2Who is the NorthWest PBIS Network? Supporting educators, families and community members to implement and sustain positive, effective and culturally inclusive environments to achieve social and academic outcomes for All children and youth.
3PBIS Events Oct 19th – Fall PBIS Coaches Institute, Eugene, OR Nov 3rd-4th – Fall PBIS Conference, SeattleNov 5th – PBIS Classroom Workshop Jessica Sprick, SeattleNov 5th-7th - SWIS Facilitator Training, SeattleNov 5th – ISIS-SWIS Facilitator Training, SeattleJan 30th – Winter PBIS Coaches Institute, SpokaneLearn More at
4Tentative Agenda Day 1 Day 2 Overview of ISS District-wide Systems of SupportFBA-BIP ProcessGuiding PrinciplesDay 2Measuring BehaviorStrategies to Increase BehaviorStrategies to Decrease BehaviorResponding to Escalations
6PurposeTo describe considerations & procedures for developing & sustaining individual student systemsThis system will expand Tier I supports to Tier II and Tier III systems
7Challenges to ISS Students Problem behaviors are high intensity &/or frequencyToo many students display significant problem behavior at any one timeProblem behaviors are disrupting learning & teaching environmentsProblem behaviors are difficult to understandInterventions are ineffective
8SchoolsNot enough minutes in the day to collect information and develop interventionsAdministrative leadership & support is lacking, unavailable, or underdevelopedStaff are unable or untrained to implement interventionsOveremphasis on form, policy, or regulation rather than on processLack of continuum of positive behavior support
9ConsiderationsBehavior must be considered within context in which it is observedAs intensity of problem behavior increases, so must intensity & complexity of functional behavioral assessment & behavior support planning process
10Individuals who develop & implement behavior support plans must be behaviorally competent & able to… conduct fluently FBA-BIPfacilitate efficient development, implementation, evaluation of BIPscollect & analyze student performance datadevelop academic & social BIPs that are based on research validated practice.
11The longer problem behavior has been occurring, the more resistant it may be to intervention Staff need sustained & effective support to respond effectively & efficiently to significant problem behaviorEfficient team-based approach & process to problem solving must be in place
12Tier I - UniversalSchool-wide discipline system for all students, staff, & settings that is effective for 80% of studentsClearly & positively stated expectationsProcedures for teaching expectationsContinuum of procedures for teaching expectationsContinuum of procedures for encouraging expectationsContinuum of procedures for discouraging rule violationsProcedures for monitoring & modifying procedures
13Tier II - SecondarySpecialized group administered system for students who display high-risk problem behavior & are unresponsive to universal interventionsFunctional assessment based intervention decisionsDaily behavioral monitoringRegular & frequent opportunities for positive reinforcementHome-school connectionIndividualized academic accommodations for academic successPlanned social skills instructionBehaviorally based interventions
14Tier III - TertiarySpecialized individually administered system for students who display most challenging problem behavior & are unresponsive to targeted group interventionsSimple request for assistanceImmediate response (24-48 hoursFunctional behavioral assessment-based behavior support planningTeam-based problem solving processData-based decision makingComprehensive service delivery derived from a wraparound process
15General Process Establish Behavior Support Team to guide/lead process Secure & establish behavioral competence within schoolDevelop/strengthen three level system of school-wide behavior support:Universal InterventionsSecondary InterventionsIndividual Interventions
16Establish data decision system for matching level of intervention to student Simple & direct request for assistance process for staffData decision rule for requesting assistance based on number of major behavioral incidentsEstablish a continuous data-based system to monitor, evaluate, & improve effectiveness & efficiencyAre students displaying improved behaviors?Are staff implementing procedures with high fidelity?What can be modified to improve outcomes?What can be eliminated to improve efficiency?
17Check-in Individual Student Systems Do you have a team that supports teachers with at-risk students?Available to all staff? Parents?How do teachers access support?Strengths, challenges for this team?Data sourcesCommittee Review Worksheet, Staff Handbook, general knowledge…Check-in
19Bethel Individual Student Systems Cadre (BISSC) The purpose of BISSC is to extend the existing school-based continuum of PBS to the district level by:increasing communication between key individuals,coordination of efforts, andspecialized technical assistance.
20Comprehensive SystemSchool: (a) Training, (b) Technical assistance, (c) communication and coordination, and (b) on-going monitoringDistrict: Coordinating resources, training and assessment across schoolsCommunity: Support that links families, school/district personnel and community agencies (e.g., juvenile justice, community mental health, etc.).
21Guiding PrinciplesFunctional Perspective: Behavior is considered within environmental contextBehavioral Competence: School-based individual who has expertise.Systems Foundation. Team-based approach to problem solving and efficient request assistance with function-based support.Multiple Levels: Build off SW Discipline model, intervene early.
