Presentation on theme: "SELECTION Selection is the process of picking individuals(out of a pool of job applicants) who have relevant qualifications & competence to fill jobs."— Presentation transcript:
SELECTION Selection is the process of picking individuals(out of a pool of job applicants) who have relevant qualifications & competence to fill jobs in an organization. Selection is much more than just choosing the best candidate. It is an attempt to strike a happy balance between what the applicant can and wants to do and what the organization requires.
It is the process of differentiating between applicants in order to identify ( & hire) those with a greater likelihood of success in a job. Recruitment (+)ve (attract as many individuals as possible) Selection (-)ve (to eliminate unqualified & identify the right candidates) Selection procedure is concerned with securing relevant inf. about an applicant thru a no. of steps / stages. At each stage,facts come out which may lead to rejection of the applicant.----also called successive hurdle technique.
Matching People and Jobs Selection Considerations Person-job fit: job analysis identifies required individual competencies for job success. Person-organization fit: the degree to which individuals are matched to the culture and values of the organization.
The Goal of Selection: Maximize “Hits”
The Selection Process Obtaining Reliable and Valid Information Reliability The degree to which interviews, tests, and other selection procedures yield comparable data over time and alternative measures. Validity Degree to which a test or selection procedure measures a person’s attributes.
Preliminary interview Reception of applications Physically unfit, professionally objectionable or unfavorable general impression Internal environment External environment Unfavorable personal data Unfavorable test score Application blank Psychological tests Interview Background information (reference checking) Final selection Physical examination Placement Waiting List of desirable applicants Unfavorable second impression Unfavorable previous history -ve decision Physically unfit SELECTION PROCESS
ENVIRONMENT External Supply & demand of specific skills in labour mkt. Unemployment rate Labour mkt. Conditions Legal & political consideration Co.s image Internal Co.s. policy
HRP Cost of hiring Selection is usually a series of hurdles or steps. Each one must be successfully cleared before the applicant proceeds to the next RECEPTION, INITIAL OR PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW OR SCREENING,COURTESY INTERVIEW The HR department tries to screen out the obvious misfits through this courtesy interview.
Conductedby special interviewer / high caliber receptionist / junior executive etc. Usually when applicants are large in no. A sorting process in which inf. regarding org. in general, job is given & inf. from candidates is elicited---education, experience, communication skills, physical appearance etc. Is short, may be conducted over a desk, counter. Also called stand up interviews.
APPLICATION BLANK / APPLICATION FORM It is a printed form completed by job aspirants detailing their educational background, previous work history and certain personal data. Used to circulate among members of mgmt.,& storing inf. for future references Many types long brief
Contents Of Application Blank Personal data (address, sex, identification marks) Marital data (single or married, children, dependents) Physical data (height, weight, health condition) Educational data (levels of formal education, marks, distinctions) Employment data (past experience, promotions, nature of duties, reasons for leaving previous jobs, salary drawn, etc.) Extra-curricular activities data (sports/games, NSS, NCC, prizes won, leisure-time activities) Country of citizenship References (names of two or more people who certify the suitability of an applicant to the advertised position)
Qs. asked should be valid & necessary. Should be complete enough to relieve the interviewer of the burden of recording considerable factual data
Online Applications An Internet-based automated posting, application, and tracking process helps firms to more quickly fill positions by: Attracting a broader and more diverse applicant pool Collecting and mining resumes with keyword searches to identify qualified candidates Conducting screening tests online Reducing recruiting costs significantly
TESTS A test is a standardized, objective measure of a sample of behaviour. –for comparing behavior of two persons. Is sample of an aspect of individual’s behavior, performance or attitude. Selection tests are increasingly used by companies these days because they measure individual differences in a scientific way, leaving very little room for individual bias.
An objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior that is used to gauge a person’s knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) in relation to other individuals.
Classification of Employment Tests Cognitive Ability Tests Aptitude tests Measures of a person’s capacity to learn or acquire skills. Achievement tests Measures of what a person knows or can do right now. Personality and Interest Inventories “Big Five” personality factors: Extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness to experience.
CPI Personality Facets and Sample Items Agreeableness Trust—I believe people are usually honest with me. Conscientiousness Attention to detail—I like to complete every detail of tasks according to the work plans. Extroversion Adaptability—For me, change is exciting. Neuroticism Self-confidence—I am confident about my skills and abilities. Openness to Experience Independence—I tend to work on projects alone, even if others volunteer to help me.
Physical Ability Tests Must be related to the essential functions of the the job. Job Knowledge Tests An achievement test that measures a person’s level of understanding about a particular job. Work Sample Tests Require the applicant to perform tasks that are actually a part of the work required on the job.
