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Addressing Individual Challenging Behavior through Function-based Support George Sugai US Dept. of Educ.Center on PBIS Center for Behavioral Education.

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Presentation on theme: "Addressing Individual Challenging Behavior through Function-based Support George Sugai US Dept. of Educ.Center on PBIS Center for Behavioral Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 Addressing Individual Challenging Behavior through Function-based Support George Sugai US Dept. of Educ.Center on PBIS Center for Behavioral Education & Research University of Connecticut July

2 PURPOSE Extend PBIS discussion from Juen. Review of PBIS basics Tier II & III practices & systems Q&A

3 Basics Review

4 SWPBS (aka PBIS/RtI) is Framework

5 SYSTEMS PRACTICES DATA Supporting Staff Behavior Supporting Student Behavior OUTCOMES Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement Supporting Decision Making Integrated Elements

6 Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT ALL SOME FEW

7 Redesign of teaching environments…not students

8 All Some Few Continuum of Support for ALL Dec 7, 2007

9 Continuum of Support for ALL “Theora” Dec 7, 2007 Science Soc Studies Reading Math Soc skills Basketball Spanish Label behavior…not people

10 Continuum of Support for ALL: “Molcom” Dec 7, 2007 Prob Sol. Coop play Adult rel. Anger man. Attend. Peer interac Ind. play Label behavior…not people Self-assess

11 Classroom SWPBS Practices Non-classroom Family Student School-wide Smallest # Evidence-based Biggest, durable effect

12 SCHOOL-WIDE 1.1. Leadership team 2.Behavior purpose statement 3.Set of positive expectations & behaviors 4.Procedures for teaching SW & classroom-wide expected behavior 5.Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior 6.Continuum of procedures for discouraging rule violations 7.Procedures for on-going data-based monitoring & evaluation EVIDENCE- BASED INTERVENTION PRACTICES CLASSROOM 1.All school-wide 2.Maximum structure & predictability in routines & environment 3.Positively stated expectations posted, taught, reviewed, prompted, & supervised. 4.Maximum engagement through high rates of opportunities to respond, delivery of evidence- based instructional curriculum & practices 5.Continuum of strategies to acknowledge displays of appropriate behavior. 6.Continuum of strategies for responding to inappropriate behavior. INDIVIDUAL STUDENT 1.Behavioral competence at school & district levels 2.Function-based behavior support planning 3.Team- & data-based decision making 4.Comprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound processes 5.Targeted social skills & self-management instruction 6. Individualized instructional & curricular accommodations NONCLASSROOM 1.Positive expectations & routines taught & encouraged 2.Active supervision by all staff (Scan, move, interact) 3.Precorrections & reminders 4.Positive reinforcement FAMILY ENGAGEMENT 1.Continuum of positive behavior support for all families 2.Frequent, regular positive contacts, communications, & acknowledgements 3.Formal & active participation & involvement as equal partner 4.Access to system of integrated school & community resources

13 Teaching Academics & Behaviors DEFINE Simply DEFINE Simply MODEL PRACTICE In Setting PRACTICE In Setting ADJUST for Efficiency ADJUST for Efficiency MONITOR & ACKNOWLEDGE Continuously MONITOR & ACKNOWLEDGE Continuously

14 Teaching Matrix SETTING All Settings HallwaysPlaygroundsCafeteria Library/ Compute r Lab AssemblyBus Respect Ourselves Be on task. Give your best effort. Be prepared. Walk.Have a plan. Eat all your food. Select healthy foods. Study, read, compute. Sit in one spot. Watch for your stop. Respect Others Be kind. Hands/feet to self. Help/share with others. Use normal voice volume. Walk to right. Play safe. Include others. Share equipment. Practice good table manners Whisper. Return books. Listen/watch. Use appropriate applause. Use a quiet voice. Stay in your seat. Respect Property Recycle. Clean up after self. Pick up litter. Maintain physical space. Use equipment properly. Put litter in garbage can. Replace trays & utensils. Clean up eating area. Push in chairs. Treat books carefully. Pick up. Treat chairs appropriately. Wipe your feet. Sit appropriately. Expectations 1. SOCIAL SKILL 2. NATURAL CONTEXT 3. BEHAVIOR EXAMPLES

