Presentation on theme: "Career and life planning Education – The Way forward 幫助青少年規劃生涯 - 新的路程"— Presentation transcript:
1Career and life planning Education – The Way forward 幫助青少年規劃生涯 - 新的路程 梁湘明中文大學教育學院Presented at the Hong Kong Subsidized Schools CouncilNovember
2What is Happening in Hong Kong? Education reform: New Secondary Curriculum and increasing need to guide students on DSE subject selection, choice of education pathways, and choice of careers (HK future manpower needs)The EDB Career and Life Planning Grant – Support for a paradigm shift from information dissemination to a more coordinated, comprehensive career guidance/education serviceThe increasing awareness that our younger generation needs to be empowered with a sense that there is a future, including a future career
3CLP Grant“The prime aim of providing the additional cash grant is to empower and enhance the capacity of the teaching team involved in providing support in career guidance service and life planning education for students. Specifically, the teaching team needs to be empowered to embrace a paradigm shift from career information dissemination to embodying the essence of life planning education in a more co-ordinated and systematic manner.”Education Bureau Circular on CLP Grant (6/2014)
4Themes Covered in This Talk Why do we need to help students plan their life/careerParadigm Shift – Elements of the “New” paradigmThe Way Forward …..
5Part I: A common Question: Why is there a need to help students plan their career/life? Can students do it on their own (生涯規劃會自然地發生)？
6The Contributions of Career Guidance to Educational Outcomes: Contributes to higher education access and completion ratesImprove the match between market supply of education and demand (from students)Help students to make choice in an increasingly complex worldHuman resource development – a good fit between person-career maximize human resource actualization and utilization of human capital
7Improve employability, prepare future workforce Develop talents and strengths, regardless of background, contribute to equity goals
8Indeed, Today’s Young People are Facing Many Complex Choices …..
9On the 2015 JUPAS programme list, there are 229 “Bachelor's Degree Programmes”
10A total of 26 institutions offering a large variety of associate degree courses (or high diploma programmes) [學友社 Hok Yau Club Website}
11Dictionary of Holland Occupational Codes The Dictionary lists Holland Codes for 12,860 Occupations.
12The O*NET occupational taxonomy system (USA Department of Labor) currently includes 974 occupations based on data collected from job incumbents or occupation experts. The taxonomy is periodically revised (last revision was in 2010).
13We do not know how many occupations there are in Hong Kong, but the Qualification Framework gives us a glimpse into the complexities
14Young People Need:Skills to make decisionsSelf-reflective skills to understand who they areSkills to assess knowledge and informationA set of positive attitudes, a persistent mindset to implement their actionsNot just for the immediate decision and transition, but for many future decisions required and transitions to come
15Career Guidance Was Found to be Effective: OECD “Career Guidance and Public Policy: Bridging the Gap” (2004):The findings were overwhelmingly positive: of the 40 studies …… positive results were reported for each main type of guidance intervention: classes and courses, workshops and groups, individual guidance, test interpretation and feedback, experience-based interventions, and multi-method interventions….. (p.34)
16…. In the United States, career education programmes have shown some modest but positive effects on various measures of academic attainment. (p.35)
17In Singapore:ECG plays a critical role in preparing students for the world of work by equipping them with the skills to remain relevant in the global economy and lead purposeful lives. Research has shown that ECG programmes can positively impact academic performance leading to optimal education and career decisions.From
18Paradigm Shift – Five Elements of the New Paradigm Part IIParadigm Shift – Five Elements of the New Paradigm
19Element #1 Overall Objective: Developing Career Planning and Career Management Competence Development/Cultivation of career planning skills and competence, not to just cope with immediate decision and transition
20OECD – Policy Challenge The policy challenges for career guidance set out above imply that, at the least, career guidance services need to broaden from largely providing assistance with at limited and selected points in people’s lives to an approach which also encompasses the development of career management. In addition, countries need to greatly expand access to career guidance so that it is available to people throughout their lives, and so that it can be available not just to selected groups such as school students or the unemployed, but to all.(OECD, CAREER GUIDANCE AND PUBLIC POLICY: BRIDGING THE GAP, 2004, p.25)
21From career transition to [another] career transition Skills to make decisionsSelf-reflective skills to understand who they areSkills to assess knowledge and informationA set of positive attitudes, a persistent mindset to implement their actionsCompetence and persistence to manage and advance their career (e.g., work habits, positive attitudes, life-long learning, adaptability)
22Element #2 Approaches and Strategies – Multiple interventions embedded in the curriculum and experiences of secondary education, including but not limited to:Infused into subject curriculum, whenever appropriateCareer and life planning classes/lessonsCareer assessmentLearning from experience (or experiential learning)Job/work experience (e.g., internship, short-term job taster)Individual and small group planning sessionsIndividual and group counsellingMentoring and peer advising.
