-Margaret Newman was born on October 10, 1933 in Memphis Tennessee. In 1954 She earned her first Bachelors degree in Home Economics and English from Baylor University in Waco, Texas -Margaret Newman felt a call to nursing for a number of years prior to her decision to enter the field. -During that time she became the primary caregiver for her mother, who became ill -Upon entering nursing at the University of Tennessee, Memphis, Dr. Newman knew almost immediately that nursing was right for her
In 1962 she received her Bachelors degree in Nursing from the University of Tennessee, Memphis. In 1964 she received her Masters Degree of Medical-Surgical Nursing and Teaching at the University of California in San Francisco. In 1971 she completed her Doctorate of Nursing Science and Rehabilitation at New York University
Ø 1971 to 1976- She completed her graduate studies at New York University. She also worked and taught alongside nursing theorist Martha Rogers. Ø Rehabilitation Nursing stemmed her interest in health, movement & time. Ø 1984- Nurse theorist at the University of Minnesota. Ø 1977- Professor in charge of graduate study in nursing at Pennsylvania State. 1996- Retired from teaching.
The theory of health as expanding consciousness stems from Rogers' theory of Unitary Human Beings. Rogers' assumptions regarding patterning of persons in interaction with the environement are basic to the view that consciousness is a manifestation of an evolving pattern of person-environment interaction
...Consciouness includes not only the cognitive and affective awareness normally associated with consciousness, but also the interconnectedness of the entire libing system,
the entire libing system, which includes physiochemical maintenance and growth processes as well as teh immune system. This pattern of information, which is the consciousness of the system, is part of a larger,undivided pattern of an expanding universe
Newman’s theory of pattern recognition provides the basis for the process of nurse- client interaction. Newman suggested that the task in intervention is a pattern recognition accomplished by the health professional becoming aware of the pattern of the other person by becoming in touch with their own pattern”.
Newman suggested that the professional should focus on the pattern of the other person, acting as the “reference beam in a hologram”.
to help clients get in touch with the meaning of their lives by the identification of their patterns of relating -Intervention is a form of non intervention whereby the nurse’s presence assists clients to recognize their own patterns of interacting with the environment..
facil-itates pattern recognition in clients by forming relationships with them at critical points n their lives and connecting with them in an authentic way. -The nurse-client relationship is characterized by “a rhythmic coming together and moving apart as clients encounter disruption of their organized predictable state.”
Nurses - are seen as partners in the process of expanding consciousness.
-A fusion of disease and non-disease creates a synthesis that is regarded as health. -Disease and non-disease are each reflections of the larger whole; therefore a new concept “pattern of the whole” is formed.
-Person as individuals are identified by their individual patterns of consciousness. -Persons are further defined as “centers of consciousness” within an overall pattern of expanding consciousness” -The definition of person has also been expanded to include family and community.
-Newman has stated that pattern recognition is the essence of the emerging health. Manifest health, encompassing disease and non-disease can be regarded as the explication of the underlying pattern of person-environment.
hopeless, is part of the universal process of expanding consciousness. The expanding consciousness is a process wherein an individual becomes more of his real self, as he finds greater meaning in his life and the lives of those people around him.
In his/her search for his/her real self, the individual's awareness expands to include the interests of those people around him and the rest of the world. Self-awareness may eventually lead to acceptance of one's self and one's circumstances and limitations. -
With self-awareness and self-acceptance, an in-depth understanding of one's condition may pave the way for a person to engage into activities leading to positive progression transcending
Health encompasses conditions heretofore described as illness, or, in medical terms, pathology 2. These pathological conditions can be considered a manifestation of the total pattern of the individual
.3 The pattern of the individual that eventually manifests itself as pathology is primary and exists prior to structural or functional changes 4. Removal of the pathology in itself will not change the pattern of the indivdual
5. If becoming ill is the only way an individual's pattern can manifest itself, then that is health for that person 6. Health is an expansion of consciousness.
Clarity Semantic clarity is evident in the definitions, descriptions, and dimensions of the concepts of the theory
Simplicity The deeper meaning of the theory of health as expending consciousness is complex. The theory as a whole must be understood, nut just the isolated concepts. If an individual wanted to use a positivist approach, Newman’s original propositions would serve as guides for hypothesis development
The concepts in Newman’s theory are broad in scope because they all relate to health. The theory has been applied in several different cultures and is applicable across the spectrum of nursing care situations. This renders her theory generalizable.
In the early stages of development, aspects of the theory were operationalized and tested within a traditional scientific method. However, quantitative methods are inadequate in capturing the dynamic, changing nature of this theory.
The focus of Newman’s theory of health as expanding consciousness provides an evolving guide for all health-related disciplines. In the quest for understanding the phenomenon of health, this unique view of health challenges nurses to make a difference in nursing practice by the application of this theory.