28In general, BISSC… Monthly School-based Quarterly District-wide Technical Assistance, MonitoringQuarterly District-wideTraining, Coordination & CommunicationAdvisory CouncilSystemsDistrict Leadership TeamConnect to other initiatives (e.g., academic, multi-cultural)
29GoalsAssist schools in implementing systems for supporting students with intense needs efficiently and effectively.To train at least one member of each school team to conduct FBA-BIP’sFormal content trainingCase PresentationsPractice and ModelingOn-site support
30BISSC-District connection Speech/Language, Autism Specialists, etc To provide technical support for developing FBA-BIPs.BISSC-District connectionSpeech/Language, Autism Specialists, etcOn-Site supportIncreasing communication and case coordination within and between school teams
31Evaluation Team Member Survey Student Tracking Sheet Individual Student Systems Evaluation Tool (ISSET)- FidelityFBA-BIP Quality
33Survey Summary Over the three years of implementation: It is easier to complete the FBA-BIP processThey complete more without district or expert supportMembers believe that the BIPs are more effectiveAs team member confidence increased, as reliance on outside support has decreasedHowever, it took three years for schools to establish a system for referring students for BISSC support
39Objectives Rationale for conducting FBA-BIP Define FBA Describe requirements for conducting FBA-BIPBe familiar with the main steps in FBA-BIP process
40Academic Systems Behavioral Systems Intensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsAssessment-basedHigh IntensityIntensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsAssessment-basedIntense, durable procedures1-5%1-5%Targeted Group InterventionsSome students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid response5-10%5-10%Targeted Group InterventionsSome students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid responseUniversal InterventionsAll studentsPreventive, proactive80-90%Universal InterventionsAll settings, all studentsPreventive, proactive80-90%
41What is FBA?A systematic problem solving process for developing statements about factors that:Contribute to the occurrence and maintenance of problem behavior, andMore importantly, serve as basis for developing proactive & comprehensive behavior support plans.
42Use FBA when… Students are not successful Interventions need to be developedExisting interventions need to made more effective and/or efficient
43How do I know if I have done an FBA? Description of problem behaviorIdentification of conditions that predict when problem behavior will and will not occurIdentification of consequences that maintain problem behaviors (functions)
44Summary statements or testable hypotheses that describe specific behavior, conditions, and reinforcersCollection of direct observation data that support summary statements
45FBA’s do not… FBAs guide the development of BIP. They do not result in EligibilityPlacementManifest determinationCan provide information that is useful for all of these of procedures
46FBA Misrules Only one way to collect FBA information, FBA process is basically the sameDecisions about methods for collecting data may vary based on what information need to be collected
47Must do everything every time. Base FBA activities on what you know.FBA is systematic behavior support planning process.
48Everyone has to know how to do FBA. Small # of people must have high fluency.All people must know process & what to expect.Some individuals must work on sustainability.
49One component of comprehensive plan of behavior support. FBA is it.One component of comprehensive plan of behavior support.FBA is only for students with disabilityProcess for behavior of all individuals across multiple settings
50Power, authority, control, intimidation, bullying, etc Power, authority, control, intimidation, bullying, etc. are functions Two basic research validated functionsPositive reinforcement (get/access)Negative reinforcement (avoid/escape)
51Steps in an FBA Collect Information to determine function. Develop testable hypothesis or summary statements and indicate functions.Collect direct observation data to confirm summary statement.Identify desired and acceptable replacement behaviors.Develop behavior intervention plan.Develop comprehensive BIP to ensure high fidelity implementation.Develop on-going monitoring system.
52Step 1: Collect Information Multiple sourcesStudent, parent, teacher, etc.Multiple settingsWhere it occurs & doesn’t occurStrengthsReinforcers, goals, hobbies, social skills, academic achievements, etc.
54AaronTeacher interview, student interview, record review When Aaron sits next to preferred peers, he talks to them to gain peer attention.
55Defining behaviorMust be in operational, observable, or measurable terms.To achieve high agreement between two people.No work completionStarts, then stops, then starts, then stops, …Completes the work and puts it in binder, forgets to turn-inDraws flowers and rainbows on the assignment
56Activity Collect Information Review all information you have on your target student and determine what other information you will need to collectStudent, Teacher or Parent interviewODRs, other discipline recordsAcademic informationHealth informationWrite an operational definition of the student’s problem behaviorObservable and measurableActivity
57STEP 2. Develop summary statement. Testable hypothesis (“objective guess”).Write in observable terms.If not confirmable, collect more information & restate.Developed from review of assessment information.Composed of (a) problem behavior, (b) triggering antecedent, (c) maintaining consequences, & (d) setting events.
