Presentation on theme: "The Individual and the Group Cross-Cultural Understanding."— Presentation transcript:
The Individual and the Group Cross-Cultural Understanding
Individualist Values Goals of the individual Independence Self-expression Not afraid of conflict When goals are in conflict, individual goals are more important
Collectivist Values Group relationships Try to prevent conflicts Put group goals ahead of personal goals Cooperation Respect
Socially Transmitted Individualistic cultures teach children: To be independent and have goals Be proud of personal achievements Collectivistic cultures teach children: To cooperate with each other To work together
Proverbs 出る杭は打たれる。 The squeaky wheel gets the grease.
Classroom Behavior In individualistic cultures, students are expected to: Ask questions, participate, sometimes disagree In collectivistic: Listen and follow the teacher Opinions not publicly expressed
Workplace Behavior Individualism/Collectivism may affect: Agreement/disagreement Saying “I don’t know” instead of disagreeing Rates of pay Based on seniority (collectivist) or merit (individualist)
Personal Choices Marrying according to family considerations Taking all of one’s personal vacation time Taking a leave of absence (e.g. for childcare)
Job Interviews Emphasizing personal abilities and achievements (individualistic) Emphasizing one’s ability to work in a group and be a “team player” (collectivistic)
Conclusion Individualism and Collectivism are not “either/or” categories Elements of both are found in all cultures Some cultures are more individualist or more collectivist Also, people are more individualist or more collectivist as well
Five Categories of Cultural Difference According to Dutch cultural psychologist Geert Hofstede, cultures vary according to: Power distance Individualism vs. collectivism Masculinity vs. femininity Uncertainty avoidance Long-term vs. short-term orientation
Study Questions 1. What are some individualist values? 2. What are some collectivist values? 3. How are individualist/collectivist values transmitted? 4. What is an example of collectivist proverb? An individualist proverb? 5. How does individualism affect: Classroom behavior Workplace behavior Personal choices Job interviews 6. How does collectivism affect: Classroom behavior Workplace behavior Personal choices Job interviews
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