Presentation on theme: "‘Just in case’ vs. ‘Just in time’: e-book purchasing models UKSG Conference Edinburgh International Conference Centre, 12 th -14 th April 2010."— Presentation transcript:
‘Just in case’ vs. ‘Just in time’: e-book purchasing models UKSG Conference Edinburgh International Conference Centre, 12 th -14 th April 2010
Outline of session Explore the variety of purchasing models currently available for e-books. Advantages and disadvantages of routine title-by-title purchasing of e-books "just in case“. Look at how large publisher and aggregator e-book packages compare with individual purchases. Explore the emerging patron-driven "just in time" model,. Case studies taken from a range of suppliers and libraries, including our own libraries at the Universities of Leeds and York.
Introduction In the UK a small, but significant proportion of library materials budget is being spent on e-books currently (around 8-9%). Figures for other countries vary. Many UK libraries expect this percentage to increase significantly over the next few years Percentage would be higher if content was available Only around 8-10% of titles wanted by UK academic libraries are available as e-books – though this is rising steadily! Academic publishers report e-book sales are increasing.
Consider what you need! Number of concurrent users: limited or unlimited Usage: limited or unlimited Access in perpetuity, or ‘leased’ Collections or individual titles Value for money going forward Who makes the purchasing decisions
Title-by-title purchasing Which suppliers? DawsonERA, EBL, ebrary, MyiLibrary and (increasingly) publishers. Ability to tie purchasing into specific local needs. E-books can be purchased alongside print from mainstream book suppliers. Paying only for titles requested by academic staff or students, e.g. reading lists, purchase requests. “Just in case” purchasing (similar to print).
DawsonERA Over 100,000 titles from 185+ publishers, in all subject areas. E-books integrated with print copies in supplier’s database. Perpetual access to purchased titles. Option to temporarily rent any e-books not yet purchased. Unlimited concurrent users. Short term downloading of e-books from the collection is also possible. Reader may print 5% of the book and copy 5% of the text. Cap on annual usage for each copy owned.
University of Leeds: print loans vs. e-book usage August 2009-March 2010, purchased 538 DawsonERA e-books, all of which have been used at least once. Only 419 have been used in print = 77% (915 DawsonERA e-books by end of 2009 – all have been used at least once). August 2009-March 2010, purchased 281 MyiLibrary e- books, all of which have been used at least once. Only 111 have been used in print = 40% (853 MyiLibrary e-books by end of 2009 – all have been used at least once).
University of York: print loans Year purchased Number added to loanable stock Number borrowed in 2005 Number borrowed in 2006 Number borrowed in 2007 Number borrowed in 2008 Number borrowed in 2009 Number borrowed by end 2009 Number not borrowed by end ,1216,96610,82110,53710,1839,77514,2312, ,388 5,8348,4538,2218,01210,8512, ,594 6,0369,8439,64512,1774, ,980 7,62411,73013,2464,734 Year purchased Number added to loanable stock % borrowed in 2005 % borrowed in 2006 % borrowed in 2007 % borrowed in 2008 % borrowed in 2009 % borrowed by end 2009 % not borrowed by end , %63.2%61.5%59.5%57.1%83.1%16.9% , %63.1%61.4%59.8%81.1%18.9% , %59.3%58.1%73.4%26.6% , %65.2%73.7%26.3%
University of York: e-book usage, individual title purchases 933 titles purchased from MyiLibrary in 2008 and 2009 During 2009, 907 of these titles were viewed online (97%) Purchasing policies for different subjects: –always buy e-book when available plus single print copy –always buy print, and consult Academic Liaison Librarian when an e-book is available
University of Leeds: e-book usage (BR6) YearProviderUsage 2008MyiLibrary9, MyiLibrary20, MyiLibrary7,583to end of March 2008DawsonERA1, DawsonERA5, DawsonERA4,651to end of March
COUNTER usage reports The COUNTER Code of Practice for Books and Reference Works, published in March 2006, provides a number of reports. (See: Book Report 1: Number of Successful Title Requests by Month and Title (N.B. Book Report 1 is only to be supplied for those titles for which Book Report 2 cannot be provided, i.e. it applies only to those titles that are available to the customer as a single file.) Book Report 2: Number of Successful Section Requests by Month and Title Book Report 3: Turnaways by Month and Title Book Report 4: Turnaways by Month and Service Book Report 5: Total Searches and Sessions by Month and Title (N.B. Book Report 5 is to be supplied only for those titles where searches and sessions can be counted at the title level. In most cases searches and sessions are at the level of the service, in which case Book Report 6 applies.) Book Report 6: Total Searches and Sessions by Month and Service
Package/collection purchasing Which suppliers? – ebrary, EBL, publishers like T&F, Cambridge University Press and Wiley-Blackwell Advantages – wider variety of titles allows speculative reading by customers, cost efficiencies, value-added services Disadvantages – similar to print, i.e. speculative purchasing, many may not be used.
