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CELL BIOLOGY (C)-2015 CELL BIOLOGY (C)-2015 KAREN LANCOUR National Bio Rules Committee Chairman

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Presentation on theme: "CELL BIOLOGY (C)-2015 CELL BIOLOGY (C)-2015 KAREN LANCOUR National Bio Rules Committee Chairman"— Presentation transcript:

1 CELL BIOLOGY (C)-2015 CELL BIOLOGY (C)-2015 KAREN LANCOUR National Bio Rules Committee Chairman

2 Event Rules – 2015 DISCLAIMER This presentation was prepared using draft rules. There may be some changes in the final copy of the rules. The rules which will be in your Coaches Manual and Student Manuals will be the official rules.

3 Event Rules – 2015 BE SURE TO CHECK THE 2015 EVENT RULES FOR EVENT PARAMETERS AND TOPICS FOR EACH COMPETITION LEVEL BE SURE TO CHECK THE 2015 EVENT RULES FOR EVENT PARAMETERS AND TOPICS FOR EACH COMPETITION LEVEL

4 TRAINING MATERIALS Training Power Point – content overview Training Power Point – content overview Training Handout - content information Training Handout - content information Practice Activities - sample stations with key Practice Activities - sample stations with key Sample Tournament – sample problems with key Sample Tournament – sample problems with key Event Supervisor Guide – prep tips, event needs, and scoring tips Event Supervisor Guide – prep tips, event needs, and scoring tips Internet Resource & Training CD’s – on the Science Olympiad website at under Event Information Internet Resource & Training CD’s – on the Science Olympiad website at under Event Informationwww.soinc.org Biology-Earth Science CD, Cell Biology CD (updated 2015) in Science Olympiad Store at Biology-Earth Science CD, Cell Biology CD (updated 2015) in Science Olympiad Store at

5 GAME PLAN POWERPOINT FOR OVERVIEW POWERPOINT FOR OVERVIEW HANDOUT FOR DETAIL OF INFORMATION NEEDED HANDOUT FOR DETAIL OF INFORMATION NEEDED INTERNET RESOURCES AND CD FOR MORE HELP INTERNET RESOURCES AND CD FOR MORE HELP PRACTICE ACTIVITIES TO MASTER SKILLS PRACTICE ACTIVITIES TO MASTER SKILLS SAMPLE COMPETITION UNDER TIMED CONDITIONS TO EXPERIENCE COMPETITION SITUATION SAMPLE COMPETITION UNDER TIMED CONDITIONS TO EXPERIENCE COMPETITION SITUATION

6 Student Preparation Team work skills Team work skills Time limits Time limits Answering questions Answering questions Measurement and Calculations Measurement and Calculations Reference materials Reference materials Review basic principles of cell biology Review basic principles of cell biology Construct sample stations Construct sample stations

7 Cell Biology (C) Competition – topics chart Competition – topics chart Process Skillsobservations, inferences, predictions, data analysis, and calculations Process Skills - observations, inferences, predictions, data analysis, and calculations Event Parameters – be sure to check the rules for resources allowed and safety goggles required. Event Parameters – be sure to check the rules for resources allowed and safety goggles required.

8 Topics - Regional and State Biological monomers and polymers also HDL & LDL Biological monomers and polymers also HDL & LDL Cellular Homeostasis (pH, molarity, etc.) Cellular Homeostasis (pH, molarity, etc.) Enzymes Enzymes Cell organelles/structures and their functions Cell organelles/structures and their functions Differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells Differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells QUALITATIVE aspects of photosynthesis and respiration QUALITATIVE aspects of photosynthesis and respiration Membrane structure and function Membrane structure and function Movement across membranes Movement across membranes Importance of ATP Importance of ATP Structure of viruses Structure of viruses Cell cycle and mitosis Cell cycle and mitosis Chromosome Structure Chromosome Structure Fermentation Products and their uses Fermentation Products and their uses

9 Topics – Nationals All of topics from state and regional plus: All of topics from state and regional plus: Cell communication and membrane receptors Cell communication and membrane receptors Apoptosis Apoptosis Enzyme inhibition Enzyme inhibition Stem cell concepts and uses Stem cell concepts and uses Viral replication Viral replication C3 vs. C4 vs. CAM plants C3 vs. C4 vs. CAM plants Consequences of changes in protein shape Consequences of changes in protein shape Cancerous vs normal cells Cancerous vs normal cells Genomics Genomics Bioethics relating to above topics Bioethics relating to above topics

10 Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Prokaryotic – single cell with nuclear material but no nuclear membrane or membrane bound organelles Prokaryotic – single cell with nuclear material but no nuclear membrane or membrane bound organelles Eukaryotic – most cells – with organized nucleus and membrane bound organelles Eukaryotic – most cells – with organized nucleus and membrane bound organelles

11 Cell Membrane

12 Animal Cell – “ Compare to a factory” Know the function of cell organelles

13 Nucleus Nuclear envelope – double membrane Nuclear envelope – double membrane chromatin – DNA chromatin – DNA RNA RNA nucleolus – Ribosome sub- units nucleolus – Ribosome sub- units

14 Organelles – “factory components with function” Support - Cell wall, cell membrane cytoskeleton, microtubles Controls material entering and leaving - Cell membrane, pores Internal transport system – Endoplasmic reticulum Powerhouse - mitochondria Control center – nucleus, organelle DNA for mitochondria and chloroplast Production of key products – ribosomes, endoplastic reticulum, chloroplasts Packaging center for shipment of products – Golgi Apparatus, ER Shipment of materials out of cell - Golgi Apparatus, vesicles Storage of liquids and solids – Vacuole, vesicles, plastids, Recycling center – Lysosomes and perixosomes Convert light energy to chemical energy - chloroplasts Allows new cell factories to be produced – nuclear DNA, centrioles, cell wall