58Setting eventsFactors that make problem behavior worse (more likely to occur, more intense)E.g., illness, fatigue, social conflict, change in routine,……Factors that change value of current reinforcersE.g., verbal praise less effective, peer attention more influential,escaping work more desirable….
59Testable Hypothesis Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem BehaviorMaintainingConsequences
60Examples of summary statements When he misses breakfast & peers tease him about his walk, Caesar calls them names & hits them. The teasing stops.
66Activity Testable Hypothesis Develop a testable hypothesis for you target studentOperational definition of the problem behaviorTriggering antecedentMaintaining ConsequenceConsider if there are Setting EventsPut answers in the middle row of the Competing Path AnalysisActivity
67STEP 3. Collect direct observation data to confirm summary statement Testable hypothesisMultiple settingsMeasures ofproblem behaviortriggering antecedents,maintaining consequences, &setting events
68Collect direction information to confirm summary statement.
69STEP 4. Developing “competing pathways” summary statement ComponentsConfirmed summary statementsDesired replacement behavior to be displayed in problem situation (behavioral objective)Alternative replacement behavior that could achieve same outcome as problem behavior
73Control Let others host Some events Less work Job Stress Deadlines Desired BehaviorLet others hostSome eventsExisting ConsequenceLess workSetting eventJob StressDeadlinesAntecedentFamily event (e.g., holiday)Problem BehaviorHost all eventsDo all cookingMaintaining ConsequenceControlAlternative Behavior?????
74Activity Competing Path Analysis Finish completing the Competing Path Analysis for your target studentDesired Behavior – Long term goalConsequence for Desired BehaviorAlternative Behavior – Short term goalMeets same function as problem behaviorEasier and more effective than problem behaviorActivity
75STEP 5. Develop behavior support plan. Tactics fordiscouraging problem behavior,teaching & encouraging desirable & acceptable replacement behavior,preventing & responding to emergency/crisis situations, &monitoring implementation effectivenessEmphasis on manipulation of (a) behaviors, (b) antecedents, (c) consequences, & (d) setting events
76GuidelinesDesign antecedent strategies to make triggering antecedents ineffective.So they no longer serve as triggers.Design behavior teaching strategies to make problem behaviors inefficient.So more acceptable behaviors are easier to do.
77GuidelinesDesign consequence strategies to make maintaining consequences irrelevant.So they no longer are present orAre less reinforcing.Design setting event strategies to eliminate or neutralize effects of setting events.So they have less impact on routines & reinforcers.
79Triggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences AaronSetting EventsTriggering AntecedentsTeaching BehaviorsMaintaining ConsequencesNoneNeutralizeSelf-management sheetChoice of seatingTeacher precorrection IrrelevantTeach Aaron to: - self-assess -self-monitor -self-recruit InefficientPraise/tokens for appropriate (self & peer)Planned correctionIneffective
80Activity Behavior Intervention Plan Use the Competing Path Analysis to identify strategies for the behavior intervention planNeutralize setting eventsPrevent antecedents from being triggersTeach alternative and desired behaviorConsequences to encourage alternative and desired behaviorsConsequences to discourage problem behaviorActivity
81STEP 6. Develop details & routines for full implementation of behavior support plan LogisticsE.g., schedules, people, materials, training, monitoringScripts for adults toModify structural/routine/environment“Neutralize” setting eventsManipulate antecedent & consequence eventsTeach response/skillsRespond to emergency/crisis situations
83Setting EventsAntecedentsBehaviorConsequencesNoneGive Aaron self-management sheetRemind him to work quietly-Provide choice of seating-Teach Aaron to self-manage, record, and recruitAppropriate-Check and initial if correct-Give VISA tickets & praiseInappropriate-Remind him of plan-Redirect to taskWeekly-Debrief-Send plan summary home
84Generic Plan Template Beginning of class give Aaron self-management sheetRemind him to work quietlyWhen Aaron raises his hand-check his self-management sheet-initial if accurate-give Aaron VISA tickets & praiseIf Aaron talks during class-Remind him of plan-Redirect to taskAt end of class-collect self-management sheet from Aaron-give him praise for efforts/successesAt end of week-debrief on weeks progress-send plan summary home to parents
87Triggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Setting EventsTriggering AntecedentsTeaching BehaviorsMaintaining ConsequencesHave Cary check-in with the teacher at the beginning of the dayIf Cary has a headache, give him a choice of tasksGive Cary a choice a seatingRemind Cary that he can a sk to sit at the back table or move upGive Cary a self-managementTeach Cary to ask for assistance (peer buddy)Teach Cary to ask to sit at the back table, and how to move upTeach Cary how to monitor his own behaviorWhen Cary talks give reminder and/or ask him to take a breakWhen Cary asks for assistance/ change seating immed. respondGood day/week give Cary praise and summary to take home
