Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

“Four out of five dentists recommend…”. Norms are expectations governing group member’s behavior.  Norms may be formal, explicit  no cheating on tests.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "“Four out of five dentists recommend…”. Norms are expectations governing group member’s behavior.  Norms may be formal, explicit  no cheating on tests."— Presentation transcript:

1 “Four out of five dentists recommend…”

2 Norms are expectations governing group member’s behavior.  Norms may be formal, explicit  no cheating on tests  Norms may be informal, implicit  no picking your nose during class  Norms may not be apparent until violated  Is texting during class okay?

3 Sherif demonstrated conformity to group judgments.  Autokinetic effect: a stationary point of light, in a completely dark room, appears to be moving.  Individuals’ estimates of the amount of movement conformed to the group’s.

4 Asch found conformity to group judgments  Individuals estimated the length of lines.  Group members (confederates) offered different judgments.  75% of all subjects modified their estimates to conform to the group.  Public conformity doesn’t necessarily imply private conformity.

5 Groups may punish deviation from established norms. Norms are most influential in ambiguous social situations.  Subjects littered more in a setting where others were seen littering. Norms may persist even if they are dysfunctional.

6 Social impact theory  Each additional member adds pressure to conform.  Each new member’s influence is proportionally less. Social influence model  The first few people added exert the most pressure to conform.  Conformity levels off with additional members.  For example, if the first 9 group members don’t convince someone, neither will the 10 th.

7 Informational influence  Members want to be correct, accurate.  More heads are better than one.  Consistent with social influence model Normative influence  Members want to be liked, accepted by the group.  Groups provide a sense belonging, connectedness.  Consistent with social impact theory

8 It is difficult for a lone dissenter to resist unanimous group pressure. A holdout with even one ally can resist more easily.  A second dissenter decreases conformity by 80%.

9 Identification and reference groups  Reference groups provide standards of comparison for self- appraisal.  “Keeping up with the Joneses…”  People consider reference groups when making decisions. Groupthink  Members engage in consensus-seeking.  They reinforce one another’s opinions.  They fail to question or analyze ideas.

10 In general women tend to conform more than men.  Sex roles affect conformity  Females are socialized to be more communal.  Males are socialized to be more independent.  Status affects conformity  Sex functions as a status cue.  Males generally enjoy higher status in organizational settings.

11 Peer influence increases during adolescence. Peer pressure can promote risky behaviors.  Tobacco, alcohol, drug use Peer pressure can lead to aggression.  Hazing, teasing, ostracism can spark violence.  Online hazing can trigger suicides. Peer pressure also has positive effects.  Peers also model desirable behavior.

12 High self-monitors tend to conform more than low self-monitors. Dogmatic people tend to conform more than non-dogmatics.

13 Ethnocentrism  Using one’s own culture as the benchmark for judging other cultures. Individualism-Collectivism  Individualistic cultures view conformity more negatively.  Collectivistic cultures view conformity more positively.

14 Group locomotion  The individual goes along to achieve the goals of the group. Social comparison  The group is a yardstick for measuring one’s own performance. Consistency  Liking and identification with the group discourages deviance Epistemological weighting  Members think the group knows more than they do. Hedonistic hypothesis  Members conform to receive social benefits, avoid social rejection.

15 Monkey see, monkey do  People base their behavior on what others are doing.  Internet piracy  Urban graffiti Viral marketing relies on social proof  A social phenomenon is spread by word of mouth. Negative social proof  “Everyone else is doing it” is based on appeals to the crowd.

16 Slackers: People exert less effort in a group than working alone.  The Ringlemann effect: in a tug of war, adding team members reduces individual effort.  Decision making & problem solving: as members are added, individual effort tapers off. Collective effort model  Members coast if individuals’ contributions can’t be distinguished. Free ride effect  Members coast if they are anonymous.  Members coast if they aren’t personally accountable. Sucker effect  Productive members slack off when they see others aren’t working.

17 Risky-shift phenomenon  Groups are prone to make riskier decisions than individuals.  The group’s consensus is typically riskier than the average risk-level of its members. Group polarization  Groups enhance members’ pre- existing tendencies toward risk-taking or risk-aversion.  High risk-takers skew the average willingness of the group to assume risks. Social comparison theory  Members entertain ideas they would not otherwise consider. Persuasive arguments theory (PAT)  The most vocal members advocate the most extreme views. There can also be a shift toward greater caution  More vocal members may advocate greater caution.

18 Social ostracism can lead to anti-social behavior  School shootings  Cyber-bullying

19 Depersonalization  Individual identity is subsumed to that of the group.  Personal accountability is lacking.  A diffusion of responsibility occurs.  “It’s not my problem.”  “It’s none of my business.”  Anonymity increases deindividuation. Negative social consequences  Mob psychology  Vandalism perpetrated by unruly sports fans  Treatment of detainees at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq  Crowd size affects antisocial behavior.  Bystander effects  Bystanders may fail to help in an emergency.  Self-Awareness  Increasing self-awareness reduces deindividuation.  Increasing accountability decreases deindividuation.

20 Richmond, CA, 2009: A 15 year old was the victim of a gang rape outside her high school’s homecoming dance. The ordeal lasted 2 ½ hours. At least 20 passers-by failed to call police. Other witnesses watched, laughed, and took pictures. People in a crowd who see others doing nothing do nothing themselves. Bystanders fail to act based on:  social proof  Deindividuation Increasing private awareness can overcome the bystander effect. Identifying individuals can overcome the bystander effect.  “You, in the red sweater, call 911!”  “Mam, I need your help. Go pull the fire alarm.”

Download ppt "“Four out of five dentists recommend…”. Norms are expectations governing group member’s behavior.  Norms may be formal, explicit  no cheating on tests."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google