15 Chromosome Structure a.Nuclesosomes – Core of DNA wrapped around 8 histone proteins plus linkerDNA b.Solenoid – coiling of nucleosomes like phone cord c. Chromatin fiber – series of nucleosomes d. Metaphase chromosomes

16 Plant Cell – Special Features Cell wall – protection and support Chloroplast - for photosynthesis Large central vacuole- for storage and increase surface area

17 Movement Across Membranes Diffusion: molecules moving from high to low concentration; concentration = #molecules/volume Osmosis: diffusion of water across a selective membrane; amount of water is opposite of number molecules-if water is high, solute (molecules) is low. Facilitative diffusion: just like diffusion (high to low) but a protein carrier is involved Note: diffusion will continue but rate of transport with carrier will level off because carrier becomes saturated

18 Osmosis Hypertonic - high solute concentration relative to another solution Hypotonic - low solute concentration relative to another solution Isotonic - solute concentration is the same as that of another solution

19 Plant Cells – Turgor Pressure and Plasmolysis

20 Animal Cells – in different solutions

21 Passive Transport – no energy used

22 Active Transport – uses energy

23 Endocytosis and Exocytosis

24 Monomers and Polymers monomerpolymerexampleReagents simple sugar (monosaccharide) polysaccharidestarch, cellulose, glycogen (animal) Benedicts-glucose Iodine-starch amino acidprotein, polypeptide hair, enzyme, hemoglobin, insulin Ninhydrin, Biuret nucleotidenucleic acidDNA, RNAmethyl green fatty acid/glycerolfat or tri glyceride cooking oil, buttergrease test with brown paper

25 pH Hydrogen ion concentration Hydrogen ion concentration Liquid may be acid, Liquid may be acid, base or neutral base or neutral 7 is neutral 7 is neutral Below 7 is acidic Below 7 is acidic Above 7 is basic Above 7 is basic Logarithmic Logarithmic Buffers in cells Buffers in cells

26 Enzymes Catalysts Catalysts Made of Protein Made of Protein May have non-protein parts May have non-protein parts Lower Activation Energy Lower Activation Energy Not changed during reaction Not changed during reaction Enzyme-substrate complex Enzyme-substrate complex Inhibition – Competitive and noncompetitive Inhibition – Competitive and noncompetitive

27 Importance of ATP Energy storage chemical for cell processes Energy storage chemical for cell processes Most of ATP is produced via electron transport chain Most of ATP is produced via electron transport chain Main reason that cells need oxygen: to allow them to make lots of ATP Main reason that cells need oxygen: to allow them to make lots of ATP Involved in both photosynthesis and respiration Involved in both photosynthesis and respiration

28 Photosynthesis Photosynthesis Photosynthesis – Trapping of sunlight energy followed by its conversion to chemical energy (ATP, NADPH, or both) and then synthesis into sugar phosphates which convert into sucrose, cellulose, starch, and other end products. It is the main pathway by which energy and carbon enter the food webs.

29 Cell Respiration Cellular Respiration - Organic substances are broken down to simpler products with the release of energy which is incorporated into special energy-carrying molecules (ATP) and is eventually used for metabolic processes. All cells carry on some form of cellular respiration. Most plants and animals require oxygen. Cellular Respiration - Organic substances are broken down to simpler products with the release of energy which is incorporated into special energy-carrying molecules (ATP) and is eventually used for metabolic processes. All cells carry on some form of cellular respiration. Most plants and animals require oxygen. NOTE: The amount of NET ATP production varies from cell to cell. NOTE: The amount of NET ATP production varies from cell to cell.

30 Fermentation Products and their Uses Carbon dioxide – bread making Carbon dioxide – bread making Alcohol – wine making and brewing Alcohol – wine making and brewing Lactic Acid – lactic acid bacteria ferment milk into products as yogurt Lactic Acid – lactic acid bacteria ferment milk into products as yogurt

31 Cell Cycle G1 Phase – high rate of biosynthesis and growth G1 Phase – high rate of biosynthesis and growth S Phase – DNA content doubles and chromosomes replicate S Phase – DNA content doubles and chromosomes replicate G2 Phase - final preparations for Mitosis G2 Phase - final preparations for Mitosis M Phase – Mitosis and Cytokinesis M Phase – Mitosis and Cytokinesis

32 Mitosis Prophase – chromatid pairs coil up, spindle forms, nuclear membrane dissolves, chromatid pairs attach to spindle fibers (microtubules) Prophase – chromatid pairs coil up, spindle forms, nuclear membrane dissolves, chromatid pairs attach to spindle fibers (microtubules) Metaphase – chromatid pairs move to the equator, chromatid pairs align at the equator Metaphase – chromatid pairs move to the equator, chromatid pairs align at the equator Anaphase – chromatids separate into individual chromosomes, chromosomes are pulled apart toward the equator by the spindle fibers (microtubules) Anaphase – chromatids separate into individual chromosomes, chromosomes are pulled apart toward the equator by the spindle fibers (microtubules) Telophase - chromosomes uncoil, spindle dissolves, nuclear membrane reforms Telophase - chromosomes uncoil, spindle dissolves, nuclear membrane reforms Cytokinesis – division of the cytoplasm to make two new cells Cytokinesis – division of the cytoplasm to make two new cells

33 Control of Cell Cycle

34 Structure of Viruses Non-cellular infectious agent Non-cellular infectious agent Composed of DNA or RNA and a protein coat Composed of DNA or RNA and a protein coat Replicates only after its genetic material enters a host cell Replicates only after its genetic material enters a host cell Subverts the host’s metabolic machinery Subverts the host’s metabolic machinery

35 Viral Reproduction


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