88Problem Behavior Pathway SettingEventsTriggeringAntecedentsProblemBehaviorMaintainingConsequencesPrior“upsetting”eventDifficult WorkGroupsHead downAWOLEscapeDifficult work
90Triggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Setting EventsTriggering AntecedentsTeaching BehaviorsMaintaining ConsequencesHome and school phone if possible upsetting eventMeet Sean at door/busGive options for scheduleReading instructionStress ThermometerArt BasketEstablish Cool down areasGive choice to be part of group from deskTeach Sean to use Cool downTeach Sean to use art basketTeach Sean to ask for alternative activityTeach Sean to use Stress ThermometerWhen Sean has good day let him choose “medal”When Sean is becoming upset remind him about break optionsIf Sean is walking around room, redirect to desk or break areaIf Sean leaves area, begin search & call home
92Activity BIP Implementation Decide how you will summarize the BIP so that all individuals can easily understand and implementTwo column summaryFAQFlow-chartIdentify what materials will need to be developed before the BIP can be implementedActivity
93STEP 7. Monitor & evaluate implementation of behavior support plan. DataImpact onstudent behavior, lifestyle outcomessignificant othersFidelity of implementation
94Consider contextual fit (Albin, Lucyshyn, Horner, & Flannery, 1996) Characteristics of person for whom plan is designed.Variables related to people who will implement plan.Features of environments & systems within which plan will be implemented. (p. 82)
95Aaron Observations 1 9 8 P r e f e r r e d P e e r 7 A l o n e 6 N o n CAC1BLFunctionalAnalysisBLInterventionBLSelf-management98PreferredPeer7Alone6Non-PreferredPeer543211368112141722224262832343637394143Observations
96How do I know if I’ve done an FBA? Develop testable hypothesis statementConfirm hypothesis with direct observationsDevelop behavior support planDevelop implementation planMonitor/evaluate implementation
97Big IdeasFBA-BIP is a process designed to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of individualized behavior support planning.FBA-BIP is appropriate for all students and all types of problem behavior.Intensity of FBA-BIP should match intensity of problem and needs of students.
99Guiding Behavioral Principles Human behavior is important, understandable, & predictableHuman behavior is learnedHuman behavior is malleable & teachableBehavior does NOT occur in a vacuum….it is affected directly by environmental events
100Why use positive reinforcement? Teach new behaviorEncourage/establish infrequent & non-fluent behaviorEstablish positive relationship between the individual, others, & learning environmentStrengthen specific replacement behaviors that compete with habitual undesirable behavior
101Consequence (Wolery, Bailey, & Sugai, 1988) Events that occur after the behavior and serve to affect the probability of that behavior occurring again in the future under similar conditions
102Manipulation of Stimuli Adding or taking away a consequence (Action)May be presented (give)May be withdrawn (take)May be withheldWhat happens to behavior (Effect)Increase or decrease in behaviorNo effect on behavior
103Aversive stimulusWhen given, decreased likelihood of behavior in futurePositive punishmentWhen removed, increased likelihood of behavior in futureNegative reinforcement
104Reinforcing stimulusWhen given, increased likelihood of behavior in futurePositive reinforcementWhen taken, decreased likelihood of behavior in futureNegative punishment
105A Matter of Perspective Always define the who and what you are interested in.
106Definitions “Positive” = add or give “Negative” = take away or remove “Punishment” = decrease“Reinforcement” = increase
107Reinforcement v. Punishment Positive Reinforcementa behavior has an increased likelihood of occurring again if something is given after it occurs
108Example 1: When Cleo yells out for teacher help during class, her teacher tells her to keep her voice down and try to figure it out on her own. Cleo’s yelling increases.Example 2: When Caesar helps the teacher or a peer with an activity and he is praised by the teacher, he helps more often.
109Negative Reinforcement behavior has an increased likelihood of occurring again if something is taken away after it occurs
110Example 3: When Hidalgo throws his work assignments on the floor, his teacher picks them, marks a zero on them, and takes them away. His throwing of work assignment increases.
111Example 4: When Mana comes in the room, she notices that her teacher glares at her. As soon as she puts her homework immediately in the assignment box, her teacher stops glaring. Mana turning in of homework assignment at the beginning of class increases.
112Example 5: When kids tease her, Petunia hits and kicks them, and the teasing stops. Petunia increasingly uses hitting and kicking when she is teased.
