2SELECTIONSelection is the process of picking individuals(out of a pool of job applicants) who have relevant qualifications & competence to fill jobs in an organization.Selection is much more than just choosing the best candidate.It is an attempt to strike a happy balance between what the applicant can and wants to do and what the organization requires.
3It is the process of differentiating between applicants in order to identify ( & hire) those with a greater likelihood of success in a job.Recruitment (+)ve (attract as many individuals as possible)Selection (-)ve (to eliminate unqualified & identify the right candidates)Selection procedure is concerned with securing relevant inf. about an applicant thru a no. of steps / stages. At each stage ,facts come out which may lead to rejection of the applicant.----also called successive hurdle technique.
4Matching People and Jobs Selection ConsiderationsPerson-job fit: job analysis identifies required individual competencies for job success.Person-organization fit: the degree to which individuals are matched to the culture and values of the organization.
6The Selection Process Obtaining Reliable and Valid Information ReliabilityThe degree to which interviews, tests, and other selection procedures yield comparable data over time and alternative measures.ValidityDegree to which a test or selection procedure measures a person’s attributes.
7Preliminary interview External environmentInternal environmentReception of applicationsSELECTION PROCESSPreliminary interviewApplication blankPsychological testsPhysically unfit, professionally objectionable or unfavorable general impressionInterviewWaitingBackground information(reference checking)Unfavorable personal dataList of desirable applicantsUnfavorable second impressionUnfavorable test scoreUnfavorable previous historyFinal selection-ve decisionPhysical examinationPhysicallyunfitPlacement
8Supply & demand of specific skills in labour mkt. Unemployment rate ENVIRONMENTExternalSupply & demand of specific skills in labour mkt.Unemployment rateLabour mkt. ConditionsLegal & political considerationCo.s imageInternalCo.s. policy
9HRPCost of hiringSelection is usually a series of hurdles or steps. Each one must be successfully cleared before the applicant proceeds to the nextRECEPTION , INITIAL OR PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW OR SCREENING,COURTESY INTERVIEWThe HR department tries to screen out the obvious misfits through this courtesy interview.
10Usually when applicants are large in no. Conducted by special interviewer / high caliber receptionist / junior executive etc.Usually when applicants are large in no.A sorting process in which inf. regarding org. in general , job is given & inf. from candidates is elicited---education, experience, communication skills, physical appearance etc.Is short, may be conducted over a desk , counter. Also called stand up interviews.
11APPLICATION BLANK / APPLICATION FORM It is a printed form completed by job aspirants detailing their educational background, previous work history and certain personal data.Used to circulate among members of mgmt.,& storing inf. for future referencesMany typeslongbrief
12Contents Of Application Blank Personal data (address, sex, identification marks)Marital data (single or married, children, dependents)Physical data (height, weight, health condition)Educational data (levels of formal education, marks, distinctions)Employment data (past experience, promotions, nature of duties, reasons for leaving previous jobs, salary drawn, etc.)Extra-curricular activities data (sports/games, NSS, NCC, prizes won, leisure-time activities)Country of citizenshipReferences (names of two or more people who certify the suitability of an applicant to the advertised position)
13Qs. asked should be valid & necessary. Should be complete enough to relieve the interviewer of the burden of recording considerable factual data
14Online ApplicationsAn Internet-based automated posting, application, and tracking process helps firms to more quickly fill positions by:Attracting a broader and more diverse applicant poolCollecting and mining resumes with keyword searches to identify qualified candidatesConducting screening tests onlineReducing recruiting costs significantly
15TESTSA test is a standardized, objective measure of a sample of behaviour. –for comparing behavior of two persons.Is sample of an aspect of individual’s behavior, performance or attitude.Selection tests are increasingly used by companies these days because they measure individual differences in a scientific way, leaving very little room for individual bias.
16An objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior that is used to gauge a person’s knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) in relation to other individuals.
17Classification of Employment Tests Cognitive Ability TestsAptitude testsMeasures of a person’s capacity to learn or acquire skills.Achievement testsMeasures of what a person knows or can do right now.Personality and Interest Inventories“Big Five” personality factors:Extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness to experience.
18CPI Personality Facets and Sample Items AgreeablenessTrust—I believe people are usually honest with me.ConscientiousnessAttention to detail—I like to complete every detail of tasks according to the work plans.ExtroversionAdaptability—For me, change is exciting.NeuroticismSelf-confidence—I am confident about my skills and abilities.Openness to ExperienceIndependence—I tend to work on projects alone, even if others volunteer to help me.
19Physical Ability Tests Job Knowledge Tests Must be related to the essential functions of the the job.Job Knowledge TestsAn achievement test that measures a person’s level of understanding about a particular job.Work Sample TestsRequire the applicant to perform tasks that are actually a part of the work required on the job.
