Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Distinguishing Types of Information English 102: Argumentation Becky Cooper Adapted from Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Psychological Issues,

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Distinguishing Types of Information English 102: Argumentation Becky Cooper Adapted from Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Psychological Issues,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Distinguishing Types of Information English 102: Argumentation Becky Cooper Adapted from Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Psychological Issues, 6th ed. by Joseph Rubinstein and Brent Slife and Elements of Argument by Annette T. Rottenberg, 6th ed.

2 To address issues constructively, we must examine the evidence before drawing conclusions. n Distinguish between fact and opinion n Distinguish between evidence based on data and evidence based on values

3 Important Terms n Fact n Opinion n Values n Hypothesis n Data n Evidence n Conclusions

4 Fact: information that we accept because it is widely agreed to be true or can be verified n New facts change old facts. n Consensus changes facts.

5 Opinion: a judgment made by an individual who interprets the data in terms of his or her personal experience and knowledge n Don’t confuse opinions with objective evidence that can be measured or observed. n Some opinions are more valuable than others.

6 Values: ideas held by an individual or group about the way things ought to be; ideas that act as standards for judging what is right or wrong, worthwhile or worthless, beautiful or ugly, good or bad n Certain values have a greater personal and social impact than others. n Pairs of values collide both within and between individuals.

7 Values Assumptions: unstated assertions about values priorities n A writer’s unstated values priorities will largely determine her conclusion (claim) and how she chooses to support it.

8 Hypothesis: a statement of how at least two events or conditions may be related n Hypotheses are guesses. n The purpose of a hypothesis is to make clear what events or conditions must be investigated. n Definitions for the terms in a hypothesis are crucial. n A hypothesis may be accepted or rejected, depending on the outcome of research.

9 Data: the recorded observations and measurements collected in a research investigation n Data may be a collection of numbers (statistics). n Data may be a collection of facts and observations. n Data are not conclusions.

10 Evidence: the application of data to confirm or reject a hypothesis that has been previously stated n Using data (statistics, facts, observations) to draw conclusions n Using the opinions (interpretation of facts) of experts to draw conclusions

11 Conclusions: the final inferences (interpretations of the facts) concerning the evidence


Download ppt "Distinguishing Types of Information English 102: Argumentation Becky Cooper Adapted from Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Psychological Issues,"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google