Presentation on theme: "METODE & DISAIN PENELITIAN Types of research design How to choose a research design Issues in research design SUMBER: www.utsc.utoronto.ca/.../WebResearchMeth..."— Presentation transcript:
METODE & DISAIN PENELITIAN Types of research design How to choose a research design Issues in research design SUMBER:
Beberapa Tipe Disain Penelitian 1.Korelasional 2.Lapangan (Survei) 3.Eksperimental 4.Qualitatif 5.Meta-analysis SUMBER:
Tipe Disain Penelitian Penelitian Korelasional Explores or tests relations between variables “Rules out” alternative variables that could play a role in relations between variables Penelitian Lapangan Studies participants in their natural setting Maximizes realism SUMBER:
Disain Percobaan (Eksperimen) Directly establishes cause-effect nature of relationship between variables Decreases ambiguity Laboratory vs. Field Experiment –Artificial setting with high control over variables SUMBER: Tipe Disain Penelitian
Disain Percobaan (Rancangan Percobaan) Establish cause via Manipulation of cause (aka treatment) Temporal precedence of cause (and no other factor) before effect Control of all other extraneous factors SUMBER: Tipe-tipe Disain Penelitian?
Disain Penelitian Percobaan - Contoh SUMBER:
Qualitative Non-quantitative Not necessarily informal data collection (cf. Saks) Examples Interview/focus group transcripts Some kinds of observational/archival data Critical incidents methodology Helps in Formulating hypotheses Deeper/richer understanding of phenomena Interpret organization-specific results SUMBER: Tipe-tipe Disain Penelitian
Meta Analysis Statistically combines results of existing research to estimate overall size of relation between variables Helps in Developing theory Identifying research needs, Establishing validity/effectiveness of HR tools Can replace large-scale research studies Better than literature reviews SUMBER: Tipe-tipe Disain Penelitian
1.Types of research design 2.How to choose a research design 3.Issues in research design SUMBER: Tipe-tipe Disain Penelitian
1.Does it adequately test the hypothesis? 2.Does it identify & control extraneous factors? 3.Apakah hasilnya dapat digeneralisasikan? 4.Can the hypothesis be rejected or retained via statistical means? 5.Is the design efficient in using available resources? SUMBER: Bagaimana memilih Disain Penelitian?
Does it adequately test the hypotheses? Hypotheses determine participants, variables measured & data analysis methods Example hypotheses tested in student projects –Discussion of Requirements of proposal SUMBER: Bgm memilih Disain Penelitian
Bagaimana memilih Disain Penelitian? Does it identify and control extraneous factors? Eliminate alternative explanations for results to increase confidence in cause-effect conclusion (internal validity) Control depends on type of design Correlational design has less control –Extraneous variables are measured and effects are statistically controlled SUMBER:
Controlling Extraneous Variables in Experimental Designs Acak Distributing extraneous variable across groups randomly Berpasangan Spreading the extraneous variable across groups via systematic assignment Less effective than random assignment Perlakuan Kontrol Group that receives no manipulation SUMBER:
Apakah hasilnya dapat di-generalisasikan? Replicate to other samples and other contexts Random selection of participants Features of field experiments enhancing external validity Realistic nature of setting and/or task Manipulation of treatment Use of control group Nature of samples used Lack of control over confounding variables due to non-random assignment or inability for matching SUMBER: Bagaimana memilih Disain Penelitian?
Can the hypothesis be rejected or retained via statistical means? (statistical conclusion validity) Need reliable measures Need large enough sample to detect true effect & avoid Type 1 & 2 errors (see over) What is a null hypothesis? –No effect proposed What is an alternative hypothesis? –What is a directional hypothesis? SUMBER: Bagaimana memilih Disain Penelitian?
Types of Decisions based on Statistics SUMBER: Bagaimana memilih Disain Penelitian?
Is the design efficient in using available resources? Optimal balance between research design, time, resources and researcher expertise SUMBER: Bagaimana memilih Disain Penelitian?
1.Types of research design 2.How to choose a research design 3.Issues in research design SUMBER: Metode & Disain Penelitian?
1.Research context 2.Nature & size of sample 3.Data sources SUMBER: Isu-Isu dalam Disain Penelitian
Research Context One or several organizational contexts Laboratory vs. field setting– depends on Goal of establishing nature of phenomenon (or process) that exists in most contexts Generalizability of results Control required of extraneous/nuisance variables SUMBER: Isu-Isu dalam Disain Penelitian
Sifat-sifat Sample Penelitian Random vs. stratified Convenience sample Student vs. field based sample Ukuran Sampel akan menentukan: Generalizability of results Ability to detect a true effect SUMBER: Isu-Isu dalam Disain Penelitian
Sumber Data : Laporan Sendiri Common method variance Similar response format Consistency bias of participants Unreliability of measures Social desirability Alternative methods to questionnaire (e.g., interviews, behavioral, archival) Multiple times of data collection Alternative sources (e.g., supervisor, peer) Measure of individual’s susceptibility to social desirability SUMBER: Isu-Isu dalam Disain Penelitian
Sumber Data : Laporan Sendiri Response shift bias Alpha =real (condition) change Beta = change in frame of reference (change in standards) Cross cultural difference in uses of ends vs. middle of response scale Gamma=change in meaning of construct/variable Cross cultural differences in meaning of term SUMBER:
Sumber Data : Alternatif Co-workers (e.g., subordinates, supervisors, peers) Archival Biological Trace Objective term SUMBER: Isu-Isu dalam Disain Penelitian
Methods & Design Penelitian 1.Types of research design 2.How to choose a research design 3.Issues in research design SUMBER: