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Tier III – Individual Support

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1 Tier III – Individual Support
NW PBIS Network

2 Who is the NorthWest PBIS Network?
Supporting educators, families and community members to implement and sustain positive, effective and culturally inclusive environments to achieve social and academic outcomes for All children and youth.

3 PBIS Events Oct 19th – Fall PBIS Coaches Institute, Eugene, OR
Nov 3rd-4th – Fall PBIS Conference, Seattle Nov 5th – PBIS Classroom Workshop Jessica Sprick, Seattle Nov 5th-7th - SWIS Facilitator Training, Seattle Nov 5th – ISIS-SWIS Facilitator Training, Seattle Jan 30th – Winter PBIS Coaches Institute, Spokane Learn More at

4 Tentative Agenda Day 1 Day 2 Overview of ISS
District-wide Systems of Support FBA-BIP Process Guiding Principles Day 2 Measuring Behavior Strategies to Increase Behavior Strategies to Decrease Behavior Responding to Escalations

5 Overview of Individual Student Systems

6 Purpose To describe considerations & procedures for developing & sustaining individual student systems This system will expand Tier I supports to Tier II and Tier III systems

7 Challenges to ISS Students
Problem behaviors are high intensity &/or frequency Too many students display significant problem behavior at any one time Problem behaviors are disrupting learning & teaching environments Problem behaviors are difficult to understand Interventions are ineffective

8 Schools Not enough minutes in the day to collect information and develop interventions Administrative leadership & support is lacking, unavailable, or underdeveloped Staff are unable or untrained to implement interventions Overemphasis on form, policy, or regulation rather than on process Lack of continuum of positive behavior support

9 Considerations Behavior must be considered within context in which it is observed As intensity of problem behavior increases, so must intensity & complexity of functional behavioral assessment & behavior support planning process

10 Individuals who develop & implement behavior support plans must be behaviorally competent & able to…
conduct fluently FBA-BIP facilitate efficient development, implementation, evaluation of BIPs collect & analyze student performance data develop academic & social BIPs that are based on research validated practice.

11 The longer problem behavior has been occurring, the more resistant it may be to intervention
Staff need sustained & effective support to respond effectively & efficiently to significant problem behavior Efficient team-based approach & process to problem solving must be in place

12 Tier I - Universal School-wide discipline system for all students, staff, & settings that is effective for 80% of students Clearly & positively stated expectations Procedures for teaching expectations Continuum of procedures for teaching expectations Continuum of procedures for encouraging expectations Continuum of procedures for discouraging rule violations Procedures for monitoring & modifying procedures

13 Tier II - Secondary Specialized group administered system for students who display high-risk problem behavior & are unresponsive to universal interventions Functional assessment based intervention decisions Daily behavioral monitoring Regular & frequent opportunities for positive reinforcement Home-school connection Individualized academic accommodations for academic success Planned social skills instruction Behaviorally based interventions

14 Tier III - Tertiary Specialized individually administered system for students who display most challenging problem behavior & are unresponsive to targeted group interventions Simple request for assistance Immediate response (24-48 hours Functional behavioral assessment-based behavior support planning Team-based problem solving process Data-based decision making Comprehensive service delivery derived from a wraparound process

15 General Process Establish Behavior Support Team to guide/lead process
Secure & establish behavioral competence within school Develop/strengthen three level system of school-wide behavior support: Universal Interventions Secondary Interventions Individual Interventions

16 Establish data decision system for matching level of intervention to student
Simple & direct request for assistance process for staff Data decision rule for requesting assistance based on number of major behavioral incidents Establish a continuous data-based system to monitor, evaluate, & improve effectiveness & efficiency Are students displaying improved behaviors? Are staff implementing procedures with high fidelity? What can be modified to improve outcomes? What can be eliminated to improve efficiency?

17 Check-in Individual Student Systems
Do you have a team that supports teachers with at-risk students? Available to all staff? Parents? How do teachers access support? Strengths, challenges for this team? Data sources Committee Review Worksheet, Staff Handbook, general knowledge… Check-in

18 Developing District-Wide systems of ISS

19 Bethel Individual Student Systems Cadre (BISSC)
The purpose of BISSC is to extend the existing school-based continuum of PBS to the district level by: increasing communication between key individuals, coordination of efforts, and specialized technical assistance.

20 Comprehensive System School: (a) Training, (b) Technical assistance, (c) communication and coordination, and (b) on-going monitoring District: Coordinating resources, training and assessment across schools Community: Support that links families, school/district personnel and community agencies (e.g., juvenile justice, community mental health, etc.).

21 Guiding Principles Functional Perspective: Behavior is considered within environmental context Behavioral Competence: School-based individual who has expertise. Systems Foundation. Team-based approach to problem solving and efficient request assistance with function-based support. Multiple Levels: Build off SW Discipline model, intervene early.