University of York e-book usage, packages 2 ebrary subject collections (subscriptions) –Average cost per title in 2009: £0.45 –Average cost per section request in 2009: £0.015 –41% of available titles viewed in 2009 Major society publisher, subject-specific collection – purchased, one-off payment –Average cost per section request in 2009: £6.13 – but this will decrease over time –32% of titles viewed in 2009 Is there a level of usage that justifies outright purchase rather than a subscription?
E-books in Spanish academic libraries Of the 50 universities, 36 have at least one collection of electronic books. The largest collections are in the universities of Andalusia, Catalonia and Valencia. There is a considerable diversity – many universities have subscribed to collections specializing in literature and in the field of engineering. The main multi-disciplinary collections purchased are E-libro and NetLibrary.” “This is a sector that is definitely taking off in Spain and will require progressive acceptance on the part of the academic community. Librarians have the responsibility to aid their users in understanding the growing complexity of the information market and the increasing range of resources available for research... when it is borne in mind that e-books will have a crucial role in the new model for education advocated by the European Higher Education Area (EHEA).” E-books in Spanish academic libraries Luisa Alvite Diez, Blanca Rodriguez Bravo The electronic library, v.21, no.1, 2009, pp.86-95
E-books at the University of Bergen Early purchases of collections from: NetLibrary, ebrary. Also: Gale Virtual Reference Library, Safari, Encycolpaedia Britannica. Did buy individual titles from NetLibrary, but proved too expensive at the time (2003). DRM can put readers off. Consortial purchasing of collections via the Norwegian Archive, Library and Museum Authority (ABM) Also now purchasing individual titles through Dawsons. Many Norwegian publishers have not embraced e-book technologies.
Why reconsider purchasing options? Budget cuts i.e. buying less print. Efficiency exercises i.e. making materials work harder! Increasing student numbers. Increased customer expectations of electronic content. Student fees. Increasing demand from academics and researchers for more electronic content. Value of buying materials that are not used!
It is often reported that over half the (printed) material purchased by academic libraries is never used by customers (reports from the USA indicate that in some cases it can be as high as 70%!) “As usage plays a key role in determining the value of electronic products and services, patron driven acquisition is quickly evolving as a model of choice…” Leslie Lees, Vice President (Content Development) for ebrary
Patron-driven purchasing What is patron-driven purchasing? Advantages – delivery is almost instantaneous and seamless for customer, “just in time” purchasing Disadvantages – more for library than the customer; difficult to manage budgets; hard to know which purchase thresholds are right; often no choice in purchase thresholds.
What are librarians so afraid of?