Selection Practices Of Global Giants 1.Siemens India: It uses extensive psychometric instruments to evaluate short- listed candidates. The company uses occupational personality questionnaire to understand the candidate’s personal attributes and occupational testing to measure competencies. 2.LG Electronics India: LG Electronics uses 3 psychometric tests to measure a person’s ability as a team player, to check personality types and to ascertain a person’s responsiveness and assertiveness.. 3Pepsico India: The company uses India as a global recruitment resource. To select professionals for global careers with it, the company uses a competency- based interviewing technique that looks at the candidate’s abilities in terms of strategising, lateral thinking, problem solving, managing the environment. These apart, Pepsi insists that to succeed in a global posting, these individuals possess strong functional knowledge and come from a cosmopolitan background.
Is a formal, in depth conversation conducted to evaluate the applicant’s acceptability. Allows two way exchange of information. Types of interviews 1)Preliminary interview a)Informal interview—for basic, non-job related information. b)Unstructured interview– candidate given freedom INTERVIEWS
to tell about himself, areas etc. & interviewer also provides the requisite information. 2) Core interview a) Background information interview b) Job & probing interview c) The nondirective interview: the recruiter asks questions as they come to mind d) The directive or structured interview: the recruiter uses a predetermined set of Questions that are clearly job-related.
e)The situational interview: the recruiter presents a hypothetical incident and asks The candidate to respond
e) The behavioral interview: the focus here is on actual work related incidents and the applicant is supposed to reveal what he or she did in a given situation f) Stress interview: the recruiter attempts to find how applicants would respond to aggressive, embarrassing, rule and insulting (at times) questions
h)The panel interview: three or four interviewers pose questions to the applicant and examine the suitability of the candidate i) Group discussion j) Depth interview : in core areas of knowledge & skills.
h)Computer Interview Using a computer program that requires candidates to answer a series of questions tailored to the job. Answers are compared either with an ideal profile or with profiles developed on the basis of other candidates’ responses. i) Video interviews Using video conference technologies to evaluate job candidates’ technical abilities, energy level, appearance, and the like before incurring the costs of a face-to-face meeting.
The Employment Interview Why the interview is so popular: It is especially practical when there are only a small number of applicants. It serves other purposes, such as public relations Interviewers maintain great faith and confidence in their judgments.
Variables in the Employment Interview
Ground Rules for Employment Interviews Establish an interview plan Establish and maintain rapport Be an active listener Pay attention to nonverbal cues Provide information freely Use questions effectively Separate facts from inferences Recognize biases and stereotypes Control the course of the interview Standardize the questions asked
Diversity Management: Are Your Questions Legal No questions are expressly forbidden. Questions related to race, color, age, religion, sex, or national origin can be hazardous. Questions are acceptable if job-related, asked of everyone, and do not discriminate against a protected class (e.g., females).
Snap judgements: deciding the applicant's suitability quickly based on the early impression Leniency: the tendency to rate employee high or excellent on all criteria Stereotyping: attributing characteristics to individuals based on their inclusion or membership in a particular group Bias: allowing the ratings to be influence by the personal likes and dislikes Halo effect: a single important trait of a candidate affects the judgment of the rater ( like “athletes make good sales people”) Candidate order error: the order in which a rater interviews candidates could influence ratings sometimes Interviewing Mistakes
Interview process Preparation of interview Conduct the interview Close the interview Evaluate the interview Appropriate type of interview Areas to be tested Type & no. of interviews Review the information Open the interview Get complete & accurate information Record observations & impressions Guide the interview Check the success of the interview
Reaching a Selection Decision Selection Considerations: Should individuals to be hired according to their highest potential or according to the needs of the organization? At what grade or wage level to start the individual? Should selection be for employee- job match, or should advancement potential be considered? Should those not qualified but qualifiable be considered? Should overqualified individuals be considered? What effect will a decision have on meeting affirmative action plans and diversity considerations?
Selection Decision Strategies Multiple Cutoff Model - Minimum Statistical Approach Compensatory Model - Average Multiple Hurdle Model- Sequential Clinical Approach ObjectivityObjectivity SubjectivitySubjectivity
Selection Decision Models Compensatory Model Permits a high score in one area to make up for a low score in another area. Multiple Cutoff Model Requires an applicant to achieve a minimum level of proficiency on all selection dimensions. Multiple Hurdle Model Only applicants with sufficiently high scores at each selection stage go on to subsequent stages in the selection process.
Selection Ratio The number of applicants compared with the number of people to be hired. Cutoff Score The point in a distribution of scores above which a person is considered and below which a person is rejected.
“Can-Do” and “Will-Do” Factors in Selection Decisions
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION To check if individual carries any infectious disease, physical ability, to protect employer from workers compensation claims that are not valid. JOB OFFER Thru letter of appointment Carries date of joining
CONTRACTS OF EMPLOYEMENT Carries Job title Duties Date when employment starts Pay, allowances Hrs of working, overtime, shifts etc. Holidays Length of notice Rules Contracts ( if applicable )
Concluding the selection process Does not end with executing the employment contract but another imp. step--- a more sensitive one --- reassuring those not selected. They must be told that they were not selected, not coz of any serious deficiencies in their personalities but coz their profiles did not match the requirements of the org. Evaluation The broad test of effectiveness is the quality of personnel hired