Programme Understanding behaviour – models How behaviour changes Behaviour change in practice
Understanding behaviour “a behavior is a function of compatible intentions and perceptions of behavioral control in that perceived behavioral control is expected to moderate the effect of intention on behavior, such that a favorable intention produces the behavior only when perceived behavioral control is strong” Azjen. i.e. you’ve got to, not just believe in the importance of doing something, but also believe in your ability to achieve it
Why do we do what we do? Personal (micro) factors – E.g. level of knowledge or belief in their ability to change their behaviour and habits Social (meso) factors – How individuals relate to each other and the influence of other people on their behaviour Environmental factors – Local (exo) factors – e.g. where they live, facilities – Wider (macro) factors – e.g. the economy of technology To change behaviour we need an ecological approach to address all three.
Theoretical models Theory of Planned Behaviour Theory of Interpersonal Behaviour Needs, Opportunity and Ability Model
Behavioral belief: an individual’s belief about consequences of particular behavior. Attitude toward behavior: an individual’s positive or negative evaluation of self-performance of the particular behavior. Normative belief: an individual’s perception about the particular behavior, which is externally influenced Subjective norm: an individual’s perception of social pressures, or relevant others’ beliefs that they should or should not perform such behavior. Perceived behavioral control: an individual's perceived ease or difficulty of performing the particular behavior. Control beliefs: an individual's beliefs about the presence of factors that may facilitate or impede performance of the behavior (related to self- efficacy). Behavioral intention: an indication of an individual's readiness to perform a given behavior. Behavior: an individual's observable response in a given situation with respect to a given target.
In other words… As with knowledge and attitude, shifting attitudes may not be enough to affect behaviour change Attitude shift can be seen as a precursor to behaviour change
Humans aren’t logical! Natural biases and mental shortcuts Choice architecture – Prioritise short term reward over long term gain – Loss averse – Natural preference for status quo Positive messages vs. negative messages – Selling the sizzle?
Precontemplation - Not yet acknowledging that there is a problem behaviour that needs to be changed Contemplation - Acknowledging that there is a problem but not yet ready or sure of wanting to make a change Preparation/Determination - Getting ready to change Action/Willpower - Changing behaviour Maintenance - Maintaining the behaviour change Termination - individuals have zero temptation and 100% self-efficacy Relapse - Returning to older behaviours and abandoning the new changes
How do we change behaviour? Five Stage Process: 1. Identifying behaviours 2. Understanding the influences by audience 3. Developing a practical model of influences on behaviour 4. Building a marketing framework 5. Developing a communications model
Education? “It would be easy to give the public information and hope they change behaviour but we know that doesn't work very satisfactorily. Otherwise none of us would be obese, none of us would smoke and none of us would drive like lunatics". Iain Potter, Director New Zealand Health Sponsorship Council, New Zealand Herald,June 2007
What are the barriers to sustainable behaviours Attitude? Beliefs? Motivation? ??? Who is the target audience? What are their beliefs / behaviours / skills? What do they do instead? How can they be reached? What messages will they be receptive to?
Barriers Value Action Gap – It is important to protect the environment but other factors take precedence when I actually choose my behaviours Lack of Agency – The problem is too big for me to make a difference
Social Marketing “the systematic application of marketing, alongside concepts and techniques, to achieve specific behavioural goals, to improve health and to reduce inequalities.”
Social Marketing primary aim is to achieve a particular 'social good' (rather than commercial benefit), with clearly defined behavioural goals. is a systematic process phased to address short, medium and long-term issues. uses a range of marketing techniques and approaches (a marketing mix).
Social Marketing is… 1. Customer orientation Helps develop a robust understanding of the audience, based on good market and consumer research, combining data from different sources. 2. Behaviour Has a clear focus on behaviour, based on a strong behavioural analysis, with specific behaviour goals. Intervention seeks to consider and address four key behavioural domains: 1. formation and establishment of behaviour 2. maintenance and reinforcement of behaviour 3. behaviour change 4. behavioural controls (based on ethical principles)
3. Theory Is behavioural theory-based and informed, drawing from an integrated theory framework? Takes into account behavioural theory across four primary domains: 1. bio-physical 2. psychological 3. social 4. environmental / ecological 4. Insight Based on developing a deeper ‘insight’ approach – focusing on what ‘moves and motivates’.
5. Exchange Incorporates an ‘exchange’ analysis - understanding what the person has to give in order to get the benefits proposed. 6. Competition Incorporates a ‘competition’ analysis to understand what competes for the time and attention of the audience. 7. Segmentation Uses a developed segmentation approach (not just targeting) avoiding blanket approaches.
The 4Ps Product – The desired behaviour you are asking of the audience, associated benefits and any tangible objects or services that aupport or facilitate Price – The cost and barriers the target audience faces. Non-monetary costs, such as physical, emotional, time etc. The benefits of changing must be greater than the costs Place – Where the target audience will perform the desired behaviour or where the product or service is made available to the target audience Promotion – How the product or service is made known to the target segments. Consider the type of media your target audience attends to, where and when they will attend to your message and the style of communication
Example projects Choose How You Move Choose How You Move was a council-run initiative to encourage the widespread take-up of sustainable transport options, with the aim of reducing congestion and car dependency, alongside the added benefits of improved health and fitness. Save the Crabs – Then Eat ‘Em The Academy for Educational Development, a non-profit organisation specialising in social change communications, implemented a campaign to reduce nutrient pollution flowing into the Chesapeake Bay Seeding Sustainable Communities Seeding Sustainable Communities was a three-year project that sought to introduce environmentally friendly behaviours to new home owners, using the move to a new house as a catalyst for further behavioural changes.
Group Exercise Split into two groups Nominate a project manager, a communications officer and the behaviour expert Outline the behaviour change aim of your project Outline your plan for – Exchange – Segmentation – Competition – The 4 Ps
E.g. Love Food, Hate Waste Core product – Reduce waste, increase composting Actual product – Enjoying good food Augmented product – Cooking demos / farmers markets, recipe cards for leftovers, free composters