113Positive Punishmentbehavior has a decreased likelihood of occurring again if something is given after it occurs
114Example 6: Whenever Ivar tries to answer a question in class, the other students make fun of his accent. Ivar frequency of answering questions in class decreases quickly.
115Example 7: Every time Rodrigo visits the counselor’s office, the counselor makes him say something positive about himself. Rodrigo has stopped going to the counselor.
116Negative Punishmentbehavior has a decrease likelihood of occurring again if something is taken away after it occurs
117Example 8: For every minute that she is out of her seat, Camilla’s teacher takes away 1 minute of the computer lab time that she has earned. Camilla’s out of seat behavior decreases.
118Example 9: Alexxa really enjoys being in music class Example 9: Alexxa really enjoys being in music class. When she is verbally aggressive, her teacher gives her a 2 minute visit to the room next door. Alexxa’s verbal aggressions decrease.
121When the hallway supervisor catches Kleat running in the hallway, she stops him and tells him, “NO running? If I catch you again, you’re really goin’ to be in trouble. Kleat’s behavior is explained by ________________________________
122“Nice work, Petunia. You’re really staying on task today “Nice work, Petunia. You’re really staying on task today.” Petunia’s on-task behavior decreases. Petunia’s behavior is explained _____________________________.
123Rem skipped two class periods Rem skipped two class periods. The office assigned him 6 hours of community service with the custodian. The next week Rem skips 5 classes. Rem’s behavior is explained by _______________________________.
124“Rhus, you owe me seven minutes of your recess time because you’ve been talking to your neighbors instead of working.” Rhus’ teacher notices that he doesn’t talk to his neighbors as much. Rhus’ behavior is explained by ________________________.
125Jungo has learned that if continues to say “whine,” his mother eventually gives him what he wants. Sometimes he has to whine for 15 minutes, but eventually it works. Jungo’s behavior is explained by ________________________________ and Jungo’s mother’s behavior is explained by ___________________________.
126As Floret walks done the hallway, she bumps into kids, pushes them aside, and yells at them to move. The other kids tell her to stop acting like an animal. Floret’s behavior is explained by _______________________________.
127Whenever Ms. Taken gives the class an easy assignment for homework, they cheer and turn the homework in on time. Ms. Taken assigns more and easy assignments, especially on Friday. Ms. Taken’s behavior is explained by ______________________.
129Objectives Be familiar with why we use measurement Know the different types of measurement proceduresPermanent ProductAnecdotalEvent and Time-Based
130MeasurementProcess of assignment numbers, values, units to some feature(s) of an event Johnston & Pennypacker (1993)Researchersoperationalize empiricismAchieve a scientific understandingPractitionersOptimize effectiveness and resourcesEthical and accountable
131What can be measured? Anything observable. Anything with dimensions: Frequency/RateTopographyLocusDurationLatencyForce or intensity
133Social Significance of Behavior Consider whose behavior is being assessed and changed and why?To what extent will the behavior change improve the person’s life?HabilitationShort and long term functionality/benefitAccess natural reinforcement – Relevance of Behavior RuleBoth ethical and pragmatic perspsective
134GuidelinesIs this behavior a necessary prerequisite for a useful skill?Phonemic awareness leads to readingWill this behavior increase access to environments where other important behaviors can be learned?Least restrictive environments (e.g., local school, general educ., afterschool activities)Will this behavior predispose others to interact with the individual in a more appropriate manner?Address needs of significant others, create social support
135Is the behavior age appropriate? Focus on real not developmental ageIf reducing behavior, what appropriate behavior is being taught to replace it?Never remove w/o giving another way to meet a needIs this behavior the actual problem or goal or just indirectly related?On-task v. active engagement, work completion, correct academic responding
136Is this just talk or the real behavior of interest? Knowing and doing are not the sameVerbal behavior poorly correlated with behaviorSkill or performance deficitWhat if the goal of the program isn’t a behavior?e.g., Weight loss, getting good grades, job satisfactionGoal is to change the behaviors that will ultimately meet the individuals goal
137Prioritizing Behavior Selection Danger to self and othersFrequency of behavior or opportunityHistoryBenefit (short and long term)Increase success, reduce failureBenefit to others (family, peers, co-workers)Difficulty and cost (resources)Response class and behavior chains
138Ranking behavior Many ways to go about this List behaviors rate against criterion3 ColumnsMust be changedCan wait, but importantCan live withDone as group or individually then compared
139Behavioral Assessment Variety of methodsDirect observations, checklists, interviews, testsIn addition to defining behavior, assessment shouldDiscover resources, assessment and significant othersIdentify competing contingenciesInform about potential reinforcement/punishmentFocus on facilitating maintenance and generalizationProvide the analyst with a “road map”