23CLP components to be stepped up in HK (based on Survey results by HKACMGM) 1. Provide individual guidance on career decisions2. Conduct career interest assessments with follow-ups3. Initiate whole-school approach of career guidance4. Organize career-related experiences for career exploration5. Develop values, knowledge, skills and attitude about work6. Liaise with external support on workplace programs7. Provide support to students after leaving schools
24In Taiwan, career and life planning is a part of the senior high school curriculum
25In SingaporeECG lessons for the Primary 3 to 6 levels have been incorporated into the Form-Teacher Guidance Period (FTGP) package since 2012.For the secondary levels, ECG lessons are conducted as a module under the Character and Citizenship Education (CCE) curriculum. These lessons are developmental and progressive in nature.
26Element #3: Staff and school have to be involved: Requires a whole-of-school approach, different teaching staff would play a role (may not be the same)Teacher training and development (vital to success)School planning (strategic plan for 3-5 years)Evidence-based practice
27Element #4: Career guidance also has an important role in addressing the needs of students at risk and early school leaversThe importance of integrated service, integrating psychological, educational, and career interventionsCan benefit much from work-place experienceService from inter-disciplinary team and partners, working collaboratively
28Element #5 Productive Partnerships Community resource persons can add valuable resources to facilitate career and life planning education in schools:First hand knowledge on careersServe as mentors, advisorsProvide practice and career-related experience for students
31(Some) Observations on school-business and school-parent partnerships Observation #1 Working together in collaboration (not an out-sourced compartmentalized experience)
32Observation #2: Opportunities to participate in relevant, challenging tasks, under the “wings” of a caring community who work together in partnerships:who “believes” in students (their potentials, human worth, and their ability to change)who loves students and will not give upwho holds students with high expectations and insist on choosing to do things “right”who respects, listens to, and encourages students to pursue career and educational goals
33Obseration #3: An Experience that could transform the lives of all involved (in different degree, and in the course of time)
36以 _____ 蛻變人生 (a goal that could be achieved through partnership) School-Business, School-parents Partnerships – Already Taking Places in Many Schools《爭氣》： 用態度改變世界 以音樂蛻變人生以 _____ 蛻變人生 (a goal that could be achieved through partnership)
37Some Thoughts on Way Forward Part IIISome Thoughts on Way Forward
38Development of E-platforms A one-stop career exploration platform for young people and individuals in transitions with:Career informationSelf-assessment and exploration toolsAdvice on career and life planning, career managementOn-line help
39Career information Up-to-date, accurate, relevant Organized, easily understoodScientifically assembledLinked to relevant personal traits
45Self-exploration tools Multiple tools (e.g., interest, values, competence)Simple, easily understood itemsSelf-administered, machine-scored, immediate feedback and assisted self-interpretation of findingsLinked to occupational choices and alternativesLinked to educational choice and alternativesScientifically developed and user guide available for downloadingCan be used as counselor-free tools but can also be used with the help of a counselor
46Other e-resources and tools My-Career-Space – A personal space in the e-platform where students canaccumulate their career and life planning exercises and information, reflections, etcto construct and re-construct their career and learning plans over time (in written forms, or in musical, pictorial, or other creative forms of expression)to consult with peer advisors, peers, mentors, or even parents (they can serve to co-construct the career plans of the students)
48Other e-resources and tools A media website with short videos of talks on careers, current issues, and videos produced by students on career and life planningCareer exercises and games in e-interactive formatsReal-time career advising via e-career platform
49E-career guidance training platform Short videos or e-learning materials to be put on a training siteUse a blended and/or flipped teaching modeSequenced, tailor-made for different groups of trainees (e.g., career teachers, class teachers)Use a train-the-trainer model so that experienced teachers could serve as trainer to equip teachers with the necessary knowledge and competence
50E-platform is not meant to replace career guidance teachers Research has shown that counselor-free career intervention is least effective among different intervention strategiesComputer/e-intervention in conjunction with the help of teachers/counselors resulted in substantially higher effect than counselor free e-intervention