15 “Making a turn” IMPLEMENTATION EffectiveNot Effective PRACTICE Effective Not Effective Maximum Student Benefits Fixsen & Blase, 2009

16 Detrich, Keyworth, & States (2007). J. Evid.-based Prac. in Sch. Start w/ What Works Focus on Fidelity

17 Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K.B., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), RCT & Group Design PBIS Studies Reduced major disciplinary infractions Improvements in academic achievement Enhanced perception of organizational health & safety Improved school climate Reductions in teacher reported bullying behavior

18 Algozzine, B., Wang, C., & Violette, A. S. (2011). Reexamining the relationship between academic achievement and social behavior. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 13, Burke, M. D., Hagan-Burke, S., & Sugai, G. (2003). The efficacy of function-based interventions for students with learning disabilities who exhibit escape-maintained problem behavior: Preliminary results from a single case study. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 26, McIntosh, K., Chard, D. J., Boland, J. B., & Horner, R. H. (2006). Demonstration of combined efforts in school-wide academic and behavioral systems and incidence of reading and behavior challenges in early elementary grades. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 8, McIntosh, K., Horner, R. H., Chard, D. J., Dickey, C. R., and Braun, D. H. (2008). Reading skills and function of problem behavior in typical school settings. Journal of Special Education, 42, Nelson, J. R., Johnson, A., & Marchand-Martella, N. (1996). Effects of direct instruction, cooperative learning, and independent learning practices on the classroom behavior of students with behavioral disorders: A comparative analysis. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, Wang, C., & Algozzine, B. (2011). Rethinking the relationship between reading and behavior in early elementary school. Journal of Educational Research, 104, Academic-Behavior Connection

19 “Viewed as outcomes, achievement and behavior are related; viewed as causes of each other, achievement and behavior are unrelated. In this context, teaching behavior as relentlessly as we teach reading or other academic content is the ultimate act of prevention, promise, and power underlying PBS and other preventive interventions in America’s schools.” Algozzine, Wang, & Violette (2011), p. 16.

20 ~80% of Students ~5% ESTABLISHING CONTINUUM of SWPBS SECONDARY PREVENTION Check in/out Targeted social skills instruction Peer-based supports Social skills club TERTIARY PREVENTION Function-based support Wraparound Person-centered planning PRIMARY PREVENTION Teach SW expectations Proactive SW discipline Positive reinforcement Effective instruction Parent engagement SECONDARY PREVENTION TERTIARY PREVENTION PRIMARY PREVENTION ~15%

21 FBA Basics

22 Function-based support is all about… Re-design & improvement of learning & teaching environments –Attention to environment & function –Not re-design of individuals –Change in behavior of implementers

23 Behavior Support Elements Problem Behavior Functional Assessment Intervention & Support Plan Fidelity of Implementation Impact on Behavior & Lifestyle *Response class *Routine analysis *Hypothesis statement *Alternative behaviors *Competing behavior analysis *Contextual fit *Strengths, preferences, & lifestyle outcomes *Evidence-based interventions *Implementation support *Data plan *Continuous improvement *Sustainability plan Team-based Behavior competence

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26 3. How do I know if FBA has been done?

27 FBA Elements Contextually Appropriate Support Testable Hypothesis Function Statement Competing Path Analysis Supporting Data Behavior Intervention Plan Definition of Problem Behavior or Class

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29 Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Testable Hypothesis “Basic Unit” Following events that maintain behaviors of concern (function) Preceding events that trigger or occasion Set of related behaviors of concern (RC) Infrequent events that affect value of maint. conseq. “Best guess” about behavior & conditions under which it is observed Represents basic working unit of FBA Directly guides development of BIP

30 Setting Events –Unique situations in which factors unique to individual Make problem behavior more intense or more likely to occur (e.g., illness, fatigue, hunger, social conflict). –By changing value of reinforcers E.g., praise less effective, peer attention is more reinforcing, work completion is less important.

