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Implications of Clumpiness on Growth & Yield Managing Stand Density Symposium March 16, 2005 Canyonville, Oregon James D. Arney, Ph.D. Forest Biometrics.

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Presentation on theme: "Implications of Clumpiness on Growth & Yield Managing Stand Density Symposium March 16, 2005 Canyonville, Oregon James D. Arney, Ph.D. Forest Biometrics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Implications of Clumpiness on Growth & Yield Managing Stand Density Symposium March 16, 2005 Canyonville, Oregon James D. Arney, Ph.D. Forest Biometrics Research Institute Missoula, Montana

2 What is Clumpiness? Clumpiness is a Stand Attribute Clumpiness is a Stand Attribute Clumpiness is an Index of Spatial Regularity Clumpiness is an Index of Spatial Regularity How to Get There: How to Get There: Phototype the Forest into Stand Polygons Phototype the Forest into Stand Polygons Typically by Species, Size & Density Typically by Species, Size & Density Set Minimum Polygon Size (Typically 5-acres) Set Minimum Polygon Size (Typically 5-acres) Absorb Small Openings and Thickets (< 5-acres) Absorb Small Openings and Thickets (< 5-acres) Clumpiness is the Dispersion within the Polygon Clumpiness is the Dispersion within the Polygon Use Cruise Compiler to Compute the Index Use Cruise Compiler to Compute the Index Load the Index into your Inventory Database Load the Index into your Inventory Database

3 Tree versus Plot Attributes Plot Parameters Plot Parameters Site Index Site Index Stand Density (SDI, CCF, Rd, Tpa, Basal Area) Stand Density (SDI, CCF, Rd, Tpa, Basal Area) Clumpiness (spatial pattern) Clumpiness (spatial pattern) Species Parameters Species Parameters Genetic growth form, Shade Tolerance Genetic growth form, Shade Tolerance Tree Parameters Tree Parameters Species, Dbh, Height, Taper, Age Species, Dbh, Height, Taper, Age Tree-centered Density (CSI) Tree-centered Density (CSI)

4 Stand Density Indices Stand Density Index (SDI), Reineke (1933) Stand Density Index (SDI), Reineke (1933) Assumes Quadratic Mean Dbh Assumes Quadratic Mean Dbh Assumes All Trees with Dbh > 0 Assumes All Trees with Dbh > 0 Relative Density (Rd), Curtis (1982) Relative Density (Rd), Curtis (1982) Assumes Quadratic Mean Dbh Assumes Quadratic Mean Dbh Includes Only Trees with Dbh > 0 Includes Only Trees with Dbh > 0 SDI = 5.8 * Rd SDI = 5.8 * Rd Crown Competition Factor, Krajicek etal (1961) Crown Competition Factor, Krajicek etal (1961) Summation of Individual Tree Growing Space Summation of Individual Tree Growing Space Includes All Trees, All Sizes including Dbh = 0 Includes All Trees, All Sizes including Dbh = 0 CCF = 5.0 * Rd (General Rule of Thumb) CCF = 5.0 * Rd (General Rule of Thumb)

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8 Crown Competition Factor Sum of Crown Areas: From within-Plot Trees On Fixed-Area Plot Divide by Plot Area Multiply by 100 CCF scale 100 to Where: =<100 is Open-grown >200 crown recession >300 suppression mortality

9 A Tree-Centered Density Index Competitive Stress Index (CSI), Arney (1973) Competitive Stress Index (CSI), Arney (1973) Uses Same Individual Tree Growing Space Area as CCF Uses Same Individual Tree Growing Space Area as CCF Includes All Trees, All Sizes (even Dbh = 0) Includes All Trees, All Sizes (even Dbh = 0) Competing Trees Overlap into “Subject Tree” Growing Space Competing Trees Overlap into “Subject Tree” Growing Space Primary Sampling Unit is the Individual Tree Primary Sampling Unit is the Individual Tree Provides Distribution of Density across Plot Provides Distribution of Density across Plot Plot-Centered Density Index (CCF) Plot-Centered Density Index (CCF) Competing Trees Overlap into “Plot” Growing Space Competing Trees Overlap into “Plot” Growing Space Primary Sampling Unit is the Plot Primary Sampling Unit is the Plot Provides only Average Density across Plot Provides only Average Density across Plot