140Interviews – indirect method Often a first stepPrimarily what and when questionsCan interview the individual and/or significant othersCan focus further assessment methods
141Checklists - indirectProvides a description of the behavior and the conditions under which it occursE.g.,CBCLFACTSGuess & CheckMASPBQ
142Standardized Tests Same format, questions, presentation, order, etc. Norm-referenced TestsLimited use for behavior analysisHow the person compares to typicalCriterion-referenced & Curriculum-basedSpecific skills mastered and neededStudent performance of daily tasks
143Direct Measures Analyzing written records. Anecdotal reports Observing tangible products.Permanent productObserving a sample of behavior.Event based - record when occursTime based - record when set time passes
144Anecdotal reports Characteristics A description of the students behavior in a particular settingExamplesNotes, A-B-C dataAdvantagesProvides a narrative (not isolated tallys), general impressionDisadvantagesCannot make pre/post comparison decisions
145AntecedentsBehaviorsConsequencesTake out your mathI’m not done with my artRips up art project and throws on the floorStarts to cry and runs out of the roomYou will need to finish that latterPeers start to laugh. Teacher moves closer to Amanda.Teacher sighs and shakes her head
146Permanent product Characteristics Outcomes of behavior Examples Test grades, homework, work samplesAdvantagesDurable sampleDisadvantagesDo not directly observe behavior
147Observing Sample of Behavior Event BasedRecord after behavior (event) occursTally, Latency, DurationTime BasedRecord after passage of timePartial, Whole, Momentary
148Event based: Tally Characteristics Direct method that can be computed to rate, behaviors should be equal durationExamplesWords read, screams, compliance to requestsAdvantagesEasy, can be used with many behaviors (academic and social)DisadvantagesNot appropriate for high rate or unequal duration
151Event based: Two methods Controlled presentationsteacher controls number of opportunitiesmonitor progress by evaluating progress for each sessionTrials to criterionnumber of trials before pre-established accuracy level reacheduseful for planning instruction time
152Event based: Latency Characteristics Examples Advantages Disadvantages How long it takes behavior to begin after requestExamplesRespond to teacher request, begin to answer a questionAdvantagesProvides information about temporal boundariesDisadvantagesUseful with limited number of behaviors
153Event based: Duration Characteristics Length of time behavior occurs, used with discrete behaviors (clear ending and beginning)ExamplesTime on task, length of tantrumAdvantagesProvides information about temporal nature of behaviorDisadvantagesBehavior must have clear beginning and ending
154Duration: Two methods Average duration Cumulative duration measure each occurrencecompute average provides average amount of timee.g. 3 mins, 6 mins, and 4 mins mins/3 occur. = mins. averageCumulative durationmeasure each occurrencesum measuresprovides amount or percent of timee.g. 3 mins, 6 mins, and 4 mins = 13 mins. = 22% of an hour
155Interval recording andTime sampling CharacteristicsEstimate of behavior, recorded at end of the interval, intervals predetermined and equal lengthExamplesPartial interval, whole interval, momentary time samplingAdvantagesMultiple behaviors or multiple studentsDisadvantagesOnly provides an estimate
156Three Types Partial Interval Whole Interval Momentary Time Sampling Record if behavior occurs an any time during the intervalWhole IntervalRecord if behavior occurs throughout the entire intervalMomentary Time SamplingRecord if behavior occurs at end of interval
159Guidelines (Sugai & Tindal, 1993) Develop measurable and operational definitions.Develop as many (multiple) measures as is practical.Develop “well-calibrated” measurement system.Identify specific times and settings to collect the data.Develop observation systems that are as direct and formative as possible.Practice using the observation procedure.
160Convert to Common Metric Raw data to comparable unitsAllows you to compare observations of unequal lengths or combine multiple observationsTally = rate (e.g., talks out 15 times per hour)Duration/Latency = average length (out of seat average of 11 minutes)Time based = percent of intervals (appropriate 67% of 10 second intervals)
161Big IdeasMeasurement maintains an empirical and ethical perspective to both research and praticeThere are many ways to measure a behavior. Choose the one that most accurately measures the behavior of interest
162MeasurementDecide how you will collect direct observation data on your target studentThink through who will collect the data and how oftenWhat appropriate and inappropriate behaviors will be collectedDetermine a process for sharing the data with the teacher, parents and the behavior support team for decision-makingActivity
164When selecting a specific practice: Base selection on need identified by competing behavior pathways analysisSetting events, antecedents, teaching behaviors, consequences to increase and decrease behaviorMatch practice to function of problem behaviorGain social or item/activity, escape social or demand, automatic
165Match practice to context Skills, resources, values, etc.Choose the practice that is least intrusive, yet effectiveBalance between intrusive and effectiveBegin where you believe you will be successful
166Token EconomyA contingency management system that allows students to earn tokens that can be exchanged at a latter time for specific back-up reinforcers. (Wolery, Bailey, & Sugai, 1988).
