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Applied Performance Practices McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "Applied Performance Practices McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Applied Performance Practices McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 6-2 Applied Performance Practices in Chinese Factories Most factory workers in China’s Pearl River Delta are paid for the number of units they produce. The work is usually repetitive – some jobs require several thousand task cycles each day.

3 6-3 Meaning of Money in the Workplace  Money means different things to people symbol of success reinforcer and motivator reflection of performance Source of less/more anxiety  Differences in meaning of money by gender and culture  Money is an important motivator

4 6-4 Membership/Seniority Based Rewards  Fixed wages, seniority increases  Advantages Guaranteed wages may attract job applicants Seniority-based rewards reduce turnover  Disadvantages Doesn’t motivate job performance Discourages poor performers from leaving May act as golden handcuffs (tie people to the job)

5 6-5 Job Status-Based Rewards  Includes job evaluation and status perks  Advantages: Job evaluation tries to maintain fairness Motivates competition for promotions  Disadvantages: Employees exaggerate duties, hoard resources Reinforces status Encourage hierarchy, might undermine cost- efficiency and responsiveness

6 6-6 Competency-Based Rewards  Pay increases with competencies acquired and demonstrated  Skill-based pay Pay increases with skill modules learned  Advantages More flexible work force, better quality, consistent with employability  Disadvantages Potentially subjective, higher training costs

7 6-7 Organizational Rewards  Types of organizational rewards Organizational bonuses (e.g. company trips) Employee stock ownership plans (ESOPS) Stock options Profit-sharing plans  Evaluating organizational rewards Creates an “ownership culture” Adjusts pay with firm's prosperity Weak link between individual effort and rewards Rewards affected by external forces

8 6-8 Improving Reward Effectiveness  Link rewards to performance  Ensure rewards are relevant  Team rewards for interdependent jobs  Ensure rewards are valued  Watch out for unintended consequences

9 6-9 Unintended Consequences of Rewards at TransSantiago  Transit bus drivers in Santiago, Chile were paid by the number of passengers Motivated starting work on time, shorter breaks, efficient driving, ensuring passengers paid fares  Unintended consequences Traffic accidents -- reckless driving to next stop, cut off competing buses Passenger injuries/deaths – doors left open, buses departed before all on board Drove past stops with only one passenger waiting

10 6-10 Job Design  Assigning tasks to a job, including the interdependency of those tasks with other jobs  Organization's goal -- to create jobs that can be performed efficiently yet employees are motivated and engaged

11 6-11 Job Specialization  Dividing work into separate jobs, each with a subset of tasks required to complete the product/service  Scientific management Frederick Winslow Taylor Champion of job specialization Taylor also emphasized person-job matching, training, goal setting, work incentives

12 6-12 Evaluating Job Specialization  Less time changing activities  Lower training costs  Job mastered quickly  Better person-job matching  Job boredom  Discontentment pay  Higher costs  Lower quality  Lower motivation AdvantagesDisadvantages

13 6-13 Job Characteristics Model WorkmotivationGrowthsatisfactionGeneralsatisfactionWorkeffectiveness Feedback from job Knowledge of results Skill variety Task identity Task significance Meaningfulness AutonomyResponsibility Individualdifferences CriticalPsychologicalStates Core Job CharacteristicsOutcomes

14 6-14 Improving Task Significance Through Voice of the Customer Rolls Royce Engine Services improved task significance through their “Voice of the Customer” program, in which customers talk to production staff about how the quality of their engine maintenance work is important to customers.

15 6-15 Job Rotation  Moving from one job to another  Benefits 1. Minimizes repetitive strain injury 2. Multiskills the workforce 3. Potentially reduces job boredom Job ‘A’ Job ‘B’ Job ‘C’ Job ‘D’

16 6-16 Job Enlargement Adding tasks to an existing job Example: video journalist Employee 1 Operates camera Employee 2 Operates sound Employee 3 Reports story Traditional news team Video journalist Operates camera Operates sound Reports story

17 6-17 Job Enrichment Given more responsibility for scheduling, coordinating, and planning one’s own work 1. Clustering tasks into natural groups Stitching highly interdependent tasks into one job e.g., video journalist, assembling entire product 2. Establishing client relationships Directly responsible for specific clients Communicate directly with those clients

18 6-18 Dimensions of Empowerment Meaning Competence Employees believe their work is important Employees have feelings of self- efficacy Impact Employees feel their actions influence success Self- determination Employees feel they have freedom and discretion

19 6-19 Supporting Empowerment  Individual factors Possess required competencies, able to perform the work  Job design factors Autonomy, task identity, task significance, job feedback  Organizational factors Resources, learning orientation, trust

20 6-20 Self-Leadership The process of influencing oneself to establish the self- direction and self-motivation needed to perform a task Includes concepts/practices from goal setting, social cognitive theory, and sports psychology Self-leadership at Bayer CropScience 6-20

21 6-21 Elements of Self-Leadership Personal goal setting Employees set their own goals Apply effective goal setting practices Personal Goal Setting ConstructiveThoughtPatternsDesigningNaturalRewardsSelf-MonitoringSelf-Reinforce-ment

22 6-22 Personal Goal SettingDesigningNaturalRewardsSelf-MonitoringSelf-Reinforce-mentConstructiveThoughtPatterns Elements of Self-Leadership Positive self-talk Talking to ourselves about thoughts/actions Potentially increases self-efficacy Mental imagery Mentally practicing a task Visualizing successful task completion

23 6-23 DesigningNaturalRewardsConstructiveThoughtPatternsSelf-MonitoringSelf-Reinforce-ment Personal Goal Setting Elements of Self-Leadership Finding ways to make the job itself more motivating e.g. altering the way the task is accomplished

24 6-24 ConstructiveThoughtPatternsDesigningNaturalRewardsSelf-Reinforce-ment Personal Goal SettingSelf-Monitoring Elements of Self-Leadership Keeping track of your progress toward the self-set goal Looking for naturally-occurring feedback Designing artificial feedback

25 6-25 Self-Reinforce-mentConstructiveThoughtPatternsDesigningNaturalRewardsSelf-Monitoring Personal Goal Setting Elements of Self-Leadership “Taking” a reinforcer only after completing a self-set goal e.g. Watching a movie after writing two more sections of a report e.g. Starting a fun task after completing a task that you don’t like

26 6-26 Self-Leadership Contingencies  Individual factors Higher levels of conscientiousness and extroversion Positive self-evaluation (self-esteem, self-efficacy, internal locus)  Organizational factors Job autonomy Participative and trustworthy leadership Measurement-oriented culture

27 Applied Performance Practices

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