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The Growth of Targeted Youth Crime Prevention Bob Ashford Head of Youth Justice Strategy Youth Justice Board for England and Wales.

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Presentation on theme: "The Growth of Targeted Youth Crime Prevention Bob Ashford Head of Youth Justice Strategy Youth Justice Board for England and Wales."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Growth of Targeted Youth Crime Prevention Bob Ashford Head of Youth Justice Strategy Youth Justice Board for England and Wales

2 Overview ●The Role of the Youth Justice Board ●The Research Case for prevention ●YJB Prevention Programmes ●Performance Framework ●Links to new Government Strategies - the Youth Crime Action Plan

3 Youth justice reforms ●Crime and Disorder Act 1998 ●New local and national structures ●Reformed sentencing framework ●Reforms to secure facilities ●Cutting delays ●Focus on prevention and early intervention ●New culture

4 National structure Youth Justice Board ●Independent non-departmental government body ●Advise on operation of the system and content of national standards ●monitor performance ●Identify effective practice ●Commission and purchase secure places – the purchaser-provider divide

5 Local structure Youth Offending Teams ●Multi-agency - police, probation, health, education and social services ●Links to other statutory and community agencies ●Multi-agency steering group ●Local funding with additional YJB grants ●Responsible for provision of youth justice services and local youth justice plans

6 Prevention: where have we come from? Audit Commission report 1996 “ efforts to prevent offending and other anti-social behaviour by young people need to be coordinated between the different agencies involved; they should also be targeted on deprived areas with high crime rates, and piloted and evaluated”

7 Where have we come from? Crime and Disorder Act 1998 Principal Aim To prevent offending by children and young people YJB Statutory Duty To Promote Effective Practice

8 YJB Strategy ●Targeted services ●Early identification of risk factors ●Intervention at pre-delinquency stage ●Concentrate on high/medium-risk group ●Whole family approach ●Neighbourhood and Community engagement

9 Risk Factors ●Family  Poor parental supervision and discipline  Conflict  History of criminal activity  Parental attitudes that condone antisocial and criminal behaviour  Low income  Poor Housing ●Personal  Hyperactivity and impulsivity  Low intelligence and cognitive impairment  Alienation and lack of social commitment  Attitudes that condone offending and drug misuse  Friendship with peers involved in crime and drug misuse ●School  Aggressive behaviour (including bullying)  Lack of commitment (including truancy)  School disorganisation ●Community  Living in a disorganised neighbourhood  Disorganisation and neglect  Availability of drugs  High population turnover and lack of neighbourhood attachment

10 Protective Factors ●Individual  Female gender  Resilient temperament  Sense of self efficacy  Positive, outgoing disposition  High intelligence ●Social Bonding  Stable, warm, affectionate relationship with one or both parents  Link with teachers and with other adults and peers who hold positive attitudes, and ‘model’ positive social behaviour ●Healthy Standards  Prevailing attitudes across a community  Views of parents  Promotion of healthy standards within school  Opportunities for involvement, social and reasoning skills, recognition and due praise From: Anderson B., Beinhart P., Farrington D., Longman J., Sturgis P. and Utting, D. (2001). Risk & Protective Factors associated with Youth crime and Effective Interventions to Prevent it. YJB Research Note. November.

11 The Menu: YIP Neighbourhood-Based Youth Crime Prevention Targeting Geographical Core Group (50) Identification Multi-Agency Nomination Community Self, Parent/Carer Age Range 13 – 17 th Birthday (Senior) 8 – 13 th Birthday (Junior) Activities Advocacy Mentoring Sport, Outdoor, Issue-Based AssessmentONSET DurationUp to 1-2 years 73% of young offenders were arrested for fewer offences after engaging with the YIP – MHB Evaluation 2003

12 The Menu: YISP Partnership Planning Targeting Geographical (Can be County-Wide) Identification Multi-Agency Referral Parent/Carer Self-Referral Age Range8 – 14 (In Some Cases 17) Activities Key Work Individual Support Plan Panel AssessmentONSET Duration3 – 6 Months

13 The Menu: Parenting Prevention Additions Targeting Assessment-Based Identification Multi-Agency Referral Prevention Programmes Age Range8 – 18 th Birthday Activities Individual Programmes Group Work Whole Family Interventions AssessmentAsset, Onset, Bespoke DurationNeeds-Led Modality Voluntary Parenting Contracts Parenting Orders Between 2004 and 2006, the number of parenting interventions through YOTs doubled to 11,000. Audits showed improvements in quality and 95% of parents were satisfied with the interventions.

14 Programme Methodology Multi-Agency Identification EngagementAssessment Programme Delivery ReviewExit Strategy PlanningUniversal Provision

15 Youth Crime Prevention – Major Government Investment Streams Since ●YJB prevention programmes - £100m since  Multiple funding streams to YOTs and Third Sector ●Children’s Fund: £150m since 2003 ●(PAYP: £160m since 2003) Total = £410m By comparison: ●YJB custody spend since = £1.7bn

16 Youth Crime Prevention – 2005 On: Major New Unified Funding Stream Programme Expansion to: YIP:114 projects YISP:220 panels Parenting:84 programmes SSP*:3 partnerships ISO:6 schemes Innovative:39 initiatives *Overall there are over 450 SSPs in England partnership funding estimated at over £27m. Programmes expected to engage at least 50,000 young people between 2006 and 2008

17 Failure to prevent future crime is costly to the taxpayer given the expense of correctional services Number of crimes prevented per £1000 spent Over 4 yrsOver 9 yrs Prevention Youth interventions Parenting programmes6.711 Situational Reducing Reoffending Drug treatment Community Custody11.9 Policing Hot spot policing High visibility patrol0.4 Crime Reduction Review, Home Office 2004; Scott, S. (2001) Cost of social exclusion: Antisocial children grow up Preventative measures have been shown to be much more cost effective than later interventions but public funds are devoted primarily to the detection and punishment of crime Costs by age 27 to public services of not intervening The value to diverting an individual from offending is on average £172,000 (NPV) Crime and ASB also cost public services proportionally a great deal. A recent study found they accounted for 64% of the £70,000 cost of public services used by a cohort of socially excluded children with conduct disorder over 18 years

18 Audit Commission 2004 “ targeted and well-managed early intervention programmes can be effective if they are properly co-ordinated both nationally and locally, such as those managed by Yots” “ better still, mainstream agencies, such as schools and health services, should take full responsibility for preventing offending by young people”

19 The Youth Crime Action Plan ●Youth disorder continues to be of growing concern to the public, fuelled in part by high profile ●Gang and gun crime. ●MORI– around 25% of young people have been victims of crime. ●Need to join up services to young people ●The Youth Crime Action Plan is being developed trilaterally by the Home Office, DCSF and MoJ, with other partners including ACPO and the YJB. ●It will culminate in two publications next year – the Action Plan to set the strategic direction and outline the policy reform necessary to achieve our aims, and a Practitioners’ Toolkit to help drive change on the ground

20 Preventing first time entrants to the Criminal Justice System Dealing more effectively with offending Victimisation Serious Violence We are developing policy across two main themes, with two cross-cutting issues

21 Prevention Overview ●Strong Research Base ●Strong Delivery Base ●Links to wider governmental agendas


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