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Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 13 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Moral Development,

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 13 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Moral Development,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 13 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Moral Development, Values, and Religion

2 Slide 2 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Moral Development, Values, and Religion Domains of Moral Development Contexts of Moral Development Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior Values, Religion, Spirituality, and Meaning in LifeValues, Religion, Spirituality, and Meaning in Life

3 Slide 3 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. What Is Moral Development? Changes in thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding standards of right and wrong An intrapersonal dimension: regulates activities An interpersonal dimension: regulates social interactions and arbitrates conflict Domains of Moral Development

4 Slide 4 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Piaget’s Theory of Moral Development Domains of Moral Development Heteronymous morality Autonomous morality Immanent justice Justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people (4-7 years) Becomes aware that rules and laws are created by people; in judging an action, one should consider actor’s intentions as well as consequences (10 years and older) If a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately

5 Slide 5 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development Moral reasoning unfolds in universal stages –Moral thoughts constructed as one passes through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood –Tested by story with moral dilemma –Theory of 3 levels, two stages in each Domains of Moral Development

6 Slide 6 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Kohlberg Stages Preconventional reasoning — lowest level –Good or bad based on external rewards and punishment –Stage 1. Heteronomous morality — tied to punishment –Stage 2. Individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange — tied to equal exchange Domains of Moral Development

7 Slide 7 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Kohlberg Stages Conventional reasoning — intermediate level –Individuals abide by certain standards, but are standards of others –Stage 3. Mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity — trust, caring, loyalty to others is basis of judgment –Stage 4. Social systems morality — judgments based on social order, law, justice, and duty Domains of Moral Development

8 Slide 8 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Kohlberg Stages Postconventional reasoning — highest level –Individuals recognize alternative moral courses, explore options, and decide own moral code –Stage 5. Social contract or utility and individual rights — evaluates validity of actual laws and social systems for preserving and protecting fundamental human rights and values –Stage 6. Universal ethical principles — develops moral standard based on universal human rights Domains of Moral Development

9 Slide 9 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Age and Kohlberg’s Stages Domains of Moral Development Fig Mean percent of moral reasoning at each stage Age (years)

10 Slide 10 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Kohlberg’s Stages Moral stages appeared later than predicted 7th stage added: cosmic perspective Peer interaction critical influence Kohlberg’s critics –Moral reasons (overemphasized) can be shelter for immoral behavior (underemphasized) –Faulty research: difficult to measure morality –Culturally biased Domains of Moral Development

11 Slide 11 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Families and Moral Development Family processes unimportant in children’s moral development: use inductive discipline Gender perspectives –Korlberg’s theory has justice perspective — focus on rights of individual, one stands alone and independently –Gilligan’s care perspective — views people in terms of connectedness with others; girls interpret moral dilemmas in terms of human relationships Domains of Moral Development

12 Slide 12 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Social Conventional Reasoning Focuses on thoughts about social consensus and convention –Conventional rules Created to control behavioral irregularities and maintain social system Arbitrary and subject to individual judgment –Concepts of social organization Domains of Moral Development

13 Slide 13 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Moral Reasoning Emphasizes ethical issues Moral rules not arbitrary; obligatory, widely accepted, and somewhat impersonal –Violations are affronts to ethical standards –Involve concepts of justice –Not created by social consensus and convention Domains of Moral Development

14 Slide 14 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Moral Behavior Basic Processes of reinforcement, punishment, and imitation: behavior is situation-specific Resistance to Temptation and Self-Control –Influenced by cognitive factors Social Cognitive Theory of Morality –Distinguishes between moral competence (ability to produce moral behaviors) and moral performance (actually performing them) Domains of Moral Development

15 Slide 15 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Moral Feeling Psychoanalytic Theory –Foundation of moral behavior is avoid guilt feelings –Superego: moral branch of personality (2 parts) Ego ideal — rewards for acting ideal standards Conscience — punishes for disapproved acts Children internalize parents’ standards Domains of Moral Development

16 Slide 16 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Empathy Reacting to another’s feelings with emotional response similar to other’s feelings Cognitive component — perspective-taking Develops from infant’s global empathy Children’s ability depends on awareness that people have different reactions to situations Domains of Moral Development

17 Slide 17 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Emotion and Moral Development: The Contemporary Perspective When strongly felt, both positive and negative feelings contribute to moral behavior –Positive feelings: empathy, sympathy, admiration, self-esteem –Negative feelings: anger, outrage, shame, guilt –Some emotions undergo developmental change throughout childhood and beyond; interwoven with cognitive and social aspects of development Domains of Moral Development

18 Slide 18 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Moral Exemplars Emphasizes development of personality, character, and virtue in terms of moral excellence –Brave: dominant and extroverted –Caring: nuturant and agreeable –Just: conscientiousness and open to experience The three may be core of moral functioning that includes being honest and dependable Domains of Moral Development

19 Slide 19 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Parenting Piaget and Kohlberg discounted parents’ input to children’s moral development Parents see themselves in primary role –Love withdrawal –Power assertion –Induction Contexts of Moral Development

20 Slide 20 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Schools — The Hidden Curriculum Pervasive moral atmosphere in schools Character Education –Direct moral education approach teaches students basic moral literacy to prevent immoral behavior, doing harm to themselves or others Values Clarification –Helps clarify what life is for, what to work for –Students encouraged to define own values and understand others’ values Contexts of Moral Development