10 Competitive Stress Index Sum of Overlap Areas: From neighboring Trees On Subject Tree Divide by Subject Area Multiply by 100 CSI scale 100 to Where: 100 is Open-grown >200 crown recession >300 suppression mortality

11 Application of Clumpiness Index Spatial Variability Index on Research Plot Spatial Variability Index on Research Plot Stem Map Trees on Research Plot Stem Map Trees on Research Plot Clumpiness = Spatial Variance / Mean Spacing Clumpiness = Spatial Variance / Mean Spacing FPS Translates to 0 – 1 Clumpiness Scale FPS Translates to 0 – 1 Clumpiness Scale Tree Sizes and Spacing determine CSI Tree Sizes and Spacing determine CSI Estimate of Density Distribution on Cruise Estimate of Density Distribution on Cruise Prism Plots provide Point Estimates of CSI Prism Plots provide Point Estimates of CSI Clumpiness = CSI Variation / Average CSI Clumpiness = CSI Variation / Average CSI

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19 25 Year Mortality Story at Stampede Creek LOGS Year#TreesCCF CSI (Min-Max) 19681, , ,

20 25 Year Mortality Story at Stampede Creek LOGS

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25 33 Year Thinning Trials at OSU Black Rock Initial Conditions on Three 1-acre Plots Treatment#TreesCCF CSI (Min-Max) Control – 865 Light – 388 Heavy – 223

26 33 Year Thinning Trials at OSU Black Rock

27 Observed Dbh Growth by CCF CCF

28 Observed Dbh Growth by CSI CSI

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31 Typical Clumpiness Distributions in Oregon Forests

32 Plantation at 0.95 Clumpiness

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42 Natural Stand at 0.85 Clumpiness

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52 Natural Stand at 0.75 Clumpiness

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62 Natural Stand at 0.65 Clumpiness

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72 Comparison of Yield Site 100, Age 60 by Clumpiness ClumpSppDbhBACCFBdFtNPV 0.95DFWH ,0392, DFWH ,6792, DFWH ,9691, DFWH ,7771, DFWH ,5751, DFWH ,893878

73 Within Polygon Effect of a 100-ft Edge Buffer

74 Spatial Pattern within an Existing DF, WH Clumpy Mature Stand

75 Apply 1-acre group selection thinning

76 Control brush & animals to facilitate natural regeneration

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80 Apply overstory removal

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85 Forest Projection & Planning System (FPS) Version 6.4

86 Clumpiness in Growth Models Monro 1973 Clump Index DbhDensityExamples Stand Model NoMeanStandDFSIM DistanceIndepend.NoTreeStand FVS, ORGANON, SPS, CACTOS, CRYPTOS DistanceDependentYesTreeTreeFPS

87 Silviculture in Clumpy Stands DI Models will Over-Estimate Growth DI Models will Over-Estimate Growth DI Models will Under-Estimate Mortality DI Models will Under-Estimate Mortality DI Models tied to Research Plot Spacing DI Models tied to Research Plot Spacing Size of Openings Determines Regeneration Size of Openings Determines Regeneration Tree Species and Abundance Tree Species and Abundance Brush Species and Abundance Brush Species and Abundance Grass Species and Abundance Grass Species and Abundance

88 Is Clumpiness Important? CompositionOriginImportant? Single Species PlantationNo Natural Regeneration Yes Multi-SpeciesPlantationYes Multi-Species Natural Stand Yes Group Selection ThinningsYes


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