168Token ReinforcementToken = anything that can be readily dispensed contingent upon behaviorExamples: points, credits, poker chips, stickers, play money, weaving hoopsBack-up Reinforcer = previously identified activities, objects, events, or privileges that have reinforcing valueExamples: free time, school store, discount, parking privileges, CD, computer time, music, edibles1419
169Establishing a Token Economy Identify target behaviorsDefine tokensIdentify incentives for appropriate behaviorPlan an exchange systemPlan procedures for fading tokensDeveloping monitoring systemEstablishing operating guidelines1520
170Requirements Clearly defined expected behaviors. Effective back-up reinforcers.Instruction on expected behaviors.Instruction on token system/procedures.Data-decision rule for fading and modifying.Planned correction procedures.
171Token Economy, misc.A token economy can give immediate feedback on behavior, yet presentation of the reward can be delayed.Avoid satiation of reinforcers.23
172Group ContingenciesMaking consequences either contingent on group behavior or by letting an individual student’s behavior affect consequences for the entire group (Wolery, Bailey, & Sugai, 1988).
173Three Variations Dependent Group-Oriented Independent Group-Oriented Performance of selected members results in consequences for whole groupIndependent Group-OrientedEach member same criterion consequences based on their performanceInterdependent Group-OrientedEach member same criterion but consequences based on group performance6
174ExamplesFor every homework assignment that is turned in on time a marble is added to a jar. When the jar is full, the class gets an afternoon movie.Inter-dependent
175ExamplesChloe earns a pop-bead for every 3 minutes she cooperates with peers during free play. When she has 10 pop-beads, the class gets to have 10 minutes of extra break time.Dependent Group
176ExampleChloe earns a point for every 3 classes she is “on-time.” When she has 10 points, the whole class gets a no homework weekend.Dependent Group
177Students who come to class (a) on time and (b) prepared (homework, pen/paper, and text book) for an entire week can go to the gym for “Afternoon Bash.”Independent Group
178Advantages Learn within a social context Efficient Build positive peer relations and interpersonal social skills
179Disadvantages Peer pressure/ridicule Social status of “subverters” FairnessIncreased supervision and administration
180Behavior ContractWritten &/or verbal agreement or arrangement between two or more individuals that designates conditions, consequences, & responsibilities for improving behavioral performance
181Prerequisites Ability to problem solve & achieve agreement Fluency with desired behavior(s)Ability to establish relationship with others
182Elements 1. Behavior(s) for improvement identify 1-2 functional, useful, & socially important behaviorsdescribe in observable & measurablefocus on desired, achievable behavior
1832. Level of improvement set achievable performance criteria focus on accomplishmentsinitially reward small approximations frequently
1843. Strategies for achieving improvement teacher-directedself-managedother-managed
1854. Consequences for acknowledging improvement assessment based reinforcersindicate specific consequences for all levels of behaviordesiredundesirableexceptionalspecify immediate & delayed reinforcers
1864. Individual responsibilities indicate who doeswhatwhenwherehow
1875. Record keeping procedure establish clear data decision rulese.g., “3 day rules”arrange for continuous monitoring & evaluation
188Other considerations Involve student Include “witnesses” Use understandable language/termsState positivelyMonitor, review, & revise continuously
189Why use contracts? Increase proactive interactions between individuals Increase participation & accountabilityStructure behavioral programmingPromote transfer of behavioral programming from teacher to studentImprovement of performanceTeach “responsibility”
190Activity Strategies to Increase Go back to the BIP you started on yesterdayAdd or modify the strategies for decrease problem behaviorEnsure that your selected strategies match the identified function of behaviorActivity
192Behavioral Assumptions Human behavior is important, understandable, & predictableHuman behavior is learnedHuman behavior is malleable & teachableBehavior does NOT occur in a vacuum….it is affected directly by environmental events
193Prerequisites Behavioral perspective Proactive teaching emphasis Examine behavior & context in which it occursProactive teaching emphasisTeach prosocial alternativesData-guided decision makingUse performance to make decisions
194Group-based decision making Regular monitoring & evaluation Work with othersRegular monitoring & evaluationCheck dailyResearch validated practicesUse what works (evidence of effectiveness)Positive reinforcement of alternative behaviorStrengthen replacement behaviors
195Punishment guidelines Cause no physical pain, injury, or humiliation.Always use least aversive most effectiveAlways pair with positive reinforcement of alternative behaviorAlways take data to monitor effectivenessAlways implement with high fidelity & by expertAlways involve student, family, etc. in decision making
196TimeoutDecrease in future probability of behavior occurrences associated with contingent removal of opportunity to earn positive reinforcement
197Guidelines for timeout Must have reinforcing “time-in” environmentKeep at 5-10 minutes or lessTeach how & when to take timeoutKeep business-like & objectiveDebrief/discuss after timeout consequenceReinforce complianceTeach/reinforce alternative responseHave plan/response in place for escalations/crises
198Response costDecrease in future probability of behavior occurrences associated with contingent removal of positive reinforcers.