21 Slide 21 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Schools — The Hidden Curriculum Cognitive Moral Education –Students should value things like democracy and justice as moral reasoning develops –Instructor is facilitator, not director Service Learning –Form of education that promotes social responsibility and service to community –Benefits student volunteers and recipients Contexts of Moral Development

22 Slide 22 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Prosocial Behavior Altruism and Reciprocity –Altruism: unselfish interest in helping another person, mostly evoked by empathy –Some argue altruism does not exist; everyone benefits from performing the action –Many prosocial behaviors involve reciprocity; the obligation to return a favor with a favor Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior

23 Slide 23 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Prosocial Behavior Sharing and fairness –Most sharing in first 3 years of life: non-empathic –At about age 4: combination of empathic awareness and adult encouragement –In elementary years: complicated ideas of fairness –Throughout history: involved principles of equality, merit, and benevolence Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior

24 Slide 24 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Gender and Prosocial Behavior Antisocial behavior –Delinquents: children or adolescents who commit illegal acts –Juvenile delinquency: broad range of behaviors Index offenses — criminal acts Status offenses — less serious acts; illegal only when they are performed by youth –More common in males than females Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior

25 Slide 25 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Gender and Prosocial Behavior Psychiatrists: conduct disorders –Age-inappropriate actions and attitudes (externalizing or under-controlled behavior patterns) –Violate Family expectations Society’s norms Personal or property rights of others Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior

26 Slide 26 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Antecedents of Delinquency Authority conflict Covert Acts Overt Aggression Not exclusively lower-SES phenomenon; characteristics of lower-SES culture can promote delinquency –High-status traits for boys –Affected by family and peer relationships Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior

27 Slide 27 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Violence and Youth At-risk youth –Early involvement with drugs and alcohol –Easy access to weapons, especially handguns –Association with antisocial, deviant peer groups –Pervasive exposure to violence in the media Prevention programs exist Predicting youth violence is complex Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior

28 Slide 28 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Reducing Youth Violence Oregon social Learning Center recommends –Recommit to raising children safely and effectively –Make prevention a reality –Give more support to schools –Forge effective partnerships among families, schools, social service systems, churches, and other agencies Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior

29 Slide 29 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Values Beliefs and attitudes about the way things should be –Measured by asking what one’s goals are –Self-fulfillment and self-expression can lead to self-destruction, loneliness, and alienation –Self-fulfillment and commitment to others can lead to successful adjustment Values, Religion, Spirituality, and Meaning in Life

30 Slide 30 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Changing Freshman Life Goals Values, Religion, Spirituality, and Meaning in Life Fig. 13.6

31 Slide 31 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Piaget’s Stages of Religious Thought Values, Religion, Spirituality, and Meaning in Life Concrete operational Formal operational Preoperational intuitive 7-8 to onward up to 7-8 years Focused on details of pictures and stories Abstract religious understanding Religious thoughts unsystematic and fragmented

32 Slide 32 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Parenting and Religion Societies use many methods to ensure people carry on religious traditions –Most adults adopt religious teachings of upbringing –Most religious change or re-awakenings occur in adolescence –Positive relationship or secure attachment with parents make adolescents more likely to adopt religious orientation of parents Values, Religion, Spirituality, and Meaning in Life

33 Slide 33 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Adolescence Religion important to most adolescents Those viewing religion as meaningful are linked to positive outcomes –Lower rates of delinquency and drug use –Better grades for low-income students –Better ability to cope with problems Values, Religion, Spirituality, and Meaning in Life

34 Slide 34 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Religion and Sexuality in Adolescence High degree of adolescent involvement with religious organizations linked to –Strict premarital sexual attitudes and behaviors –Likelihood of having friends with restrictive attitudes toward premarital sex –Fewer sexual partners outside romantic relationship –Greater awareness of HIV and pregnancy; less likely to have unprotected sex Values, Religion, Spirituality, and Meaning in Life

35 Slide 35 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Religion and Spirituality in Adulthood Important to adults around the world –70% of Americans religious More important to women than men Americans becoming less committed to particular religious faiths Individual differences in religion in middle adulthood Values, Religion, Spirituality, and Meaning in Life

36 Slide 36 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Religion and Health Religious sect members resist using medical treatments and pain-relieving medications Positive link between religious commitment and health –Helps moderate blood pressure; less stress –Live longer life; have fewer health problems –Live healthier lifestyles; more optimistic –Involvement in more social connections Values, Religion, Spirituality, and Meaning in Life

37 Slide 37 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Religion in older adults Increased spirituality in late middle to late adulthood –Increased more for women than men –Linked to spirituality in early adulthood –Faith is most significant influence in one’s life –Put faith into practice more often –Highest commitment linked to highest self-esteem Values, Religion, Spirituality, and Meaning in Life

38 Slide 38 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Religion in older adults Psychological benefits –Derived sense of meaning in life –Higher levels of life-satisfaction –Face impending death, accept losses of age –Find meaningfulness –Social community, generativity Values, Religion, Spirituality, and Meaning in Life

39 Slide 39 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Meaning in Life Need for –Purpose –Values –A sense of efficacy –Self-worth Values, Religion, Spirituality, and Meaning in Life

40 Slide 40 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The End 13


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