Presentation on theme: "APSE 2013 Indianapolis, Indiana Presented by: Andrew Clemons"— Presentation transcript:
1 Assistive Dogs as an Employment Support for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders APSE 2013Indianapolis, IndianaPresented by:Andrew ClemonsKelly Kort, MA, NCCSandra Hulme, M.Ed.Darlene Groomes, Ph.D., CRC, LPCGary Mesibov, Ph.D.
2 Agenda and Basic Housekeeping Brief introductionsReview research study and findingsGallery walk (50 minutes)Three discussion break-outs, 15 minutes each, rotateWriting out input, disputes, and brainstorming with multidisciplinary research teamReconvene large group (15 minutes)Texting and Notecard Questions/Commentstakeaways to participants within two weeks
3 Exploring Interactions with Dogs through OUCARES Programming Our purposeAdolescents with ASDDecrease stressIncrease pro-social behaviorEncourage adaptation to disabilityWhether innovativeOutcomes from a social skills programDog interacting with one group
4 Research SpecificsFourteen adolescent participants (12 males, 2 females; mean age= 13; mean school grade level= 7th) were randomly assigned to experimental and control groupsBoth groups received six one-hour sessions (once per week, over six weeks)Researchers designed the social skills curriculum; the content for both groups was identicalDelivery fluctuated due to the use of different instructors and utilization of the dog
5 Research Specifics Participants and their families completed measures: Introductory QuestionnaireMultidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC)Adaptation to Disability Scale-Revised (ADS-R)Autism Social Skills Profile (ASSP)
6 Findings Qualitative analyses Themes analysis identifies themes of self- assurance and openness toward othersOngoing coding analysis indicates increased occurrence of pro-social behaviors in the experimental group compared to control groupPreliminary results suggest that HAI may provide a means of helping adolescents and family members to employ pro-social behaviors
7 Benefits Social skill-building/enhancement experiences Exposure to dog Social interactionDesensitize and teach tolerance to those who state apprehension around dogsProfessional service providers observed use of dogs as safe and effective for OUCARES programming
8 BenefitsImproved levels of emotional well-being from this experience during a time in development when peer interactions typically challenge mental health outlookParents/guardians, too, benefit from the engagement that they had with their childMagic benefited from human contact, healthy treat rewards, and attention.
9 Risks and Challenges https://www.facebook.com/Forbetterindependence Child could respond negatively to the dog or another child in the group.The long-haired German Shepard, Magic, is a certified assistance dog, trained through For Better Independence Dogs in Mason, Michiganhttps://www.facebook.com/ForbetterindependenceBeth and Gary Spanski
10 Gallery Walk Three topical interest areas, 15 minutes at each Text Questions and Comments:Three topical interest areas, 15 minutes at eachHAI Integrated Employment Programs and Quality of LifeHAI and Its Applications for Individuals Living with Autism in Integrated Employment and Transition SettingsQuality Mechanisms Needed in an HAI Integrated Employment ProgramLead facilitator will provide a brief context, info on slidesParticipants to dialogue, debate, deliberateFacilitator to scribe informationModerator will note time to shiftFacilitator of different interest area will shiftReconvene in larger group with“audience speaker” highlightTopic contextDDDScribeModerator noteFacilitatorshift15 minutes each
11 HAI Integrated Employment Programs and Quality of Life Implications of social skills on overall well-beingWHO definition (1998)Quality of life reflects the perception of individual’s life, in the context of their culture and value system, that their needs are being satisfied and that they are not being denied opportunities to achieve happiness and fulfillment, regardless of physical health status, or social and economic conditions.HAI stimulates social interaction and social competenceAdvances in neuroscience have provided us with valid research into how the social brain worksThe mechanisms by which oxytocin and vasopressin contribute to human social behaviorThe role of oxytocin and vasopressin in autism spectrum disordersCorrelations between basal oxytocin levels and the strength of social and bonding behaviors
12 HAI Integrated Employment Programs and Quality of Life Oxytocin and vasopressin are emerging as targets for treatment approachesProsocial effects of intranasal application of oxytocinOxytocin released during certain types of HAIPotential link between HAI effects and the oxytocin systemOxytocin and HAI effects largely overlap as documented by research in both humans and animalsOffers an explanation of the effects of HAIAdvantages of using HAI to increase oxytocin levelsNon-medical interventionsAdditional benefits
13 HAI Applications For individuals living with autism Integrated employmentTransition settings“Individuals with autism are generally not provided with the skills necessary to successfully move from school to post-secondary education, integrated employment (including supported employment), adult services, independent living, or community participation”How to attain, maintain, & retain employment“A review of the current literature on outcomes for adults with ASD indicates that, independent of current ability levels, the vast majority of adults on the spectrum are either unemployed or underemployed and, further, that large numbers of adults with autism remain without any appropriate services.”(Gerhardt, P.F. & Lainer, I., 2010)
14 HAI ApplicationsUtilization of animals as a potential adaptive strategyOccupational TherapyView as an assistive technologyAlternative service/device“To be effective in this expanding practice area, occupational therapists must understand how persons with physical disabilities use their service dogs as an adaptive strategy and what factors affect the success of this strategy.”Increased development of independence, employable skills, and psychosocial functioning“Service dogs provide common ground, bridging the differences that may cause social isolation and facilitating a renewed sense of connection with others.”(Camp, M.M., 2000)
15 HAI Program Design Considerations ADA titles I (employment) and III (public access) definitions and regulations.Information on documentation and employer’s role from the Job Accommodation Network (JAN).HAI: anxiety management, social skills, and behavior assistance.Individualization: accommodations suited to the neurodiversity of the individual and the unique employment environment.Cycle of design, implementation, and evaluation: creating a cycle of service improvement.
