Presentation on theme: "Distinguishing Types of Information English 102: Argumentation Becky Cooper Adapted from Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Psychological Issues,"— Presentation transcript:
Distinguishing Types of Information English 102: Argumentation Becky Cooper Adapted from Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Psychological Issues, 6th ed. by Joseph Rubinstein and Brent Slife and Elements of Argument by Annette T. Rottenberg, 6th ed.
To address issues constructively, we must examine the evidence before drawing conclusions. n Distinguish between fact and opinion n Distinguish between evidence based on data and evidence based on values
Important Terms n Fact n Opinion n Values n Hypothesis n Data n Evidence n Conclusions
Fact: information that we accept because it is widely agreed to be true or can be verified n New facts change old facts. n Consensus changes facts.
Opinion: a judgment made by an individual who interprets the data in terms of his or her personal experience and knowledge n Don’t confuse opinions with objective evidence that can be measured or observed. n Some opinions are more valuable than others.
Values: ideas held by an individual or group about the way things ought to be; ideas that act as standards for judging what is right or wrong, worthwhile or worthless, beautiful or ugly, good or bad n Certain values have a greater personal and social impact than others. n Pairs of values collide both within and between individuals.
Values Assumptions: unstated assertions about values priorities n A writer’s unstated values priorities will largely determine her conclusion (claim) and how she chooses to support it.
Hypothesis: a statement of how at least two events or conditions may be related n Hypotheses are guesses. n The purpose of a hypothesis is to make clear what events or conditions must be investigated. n Definitions for the terms in a hypothesis are crucial. n A hypothesis may be accepted or rejected, depending on the outcome of research.
Data: the recorded observations and measurements collected in a research investigation n Data may be a collection of numbers (statistics). n Data may be a collection of facts and observations. n Data are not conclusions.
Evidence: the application of data to confirm or reject a hypothesis that has been previously stated n Using data (statistics, facts, observations) to draw conclusions n Using the opinions (interpretation of facts) of experts to draw conclusions
Conclusions: the final inferences (interpretations of the facts) concerning the evidence