31 “FUNCTION” = outcome, result, purpose, consequence

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33 Only 2 Basic Functions Pos Reinf Neg Reinf Existing aversive condition identified

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38 When Sequoia misses her 12:30 medication & teachers present multiple task demands, she makes negative self-statements & writes profane language on her assignments. Teaching staff typically send her to the office with a discipline referral for being disrespectful. Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence Misses 12:30 medication Teachers make multiple task demands Sequoia makes negative self- statements & writes profane language Teacher sends Sequoia to office for being disrespectful What function? Avoid difficult tasks

39 Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence Caesar is teased several times about his hair by his friends before class His teacher stares at his hair in class Caesar asks his teacher what she’s staring at His teacher sends him to in-school detention Caesar has dyed his hair three colors & is teased several times by his friends before class. When he enters the class, his teacher stares at his hair. Caesar immediately says “what are you staring at?” His teacher immediately sends him to in-school detention. What function? Escape adult & peer attention

40 Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence Cleo is new to the 6th grade, & English is her second language. When another student approaches & says something to her in English, Cleo turns away. The other student walks away. This happens several times during the day. New studentStudent approaches & speaks in English Cleo turns away Other student walks away What function? Escape peer attention

41 Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence When his teacher asks him what the capitol city of a country is, Napoleon gives the correct answers. His teacher praises his correct answer, & tells him he may work by himself or a friend on the rest of the assignment. None Teacher asks what capitol city of country is Napoleon give correct answer Teacher gives verbal praise & time to work with a friend What function? Access peer & adult attention

42 Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence As Veloce is walking, other kids look at him & say “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.” ??Look at him. “What’s up!” “Who ya lookin’ at?” “Ya want Some?” “Ya talkin’ to me? Kids shake heads & call him “weirdo” What function? Access OR escape peer attention? How do you know? Assess?

43 Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence WRITE TESTABLE HYPOTHESIS: As Veloce is walking, other kids look at him & say “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.” ??Look at him. “What’s up!” “Who ya lookin’ at?” “Ya want Some?” “Ya talkin’ to me? Kids shake heads & call him “weirdo”

44 Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers “FACTS” STEP 1: Student/ Grade: _____Clarence/5th grade_____Date: ____January 11___________ Interviewer: ___________Sugai________Respondent(s): ____Thomas_____ STEP 2: Student Profile: Please identify at least three strengths or contributions the student brings to school. C. has leadership potential. Peers listened to him, and he can be very convincing and sincere. He’s academically competent and seems to be moving smoothly and successfully through the school curriculum. STEP 3: Problem Behavior(s): Identify problem behaviors ___Tardy_X Fight/physical Aggression ___ Disruptive___ Theft___ UnresponsiveX Inappropriate Language_X__ Insubordination___ Vandalism___ Withdrawn_X__ Verbal Harassment____Work not done___ Other __________ ____X _ Verbally Inappropriate___ Self-injury Describe problem behavior:C. may have one of the shortest fuses I’ve seen. One little tease by a peer, and he quickly and predictably escalates through a behavioral sequence that begins with passive in subordination (non response), moves to a mild protest, shifts to harassment and name calling, increases to property damage and even to physical aggression. Its interesting that he seems to “enjoy” the reactions he gets from peers that he aggresses toward, and from peers who look up to him for his aggressiveness.

