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Systemic Therapy in Men with Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Clinical Practice Guideline © American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved.
Introduction This guideline pertains to men with CRPC and radiographically or pathologically demonstrated metastases In 2006, the CCO Genitourinary Cancer Disease Site Group developed a guideline on nonhormonal therapies for men with metastatic CRPC, endorsed by ASCO in 2007 ASCO and CCO convened an expert panel to provide the current recommendations for systemic therapy in metastatic CRPC based on updated literature though June © American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved.
Guideline Development Process An Expert Panel with multidisciplinary representation in medical oncology, urologic oncology, radiation oncology, community oncology, patient advocacy, health services, implementation research, and guideline methodology was convened by ASCO and CCO ASCO guidelines are based on systematic review and are approved by the ASCO Clinical Practice Guideline Committee before publication All CCO guidelines are reviewed and approved by the CCO Report Approval Panel and a topic specific disease site group © American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved.
Systematic Review Methods Articles were selected for inclusion in the CCO systematic review if they: Were RCTs or evidence synthesis products based on RCTs Included men with metastatic CRPC Compared systemic therapy, alone or in combination with other agents, versus placebo or other drug regimens Were published English-language reports Articles were excluded from the systematic review if they involved only androgen-deprivation therapy, bone targeted agents, or radionuclides © American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved.
Guideline Question © American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved. Which systemic therapies improve outcomes in men with metastatic CRPC?
Recommendations vhttp://www.asco.org/guidelines/mCRPC © American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved. Androgen-Deprivation Therapy: Continuous androgen deprivation (pharmaceutical or surgical) should be continued indefinitely regardless of additional therapies Therapies in Addition to Androgen-Deprivation Therapy: Therapies with demonstrated survival and quality-of-life benefits: Abiraterone acetate and prednisone should be offered Enzalutamide should be offered Radium-223 should be offered to men with bone metastases. Docetaxel and prednisone should be offered
Recommendations © American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved. Therapies with demonstrated survival benefit and unclear quality-of-life benefit: Sipuleucel-T may be offered to men who are asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic Cabazitaxel and prednisone may be offered to men who experience progression with docetaxel Therapies with quality-of-life benefit without demonstrated survival benefit: Mitoxantrone plus prednisone may be offered Therapies with biologic activity and unknown survival or quality-of-life benefit: Antiandrogens (eg, bicalutamide, flutamide, nilutamide) may be offered. Ketoconazole may be offered Low-dose corticosteroid monotherapy may be offered
Recommendations © American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved. Therapies without demonstrated survival or quality-of-life benefit: Bevacizumab should not be offered Estramustine should not be offered Sunitinib should not be offered Palliative Care Services Palliative care should be offered to all patients, particularly to those exhibiting symptoms or quality-of-life (QOL) decrements, regardless of treatment type
Qualifying Statements © American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved. Clinicians are advised to review the published regimens discussed in this guideline for their use in appropriate patient populations and for applicable dose selections/modifications, available from the product labels There is insufficient published evidence to recommend specific sequencing of these therapies or combinations of these therapies, except as otherwise noted
Qualifying Statements © American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved. The distinction made in some clinical trials between pre- and post-docetaxel treatment contexts should not play a role in selecting therapies for individual patients, unless otherwise noted Patients may place a higher importance on QOL rather than length of life. It is essential to understand individual patient values and preferences for appropriate treatment decision making. Many patients with incurable metastatic disease misperceive the goals of care to be curative. Clear communication about goals as well as potential benefits and harms of care should be prioritized.
Qualifying Statements © American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved. Cost and availability considerations may reasonably influence treatment decisions. There is wide variation in the financial burden individual patients face for various therapies, and this potential barrier or hardship should be openly discussed with patients. Most phase III clinical trials have included patients with good baseline performance status. The choice of treatment for patients with diminished performance status is not clearly informed by existing evidence in most cases.
Hypertension Hyperlipidemia Diabetes Ischemic Heart Disease Anemia Arthritis Chronic Kidney Disease Depression Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Heart Failure Cataract Multiple Chronic Conditions © American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved. Presence of any comorbid conditions should be taken into account when deciding on an individual treatment plan Most common comorbid conditions are:
Limitations & Future Directions There is limited available evidence in the following areas of needed research in metastatic CRPC: Optimum sequencing and combination of available therapies Efficacy of drugs in treatment sequences other than those tested in clinical trials Potential benefits and harms of combining therapies Comparative QOL and symptomatic benefits of therapy options Effectiveness of therapies in real-world populations Cost-benefit analysis in the US context Out-of-pocket costs faced by most patients Shared decision-making tools Clinical benefits of lower-cost therapies in low resource contexts Impact of early access to palliative care Alternative approaches to continuous androgen deprivation © American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved.
Limitations & Future Directions The panel recommends inclusion of rigorously designed symptom and QOL outcome measures in all phase III clinical trials in metastatic CRPC. ASCO believes that cancer clinical trials are vital to inform medical decisions and improve cancer care and that all patients should have the opportunity to participate. © American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved.
Additional Resources This guideline is available at The guideline, data supplements, a patient guide, and other resources are available at The patient guide is also available at Summary is available at © American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved.
Expert Panel Members MemberAffliation Ethan Basch, MD (Co-Chair), Medical OncologyUniversity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Andrew Loblaw, MD (Co-Chair), Radiation OncologyOdette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre Charles Bennett, MD, Medical OncologyUniversity of South Carolina Michael Carducci, MD, Medical OncologyJohns Hopkins University Ronald C. Chen, MD, Radiation OncologyUniversity of North Carolina James N. Frame, MD, Medical OncologyCharleston Area Medical Center Health Systems Sebastian Hotte, MD, Medical Oncology McMaster University Kristina Garrels, MDPrivate practice Michael W. Kattan, MBA, PhD, Quantitative HealthCleveland Clinic Derek Raghavan, MD, Medical OncologyCarolinas Health Care/Levine Cancer Institute Mary-Ellen Taplin, MD, Medical OncologyDana-Farber Cancer Institute Fred Saad, MD, Urological OncologyUniversity of Montreal Katherine S. Virgo, PhD, Biostats/EpidemologyEmory University James Williams, MS, SPHR, Patient RepresentativePennsylvania Prostate Cancer Coalition Eric Winquist, MD, Medical OncologyLondon Health Sciences Centre Ted WoottonPatient representative © American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved.
Disclaimer ASCO Clinical Practice Guidelines and other guidance published herein are provided by ASCO to assist providers in clinical decision making. The information herein should not be relied on as being complete or accurate, nor should it be considered as inclusive of all proper treatments or methods of care or as a statement of the standard of care. With the rapid development of scientific knowledge, new evidence may emerge between the time information is developed and when it is published or read. The information is not continually updated and may not reflect the most recent evidence. The information addresses only the topics specifically identified herein and is not applicable to other interventions, diseases, or stages of disease. This information does not mandate any particular course of medical care. Furthermore, the information is not intended to substitute for the independent professional judgment of the treating provider, because the information does not account for individual variation among patients. Recommendations reflect high, moderate, or low confidence that the recommendation reflects the net effect of a given course of action. Use of words like must, must not, should, and should not indicates that a course of action is recommended or not recommended for either most or many patients, but there is latitude for the treating physician to select other courses of action in individual cases. In all cases, the selected course of action should be considered by the treating provider in the context of treating the individual patient. Use of the information is voluntary. ASCO provides this information on an as-is basis and makes no warranty, express or implied, regarding the information. ASCO specifically disclaims any warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular use or purpose. ASCO assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of this information or for any errors or omissions. © American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved.
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