Presentation on theme: "Lab Biosafety INTRODUCED BY ENAS A. RAOUF MOHAMMED CECR RESEARCH ASSISTANT SUPERVISED BY PROF. MOHAMED L. SALEM CECR DIRECTOR."— Presentation transcript:
Lab Biosafety INTRODUCED BY ENAS A. RAOUF MOHAMMED CECR RESEARCH ASSISTANT SUPERVISED BY PROF. MOHAMED L. SALEM CECR DIRECTOR
Learning objectives At the end of the presentation, participants should understand: Principles of biosafety Biosafety levels in a laboratory General disinfection principles
Laboratory Biosafety WHO describes this is as: containment principles technologies Practices implemented to prevent unintentional exposure to pathogens and toxins, or their accidental release
Biosafety definition All measures that prevent accidentally exposure at biological agents (micro-organisms and toxins) and infections and their released in environment. Principles of biosafety To protect: the patient yourself the environment Organizations : 1- WHO : World Health Organization 2- NIH : National Institute of health 3- OSHA : Occupational Safety & Health Administration
How to select a laboratory Depends on specimen and analyses required: 1. assess lab’s capacity before sending 2. Some analyses (e.g. Ebola) performed in few places Depends on transportation options, timing Depends on what capacity available
Types of Biological infections in Lab Microbiology Biochemistry Hematology Pathology Virology
What is Biocontainment ? It’s the simple definition of the methodology used in laboratories of highly pathogenic organisms or agents (bacteria, viruses, and toxins) and it’s usually applied by isolation in environmentally and biologically secure cabinets or rooms, to prevent accidental infection of workers or release into the surrounding community during scientific research.
Biorisk assessment definition As defined by Kaplan and Garrick, risk analysis consists of answering three specific questions: what can happen? what is the chance that it will happen? if it happens, what are the consequences ?. Process of evaluating the biorisk(s) arising from a biohazard(s), taking into account the adequacy of any existing controls, and deciding whether or not the biorisk(s) is acceptable
Classification of risk assessment Risk Group 1 (no or very low individual and community risk) A microorganism that is unlikely to cause human or animal disease (moderate individual risk, low community risk) Risk Group 2 (moderate individual risk, low community risk) A pathogen that can cause human or animal disease but is unlikely to be a serious hazard to laboratory workers, the community, livestock or the environment. Laboratory exposures may cause serious infection. Effective treatment and preventive measures are available and the risk of spread of infection is limited. Risk Group 3 (high individual risk, low community risk) A pathogen that usually causes serious human or animal disease but does not ordinarily spread from one infected individual to another. Effective treatment and preventive measures are available. Risk Group 4 (high individual and community risk) A pathogen that usually causes serious human or animal disease and that can be readily transmitted from one individual to another, directly or indirectly. Effective treatment and preventive measures are not usually available.
Biohazard Classification Category A, UN Infectious substances affecting humans and animals : An infectious substance in a form capable of causing permanent disability or life- threatening or fatal disease in otherwise healthy humans or animals when exposure to it occurs. Category B, UN Infectious substances affecting animals only : An infectious substance that is not in a form generally capable of causing permanent disability of life-threatening or fatal disease in otherwise healthy humans and animals when exposure to themselves occurs. Category C, UN Biological substance transported for diagnostic or investigative purposes. Regulated Medical Waste, UN Waste or reusable material derived from medical treatment of an animal or human, or from biomedical research, which includes the production and testing of biological products.
BSL 1 BSL 2 BSL 3 BSL 4 Each Biosafety level associated with appropriate Equipment, practices and work procedures Biological Hazards are divided into 4 Biosafety Levels
BioSafety Level 1 Standard Practices 1. Use Mechanical Pipetting devices 2. No Eating, Drinking, Smoking in Lab 3. Minimize splashes and aerosols 4. Decontaminate work surfaces 5. Safe handling of sharps 6. Wash Hands before leaving lab Not known to consequently cause disease in healthy human adults Cause minimal hazards under ordinary conditions of handling
Pathogenic for humans Unlikely a serious hazard Treatment and preventive measures available Limited risk of spread of infection Materials Handled at BSL 2: 1. Measles Virus, Salmonella, Hepatitis B Virus 2. Human Blood, Tissues and Cell Lines BioSafety Level 2 Standard Practices All requirements for BSL 1 plus: 1. Access to laboratory is limited or restricted when work is being conducted 2. Personnel have specific training in handling pathogenic agents 3. Biohazard Sign posted on the door 4. Extreme precautions are taken with contaminated sharp items CDC, Yersinia pestis laboratory
BioSafety Level 3 Pathogenic, cause serious disease Effective treatment and preventive measures usually available Little person-to-person spread Materials Handled at BSL 3: Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, SARS Standard Practices All requirements for BSL 2 plus: 1. Limited lab access 2. Able to wash entire lab 3. Special exhaust ventilation 4. High level of training 5. Personnel receive vaccinations if available 6. Work in Biosafety cabinets Laboratory in Lyon France
BioSafety Level 4 Required for work with dangerous and exotic agents which pose a high individual risk of aerosol-transmitted laboratory infections and life- threatening disease Lethal, pathogenic agent Readily transmittable Effective treatment and preventive measures not usually available Materials Handled at BSL 3: Ebola Virus Standard Practices All requirements for BSL 3 plus: 1.Class III Biosafety cabinet or positive pressure suits 2.Shower/Change rooms 3.Clothing Autoclaved before laundering 4.Air Locks National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Rome, Italy
Disinfection principles Disinfection requirements depend on the experimental work and nature of the agents being handled Use licensed detergents/disinfectants Follow manufacturers’ recommendations Wear adequate personal protective equipment Perform hand hygiene Apply disinfectant to a large area - wiping, soaking Avoid aerosolizing specimens while handling
Lab Regulations & Signs A Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is a safety document required that contains data about the physical properties of a particular hazardous substance.
1- Infectious Waste This is pathogenic waste, BSL-2 or BSL-3. This waste must be disinfected before discarding into a red bin. Either autoclave the waste in an autoclave bag or chemically treat the waste. Once the infectious material is neutralized it may be discarded into the red bin.
2- Sharps Waste Sharps include needles, syringes, blades, lancets, slides, scalpels, pipettes, micropipettes, pipette tips, broken plastic or glassware and other devices capable of cutting or piercing the skin. Contaminated needles shall not be bent, recapped, or removed unless there is no feasible alternative. If required, use a mechanical device or a one handed technique.
3- Chemical Waste A waste label must be placed on the waste container as soon as the first drop of waste is added. Chemical bottles must be rinsed three times Label must be defaced or removed Dispose in the ordinary trash Media and saline bottles may also be disposed this way
4- Radioactive Waste Disposal Minimize generation Identify and segregate waste: 1. Long term 2. Intermediate 3. Short lived Use sink disposal limits Complete waste ticket for pick up Keep disposal records Do not dispose of radioactive waste in: 1. Laboratory Waste containers (Red Bins) 2. Ordinary “ black bag ” waste containers Use only approved radioactive waste containers supplied by Radiation Safety Container will have the warning label “ Caution Radioactive Material ”