45 STEP 4: Routine Analysis Schedule (Times) ActivityLikelihood of Problem BehaviorSpecific Problem Behavior 8:00Waiting to enter building Low High See escalation described above 8:15Advisory & Planning Mostly teasing and touching property of others. Doesn’t escalate much further 9:15Language Arts Occasional name calling/teasing 10:15Recess See escalation described above 11:30Math Occasional teasing 12:00Lunch See escalation described above 12:35Earth Science Minor verbal harassment 1:15Art or Phy Ed See escalation described above 2:00Reading Rarely a problem 2:50Waiting for bus See escalation described above

46 BIP Basics

47 Fundamental Rule! “You should not propose to reduce a problem behavior without also identifying alternative, desired behaviors person should perform instead of problem behavior” O’Neill et al., 1997, p. 71 “You should not propose to reduce a problem behavior without also identifying alternative, desired behaviors person should perform instead of problem behavior” O’Neill et al., 1997, p. 71

48 Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Desired Alternative Acceptable Alternative Typical Consequence Summary Statement

49 Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Lack of peer contact in 30 minutes. Do difficult math assignment. Noncompliance, profanity, physical aggression, Avoid task, remove from class. Desired Alternative Typical Consequence Points, grades, questions, more work. Do work w/o complaints. Summary Statement Acceptable Alternative Ask for break, ask for help. Why is function important? Because consequences compete!! Function

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52 Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Desired Alternative Typical Consequence Summary Statement Acceptable Alternative

53 Setting Event Manipulations Antecedent Manipulations Consequence Manipulations Behavior Manipulations

54 Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Lack of peer contact in 30 minutes. Do difficult math assignment. Noncompliance, profanity, physical aggression, Avoid task, remove from class. Desired Alternative Typical Consequence Points, grades, questions, more work. Do work w/o complaints. Summary Statement Acceptable Alternative Ask for break, ask for help. Function

55 Setting Event Manipulations Antecedent Manipulations Consequence Manipulations Behavior Manipulations Teach options to problem behavior: 1. Ask for break 2. Ask for help 3. Turn in assignment as is. Teach missing math skills Arrange for peer interaction before math class Provide positive adult contact Sit with preferred peer Introduce review type problem before difficult tasks Remind of alternative behaviors Do first problem together Immediately reinforce entering class. Provide reinforcer w/in 1 min. of starting task (3 min., 5 min., 10 minutes) Give break & help Sit with preferred peer when done

56 Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Rides city bus Teacher corrects peers Profanity Verbal protests Teacher attention Desired Alternative Typical Consequence Delayed teacher attention. Ignore & problem solve later Summary Statement Acceptable Alternative Discuss in private Function

57 Setting Event Manipulations Antecedent Manipulations Consequence Manipulations Behavior Manipulations Teach J. how, when, & where to express verbal protest, & how to walk away from problem situations in transitions. On days city bus ridden, check in with counselor to review days schedule & walk with counselor to classroom Give >3 positive acknow- ledgements per min. to peers during transitions. Give private & quiet corrections to peers. Remind J. of acceptable & desired replacement behaviors When J. engages in problem behavior immediately disengage from him, & engage peers. When J. engages in replacement behaviors provide adult attention (discussion)

58 On Mondays and/or when up all of the night before. Daily nongraded quiz on previous night’s homework Verbal protests, slump in chair, walks out of room. Avoids doing quiz & homework discussion. Do quiz without complaints. Discussion about answers & homework. Turn in with name & sit quietly w/o interrupting.

59 On Mondays and/or when up all of the night before. Daily nongraded quiz on previous night’s homework Verbal protests, slump in chair, walks out of room. Avoids doing quiz & homework discussion. Do quiz without complaints. Discussion about answers & homework. Turn in with name & sit quietly w/o interrupting. + Give time to review homework. + Give quiet time before starting. + Give easy “warm- up” task before doing quiz. + Precorrect behavior options & consequences. + With first sign of problem behaviors, remove task, or request completion of task next period. + Remove task based on step in task analysis (STO). + Provide effective verbal praise & other reinforcers. Teach options to problem behavior: 1. Turn in blank 2. Turn in w/ name 3. Turn in w/ name & first item done. 4. Turn in w/ name & 50% of items done.

60 7. How quality of function-based behavior intervention plans be improved?

61 FBA/BIP Team Process Steps


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