Patron-driven purchasing at York: MyiLibrary Trialled with Coutts/MyiLibrary from end May February 2010 Set up a deposit account for £25K + VAT Identified initial file of 3,003 titles using subject profiles, to be topped up monthly as new titles released Purchase after 2 usages MARC records for these titles uploaded into our LMS (Aleph) Once a title was purchased, we gave the catalogue record a different collection code Did no publicity at all By end February, 433 titles purchased (14% of the total supplied)
Early analysis: MyiLibrary 433 titles purchased via Patron Select –87 average page views per purchased title (May-Feb) –£66 Average cost per title purchased, £26 average per title viewed –£0.61 Average cost per page view May 09-Feb MyiLibrary titles purchased via Library/Academic selection (Jan 08-Feb 10) –169 average page views per purchased title during 2009 –£72 Average cost per title purchased –£0.41 Average cost per page view during 2009
Patron-driven purchasing at York: Springer 3 month test project with no charges (Dec 2009 to Feb 2010) All eBook content within the copyright years opened within our SpringerLink account (c.12,500 titles) MARC records supplied Aim is to test the feasibility of a user driven purchasing model for Spr inger
Early analysis: Springer December 2009-February 2010 Total number of chapter downloads (COUNTER BR2): 8,876 –Computer Science (already purchased collection): 2,750 (31%) –The 12 pilot collections: 6,162 (69%) Total number of titles accessed: 2,855 (880 from Computer Science; 1,975 from the pilot collections) Don’t yet know how that would translate into collections/copyright years purchased; further work needed
Elsevier Evidence Based Selection Model – new for 2010 Up-front fee, ranging from 10% to 50% of the value of the collection(s) chosen, which buys access to that content for 12 months via Science Direct platform. Library then decides which titles to purchase and keep in perpetuity, priced up to the value of the initial content investment, taking usage into account.
Ebook Library (EBL) E-books in all subject areas, but focus is on Science, Technology and Medicine (STM). More than 100,000 titles from hundreds of academic publishers. Non-Linear Lending TM – i.e. multiple-concurrent access, but with limits on the total number of lending days per year. Also offer unlimited access model, and Short Term Circulation, a pay-per-use model. Chapters for Reserve Lending, Course-packs and purchase - Chapters can be utilised for purchase by students, for reserve lending by libraries, for inclusion in ePack course-packs. Patrons can browse all books and utilise full-text search within the browser. accessed online, eith through EBL's PDF-based reader, or by downloading Adobe Acrobat ebooks to a PC, laptop or PDA for offline use. Publisher collections and individual title selection, as well as demand-driven acquisition.
Patron-driven purchasing in the US Jason Price and John McDonald (Claremont University Libraries) presented a paper, “Beguiled by Bananas: a retrospective study of the usage and breadth of patron vs. library acquired e-book collections”,at the Charleston Conference in November Key questions: Are user-selected e-books used less often than pre-selected e- books? No. User-selected e-books are used ≈2-5x more often. Do user-selected e-books have a narrower audience? No. User-selected e-books are used by ≈2-3x more unique users. Are user-selected collections less balanced by subject? No. User selected collections are similarly balanced.
Still more to do! “The entire world is moving to a market ideal of getting people what they want or need when they want or need it. Publishing is only one of many industries battling the complex strategic challenge of just-in-time composition of information or products for delivery to an empowered individual customer.” (Mitch Ratcliffe. How to create new reading experiences profitably.
E-books at the University of Utah “The financial crisis (and attendant budget cuts) have only strengthened... the feeling that we must move away from the model that has librarians trying to guess what patrons are going to want. (Rick Anderson, Assoc.iate Director for Scholarly Resources & Collections) Book budget is format-neutral, so e-book purchases are funded in the same way and out of the same pot of money as print book purchases. Moving towards making approval plan e-first. Patron-driven purchasing model with MyiLibrary and NetLibrary. Library has purchased an Espresso Book Machine to allow print-on-demand. New LMS (Aleph) and resource discovery tool (Primo). “This combination of factors will allow the library to make millions of records for digital books visible to our patrons without either loading those records directly into our catalog or purchasing copies of any of the books ahead of time; our patrons will have the option of printing them up and buying them, or (in many cases) printing them on demand and then borrowing them, after which we will add them to the collection.”
A friendly warning! “Instead of focussing on books downloadable to e-readers or smart phones, academic libraries have created enormous databases of e-books that students and faculty members can read only on computer screens. The result … is that these collections are used almost exclusively for searching for information – scanning rather than reading.” Dan D’Agostino. The strange case of academic libraries and e-books nobody reads.
What we want: A choice of purchasing models Multi-concurrent users Unlimited annual usage Standardized terms and conditions Standardized formats Ability to download to mobile readers Meaningful usage statistics
Sarah Thompson University of York Steve Sharp University of Leeds