TOPICS IN TESTING & INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Standardization Reliability and Validity Types of Tests Intelligence theories Testing Bias Nature vs. Nurture
STANDARDIZATION There are a huge number of standardized tests currently in existence. (ACT, SAT, CAHSEE, GRE, GMAT, LSAT, etc) When you heat the term Standardized, it refers to the fact that the test has already been tried on a similar population of people for whom the test is intended When a test has been piloted on groups of people, Norms are established. (test makers look for trends, good and bad q’s, avgs)
RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY For a test to considered legitimate is must be both reliable and valid. As mention last unit, Reliability refers to the fact that a test yields consistent, repeatable results, and validity means the results are accurate. Several subsets of reliability and validity exist
RELIABILITY Reliable=Consistency. If you take an online IQ test and you get an IQ of 110, 88 and 150, its not reliable Ways to test reliability Split-half reliability-randomly dividing test in 2 halves, checking for similar scores Equivalent-form reliability-correlation on scores between different forms of test Test-retest reliability-Correlation between a person’s scores when given the test over again
VALIDITY Valid=Measures what it is supposed to measure A test can be reliable without being valid, but not the other way around. Face validity-relevance of test to test takers(you don’t give a test full of Police q’s to firefighter candidates) Content validity-How well a test reflects the entire range of material it means to test (driving tests don’t only have questions about parking)
VALIDITY Criterion-related validity: Concurrent validity-measures what a person can do now Predictive validity-measure of future performance Construct validity- how well a test matches up to a test that has already been shown to be valid Once a test has been shown to be reliable and valid, it can be widely used and trusted
TYPES OF TESTS Two most common types of tests are Aptitude and Achievement tests. Aptitude tests-measure ability or potential Achievement tests-measure what one has learned or accomplished Most tests taken in school are achievement tests. There are varying formats of tests given in school and the workplace
TYPES OF TESTS Speed tests are generally consists of a large number of questions asked in a short amount of time. Want to see how quickly a person can solve problems Power tests are given to gauge how difficult a problem a person can solve. They get increasingly harder as the test goes on. Ample time is given Group tests- such as SAT, given to large #s of people at same time. Little interaction between tester and test subject Individual test-interaction between tester/subject. Ex. Inkblot test
INTELLIGENCE Psychologists have long struggled to find a consensus to define Intelligence. It can be said that Intelligence is the ability to gather and use information in productive ways One way to differentiate types of Intelligence is to categorize them as: - Crystallized - Fluid
FLUID AND CRYSTALLIZED INTELLIGENCE Fluid Intelligence is the ability to solve abstract problems and pick up new skills and information Crystallized Intelligence involved using knowledge accumulated over time Fluid Intelligence has been shown to decrease with age Crystallized Intelligence seems to remain steady or increase as one gets older (Wisdom)
INTELLIGENCE THEORIES Debates on Intelligence exist as to whether Intelligence can be expressed as a single ability, small group of abilities or a wide variety of abilities Charles Spearman believed intelligence could be expressed as a single factor. He used factor analysis to to group correlations between abilities to come up with a single factor “g” Spearman’s “g-factor” measured a person’s intelligence
HOWARD GARDNER Howard Gardner argued that people have Multiple Intelligences. Gardner’s list of Intelligences includes traditional types such as: Linguistic, Logical- mathematical, and spatial. He furthered his list by adding other intelligence categories such as: Musical, Bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal and naturalistic.
HOWARD GARDNER Musical Intelligence: ability to play an instrument, conduct a symphony, etc. Bodily-Kinesthetic: Dancers, athletes, craftsmen Intrapersonal: One’s ability to understand oneself, perseverance, understanding personal strengths and limitations Interpersonal: Ability to understand, get along with and be sensitive to others Naturalistic: understanding and organizing elements of the natural environment. Biologists, botanists, ecologists.
DANIEL GOLEMAN Daniel Goleman created the notion of Emotional Intelligence (EQ) Concept is similar to Gardner’s idea of Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Intelligences People who tend to have the highest IQs aren’t always the most successful EQ and IQ are important for success in the world, Goleman believed
ROBERT STERNBERG Robert Sternberg is a contemporary researcher who has created a non-traditional definition of intelligence Sternberg argues that humans have 3 types of intelligence. This is outlined in his Triarchic theory. He believes that human intelligence falls into the categories of Componential/analytical intelligence, creative intelligence and practical intelligence. Componential/analytical intelligence is similar to the traditional view of intelligence. Ability to compare/contrast, explain and analyze
ROBERT STERNBERG Sternberg’s second type of Intelligence is Creative intelligence. This is the ability to use your knowledge and experiences in new and innovative ways The third type of Intelligence is practical/contextual intelligence. This type of intelligence is what most consider as street-smarts. This third type of intelligence really depends on the situations people find themselves in.
INTELLIGENCE TESTS Measuring intelligence has always been difficult, and producing a test to measure it was no simple task French researcher Alfred Binet created a test to identify children with special needs Binet did not set out to track or rank children, but to assist children who scored lower than usual Binet came up with the idea of a Mental age. The average 5 year old has a mental age of 5 and a avg 7 year old the mental age of 7.
STANFORD-BINET IQ TEST Stanford Professor Louis Terman built off of Binet’s test and Mental age idea to create the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) This test and measurement system became known as the Stanford-Binet IQ test. IQ is computed by dividing a person’s mental age by their actual age and multiplying by 100 Ex: 10 year old with a mental age of 12. 12/10X100=120
WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE TESTS David Wechsler measure intelligence in a different way Still known as an IQ test. 3 versions: Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale (WAIS) Wechsler Intelligence scale for children (WISC) Wechsler Preschool & Primary scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) The Wechsler test yileds IQ score based on a Deviation IQ
WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE TESTS Wechsler’s tests are standardized and the mean score is 100 with a standard deviation of 15 The scores form a normal distribution and fall along a curve 68% of all scores fall within 1 standard deviation of the mean
INTELLIGENCE TESTS The Stanford-Binet test uses a variety of different kinds of questions to yield a single IQ score The Wechsler test scores on subscales to give a verbal IQ score and a performance IQ Questions on the verbal section of the Wechsler test ask people to define words, solve math word problems and explain how items are different. Questions on the performance IQ section have people duplicating patterns, arranging pictures into a story and finding missing pieces.
TESTING BIAS Many researchers argue that tests like the SAT and IQ tests are fundamentally biased Tests seem to show advantages for white, middle class test takers. Many test writers assume a prior knowledge of the test takers and non-exposure to certain vocabulary for some minority groups may work as a detriment to them.