20Selection Practices Of Global Giants 1. Siemens India: It uses extensive psychometric instruments to evaluate short- listed candidates. The company uses occupational personality questionnaire to understand the candidate’s personal attributes and occupational testing to measure competencies.2. LG Electronics India: LG Electronics uses 3 psychometric tests to measure a person’s ability as a team player, to check personality types and to ascertain a person’s responsiveness and assertiveness..3 Pepsico India: The company uses India as a global recruitment resource. To select professionals for global careers with it, the company uses a competency- based interviewing technique that looks at the candidate’s abilities in terms of strategising, lateral thinking, problem solving, managing the environment. These apart, Pepsi insists that to succeed in a global posting, these individuals possess strong functional knowledge and come from a cosmopolitan background.
21INTERVIEWSIs a formal, in depth conversation conducted to evaluate the applicant’s acceptability.Allows two way exchange of information.Types of interviewsPreliminary interviewInformal interview—for basic, non-job related information.Unstructured interview– candidate given freedom
22to tell about himself , areas etc to tell about himself , areas etc. & interviewer also provides the requisite information.2) Core interviewBackground information interviewJob & probing interviewThe nondirective interview: the recruiter asks questions as they come to mindThe directive or structured interview: the recruiter uses a predetermined set of Questions that are clearly job-related.
23The situational interview: the recruiter presents a hypothetical incident and asks The candidate to respond
25The behavioral interview: the focus here is on actual work related incidents and the applicant is supposed to reveal what he or she did in a given situationStress interview: the recruiter attempts to find how applicants would respond to aggressive, embarrassing, rule and insulting (at times) questions
26The panel interview: three or four interviewers pose questions to the applicant and examine the suitability of the candidateGroup discussionDepth interview : in core areas of knowledge & skills.
27h)Computer Interview i) Video interviews Using a computer program that requires candidates to answer a series of questions tailored to the job.Answers are compared either with an ideal profile or with profiles developed on the basis of other candidates’ responses.i) Video interviewsUsing video conference technologies to evaluate job candidates’ technical abilities, energy level, appearance, and the like before incurring the costs of a face-to-face meeting.
28The Employment Interview Why the interview is so popular:It is especially practical when there are only a small number of applicants.It serves other purposes, such as public relationsInterviewers maintain great faith and confidence in their judgments.
30Ground Rules for Employment Interviews Establish an interview planEstablish and maintain rapportBe an active listenerPay attention to nonverbal cuesProvide information freelyUse questions effectivelySeparate facts from inferencesRecognize biases and stereotypesControl the course of the interviewStandardize the questions asked
31Diversity Management: Are Your Questions Legal No questions are expressly forbidden.Questions related to race, color, age, religion, sex, or national origin can be hazardous.Questions are acceptable if job-related, asked of everyone, and do not discriminate against a protected class (e.g., females).
32Interviewing Mistakes Snap judgements: deciding the applicant's suitability quickly based on the early impressionLeniency: the tendency to rate employee high or excellent on all criteriaStereotyping: attributing characteristics to individuals based on their inclusion or membership in a particular groupBias: allowing the ratings to be influence by the personal likes and dislikesHalo effect: a single important trait of a candidate affects the judgment of the rater ( like “athletes make good sales people”)Candidate order error: the order in which a rater interviews candidates could influence ratings sometimes
33Preparation of interview Interview processPreparation of interviewConduct the interviewClose the interviewEvaluate the interviewAppropriate type of interviewAreas to be testedType & no. of interviewsReview the informationOpen the interviewGet complete & accurateinformationRecord observations & impressionsGuide the interviewCheck the success of the interview
35Reaching a Selection Decision Selection Considerations:Should individuals to be hired according to their highest potential or according to the needs of the organization?At what grade or wage level to start the individual?Should selection be for employee- job match, or should advancement potential be considered?Should those not qualified but qualifiable be considered?Should overqualified individuals be considered?What effect will a decision have on meeting affirmative action plans and diversity considerations?
36Selection Decision Strategies Clinical ApproachSubjectivityStatistical ApproachObjectivityCompensatory Model - AverageMultiple Cutoff Model - MinimumMultiple Hurdle Model- Sequential
37Selection Decision Models Compensatory ModelPermits a high score in one area to make up for a low score in another area.Multiple Cutoff ModelRequires an applicant to achieve a minimum level of proficiency on all selection dimensions.Multiple Hurdle ModelOnly applicants with sufficiently high scores at each selection stage go on to subsequent stages in the selection process.
38Selection Ratio Cutoff Score The number of applicants compared with the number of people to be hired.Cutoff ScoreThe point in a distribution of scores above which a person is considered and below which a person is rejected.
39“Can-Do” and “Will-Do” Factors in Selection Decisions
40PHYSICAL EXAMINATIONTo check if individual carries any infectious disease, physical ability, to protect employer from workers compensation claims that are not valid.JOB OFFERThru letter of appointmentCarries date of joining
41CONTRACTS OF EMPLOYEMENT CarriesJob titleDutiesDate when employment startsPay, allowancesHrs of working, overtime, shifts etc.HolidaysLength of noticeRulesContracts ( if applicable )
42Concluding the selection process Does not end with executing the employment contract but another imp. step--- a more sensitive one ---reassuring those not selected.They must be told that they were not selected, not coz of any serious deficiencies in their personalities but coz their profiles did not match the requirements of the org.EvaluationThe broad test of effectiveness is the quality of personnel hired