9 Concluding: Bringing it all together We need software, applications, ecosystems that will leverage theseWe needComplex Interacting Systems,Large Adaptive SystemsCreation of Massive Multi-Agent EcosystemsTerra’mous’ Transdisciplinary SystemsWe need Interconnected Ambient Intelligence- Intelligence at the periphery as much as at the coreThere is more value in Interconnected Ambient Intelligence than individual intelligent systemsWe need more Holons; more socially beneficial EmergenceWe need large systems that interact with themselves and with each other and even produce for themselves5G: ???For 5G to succeed:Not enough to just build high speed networks,Not enough to create fixed-mobile convergence,Not enough to think about small cellsNot enough to say ‘I will give you 4K quality video communication’
11 Bipin.Kumar[email@example.com] Data and Back up slides
12 6 principles of Cybernetics The Principle of Selective RetentionStable configurations are retained, unstable ones are eliminated.The Principle of Autocatalytic GrowthStable configurations that facilitate the appearance of configurations similar to themselves will become more numerousThe Principle of Asymmetric Transitions: entropy and energyA transition from an unstable configuration to a stable one is possible, but the converse is not.The Principle of Blind VariationAt the most fundamental level variation processes “do not know” which of the variants they produce will turn out be be selectedThe Principle of Selective VarietyThe larger the variety of configurations a system undergoes, the larger the probability that at least one of these configurations will be selectively retained.The Principle of Recursive Systems ConstructionBVSR processes recursively construct stable systems by the recombination of stable building blocks
13 2 Laws of Control Systems The Law of Requisite VarietyThe larger the variety of actions available to a control system, the larger the variety of perturbations it is able to compensate.The Law of Requisite KnowledgeIn order to adequately compensate perturbations, a control system must “know” which action to select from the variety of available actions.