199Guidelines for response cost Give multiple & opportunities to earn contingent positive reinforcersBe sure backup reinforcers are really “positive reinforcers
200DRO/DRI/DRL Differential reinforcement Contingent positive reinforcement and extinction
201DRO = differential reinforcement (DR) for occurrence of all alternatives behaviors except problem behaviorDRI = DR for occurrence of a specific alternative behaviorDRL = DR for progressively lower rates of problem behavior
202Extinction Removal of previously maintaining positive reinforcers Responding under extinction conditionsgradual change intensity/frequencyincrease before decrease in intensity/frequency“spontaneous” recoveryNever use extinction without positive reinforcement (DR)
203Big Ideas Always do a functional assessment Always teach & positively reinforce alternative behavior that “competes” with problem behavioreffort, efficiency, effectivenessAlways take data, and look at effect on target & other behaviorsDo no harmUse least aversive & most effective
204Activity BIP Implementation Decide how you will summarize the BIP so that all individuals can easily understand and implementTwo column summaryFAQFlow-chartIdentify what materials will need to be developed before the BIP can be implementedActivity
206Goal = Continuum of Procedures Minor = staff managedMajor = administration/office managedConsequencesProceduresRecord Keeping
207Minor Infractions Staff managed infractions Less serious/severe Not … dangerous, violent or illegalManaged using low-level consequencesCould be different for different schools
208Responses to Misbehavior Correcting/remindingContacting parent/familyLoss of privilegesTime out in another classroomProblem solvingRestitution, apology, notes, etc.Mentoring program
209Strategy One: Reteaching Signal that error has occurredState rule and expected behaviorAsk student to state/show expected behaviorGive positive feedback
210Strategy Two: Off-Task Acknowledge students on-taskRedirect student’s groupPrivately redirect student to taskStay with direction until on-taskAcknowledge cooperationContinue to prevent off-task by acknowledging on-task
211Strategy Three: Disrespectful/provacative Speak privately, calmly, respectfullyIdentify the problemMinimize body languagePresent reasonable options (focus on expected behaviorBe briefGive student chance to comply, acknowledgeDo not become involved in escalation
212Strategy Four: Reducing Agitation Recognize agitationFocus on expected behaviorRemind student of optionsAllow spaceAttend to other studentsMonitor from nearbyAssist student to begin work (possibly independent task)
213In General… Work to prevent problem behavior “positive time-in environment”Remain calm and respectfulAddress issues privatelyFollow-throughBe consistent, no surprisesPreteach time-out or other procedures
214Team Activity Possible activities Office v. Staff managed Toolkit of responses for staff managedRefine ODR process
2201. Calm Student is cooperative. Accepts corrective feedback. Follows directives.Sets personal goals.Ignores distractions.Accepts praise.
221Calm Intervention is focused on prevention. Arrange for high rates of successful academic & social engagements.Use positive reinforcement.Teach social skills.Problem solvingRelaxation strategySelf-managementCommunicate positive expectations.
2397. RecoveryStudent displays eagerness to participate in non-engagement activities.Attempts to correct problem.Unwillingness to participate in group activities.Social withdrawal & sleep.
240RecoveryIntervention is focused on re-establishing routines & activities.Follow through with consequences for problem behavior.Positively reinforce any displays of appropriate behavior.
241RecoveryDebriefPurpose of debrief is to facilitate transition back to program.Debrief follows consequences for problem behavior.Goal is to increase more appropriate behavior.
242Recovery Problem solving example: What did I do? (define the problem) Why did I do it?What could I have done instead? (create possible solutions)What do I have to do next? (make a plan)Can I do it?If not, whose help would I like?
243The MODEL High Peak Acceleration De-escalation Agitation Trigger Calm RecoveryLow
244Three Key Strategies Identify how to intervene early in an escalation. Identify environmental factors that can be manipulated.Identify replacement behaviors that can be taught.
245Final ThoughtIt is always important to remember that “if you inadvertently assist the student to escalate, do not be concerned; you will get another chance to do it right the next time around” (Geoff Colvin,1989).