16 Implementation and Evaluation What goals does the individual have for the workplace?How can an assistance dog be utilized to promote these goals?Can HAI be integrated into your organization’s evaluation protocols?Remembering the cycle: Implementation is tied to evaluation. All program aspects must be evaluated.
17 Optimizing Employment Retention Key Questions:With all of the positives, why are there still such challenges for workers living with ASD?How can HAI be utilized to optimize long-term employment success for this individual in this work environment?
18 Optimizing Employment Retention What We Know:Successful and ongoing employment results from careful consideration of individual characteristics and implementation of proper supports (Hendricks, 2010).We know that employment improves quality of life (Garcia-Villamisar et al., 2002) – creating a cycle of progress.Successful employment is the primary aspiration of adults with ASD (Hendricks, 2010).Employers value the trustworthiness, reliability, and low absenteeism of individuals living with ASD (Howlin et al., 1995; in Hendricks, 2010).An individual’s strengths, and neurodevelopmental characteristics, may translate into unique job strengths.
19 For More Information Darlene Groomes, Ph.D., CRC, LPC Associate ProfessorPrincipal InvestigatorTo continue the DDD:“Resources” tab for copy of presentationRPEN blog to continue our discussion and questioning
20 ReferencesBeetz, A., Uvnas-Moberg, K., Julius, H., & Kotrschal, K. (2012). Psychosocial and psychophysiological effects of human-animal interactions: The possible role of oxytocin. Frontiers in Psychology, 3. doi: /fpsyg Bellini, S., & Hopf, A. (2007). The development of the autism social skills profile: A preliminary analysis of psychometric profiles. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities,22(2), doi: / Camp, M.M. (2000). The use of service dogs as an adaptive strategy: A qualitative study. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 55, Department of Justice. (2011). Title III regulations. Retrieved from: García-Villamisar, D., Wehman, P., & Navarro, M. D. (2002). Changes in the quality of autistic people’s life that work in supported and sheltered employment: A 5-year follow-up study, Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation 17(4), 309–312. Gerhardt, P.F. & Lainer, I. (2010). Addressing the needs of adolescents and adults with autism: A crisis on the horizon. Journalism of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 41, Groomes, D. A. G., & Linkowski, D. (2007). Examining the structure of the acceptance of disability scale. The Journal of Rehabilitation, 73(3), 3-9. Howlin, P., Jordan, R. R., & Evans, G. (1995). Distance Education Course in Autism (Adults, Module 3, Unit 3). University of Birmingham, School of Education. Birmingham: UK. JAN: Job Accommodation Network. (2011). Accommodation and compliance series: Service animals in the workplace. Retrieved from:
21 ReferencesKurtz, A., & Jordan, M. (2008). Supporting individuals with autism spectrum disorders: Quality employment practices. the institute brief. issue number 25. ICI professional development series. Institute for Community Inclusion. University of Massachusetts Boston. Retrieved from:March, J. S. (1999). Multidimensional anxiety scale for children manual. TX: Pearson.Meyer-Lindenberg, A., Domes, G., Kirsch, P., & Heinrichs, M. (2011). Oxytocin and vasopressin in the human brain: Social neuropeptides for translational medicine. Nature Neuroscience, 12, doi: /nrn3044Modi, M. E., & Young, L. J. (2012). The oxytocin system in drug discovery for autism: Animal models and novel therapeutic strategies. Hormones and Behavior, 61, doi: /j.yhbehMorgan, R. L., & Schultz, J. C. (2012). Towards an ecological, multi-modal approach to increase employment for young adults with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 43(1), Retrieved from:Standifer, S. (2009). Adult autism and employment: A guide for vocational rehabilitation professionals. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Health System: Disability Policy and Studies, School of Health Professions.Striepens, N., Kendrick, K. M., Maier, W., & Hurlemann, R. (2011). Prosocial effects of oxytocin and clinical evidence for its therapeutic potential. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 32, doi: /j.frneTareen, R. S., & Kamboj, M. K. (2012). Role of endocrine factors in autistic spectrum disorders. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 59, doi: /j.pclViau, R., Arsenault-Lapierre, G., Fecteau, S., Champagne, N., Walker, C., & Lupien, S. (2010). Effects of service dog on salivary cortisol secretion in autistic children. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35, doi: j.psyneuenZink, C. F., & Meyer-Lindenberg, A. (2012). Human neuroimaging of oxytocin and vasopressin in social cognition. Hormones and Behavior, 61, doi: /j.yhbeh