25 District Example 11 schools 5679 students District-wide PBS project
District-wide reading project Beginning a District-wide math project



28 In general, BISSC… Monthly School-based Quarterly District-wide
Technical Assistance, Monitoring Quarterly District-wide Training, Coordination & Communication Advisory Council Systems District Leadership Team Connect to other initiatives (e.g., academic, multi-cultural)

29 Goals Assist schools in implementing systems for supporting students with intense needs efficiently and effectively. To train at least one member of each school team to conduct FBA-BIP’s Formal content training Case Presentations Practice and Modeling On-site support

30 BISSC-District connection Speech/Language, Autism Specialists, etc
To provide technical support for developing FBA-BIPs. BISSC-District connection Speech/Language, Autism Specialists, etc On-Site support Increasing communication and case coordination within and between school teams

31 Evaluation Team Member Survey Student Tracking Sheet
Individual Student Systems Evaluation Tool (ISSET)- Fidelity FBA-BIP Quality

32 Team Member Survey

33 Survey Summary Over the three years of implementation:
It is easier to complete the FBA-BIP process They complete more without district or expert support Members believe that the BIPs are more effective As team member confidence increased, as reliance on outside support has decreased However, it took three years for schools to establish a system for referring students for BISSC support

34 Tracking Sheet

35 Tracking Summary

36 ISSET Fidelity of Implementation Measure Validity Foundations
Targeted-Group Interventions Intensive Interventions Validity 84% Test-retest (w/i 2-weeks) Content and Predictive Validity (this year)


38 Functional Behavioral Assessment & Behavior Intervention Plans

39 Objectives Rationale for conducting FBA-BIP Define FBA
Describe requirements for conducting FBA-BIP Be familiar with the main steps in FBA-BIP process

40 Academic Systems Behavioral Systems
Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based High Intensity Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures 1-5% 1-5% Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response 5-10% 5-10% Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Universal Interventions All students Preventive, proactive 80-90% Universal Interventions All settings, all students Preventive, proactive 80-90%

41 What is FBA? A systematic problem solving process for developing statements about factors that: Contribute to the occurrence and maintenance of problem behavior, and More importantly, serve as basis for developing proactive & comprehensive behavior support plans.

42 Use FBA when… Students are not successful
Interventions need to be developed Existing interventions need to made more effective and/or efficient

43 How do I know if I have done an FBA?
Description of problem behavior Identification of conditions that predict when problem behavior will and will not occur Identification of consequences that maintain problem behaviors (functions)

44 Summary statements or testable hypotheses that describe specific behavior, conditions, and reinforcers Collection of direct observation data that support summary statements

45 FBA’s do not… FBAs guide the development of BIP. They do not result in
Eligibility Placement Manifest determination Can provide information that is useful for all of these of procedures

46 FBA Misrules Only one way to collect FBA information,
FBA process is basically the same Decisions about methods for collecting data may vary based on what information need to be collected

47 Must do everything every time.
Base FBA activities on what you know. FBA is systematic behavior support planning process.

48 Everyone has to know how to do FBA.
Small # of people must have high fluency. All people must know process & what to expect. Some individuals must work on sustainability.

49 One component of comprehensive plan of behavior support.
FBA is it. One component of comprehensive plan of behavior support. FBA is only for students with disability Process for behavior of all individuals across multiple settings

50 Power, authority, control, intimidation, bullying, etc
Power, authority, control, intimidation, bullying, etc. are functions Two basic research validated functions Positive reinforcement (get/access) Negative reinforcement (avoid/escape)

51 Steps in an FBA Collect Information to determine function.
Develop testable hypothesis or summary statements and indicate functions. Collect direct observation data to confirm summary statement. Identify desired and acceptable replacement behaviors. Develop behavior intervention plan. Develop comprehensive BIP to ensure high fidelity implementation. Develop on-going monitoring system.

52 Step 1: Collect Information
Multiple sources Student, parent, teacher, etc. Multiple settings Where it occurs & doesn’t occur Strengths Reinforcers, goals, hobbies, social skills, academic achievements, etc.

53 Step 1….continued Multiple methods Archival review Checklist/inventory
Office discipline referrals, behavior incident reports, etc. Checklist/inventory FACTS, routine analysis Interview Brief, student-guided, parent, teacher Direct observation O’Neill et al., ABC, scatter plot

54 Aaron Teacher interview, student interview, record review When Aaron sits next to preferred peers, he talks to them to gain peer attention.

55 Defining behavior Must be in operational, observable, or measurable terms. To achieve high agreement between two people. No work completion Starts, then stops, then starts, then stops, … Completes the work and puts it in binder, forgets to turn-in Draws flowers and rainbows on the assignment

56 Activity Collect Information
Review all information you have on your target student and determine what other information you will need to collect Student, Teacher or Parent interview ODRs, other discipline records Academic information Health information Write an operational definition of the student’s problem behavior Observable and measurable Activity

57 STEP 2. Develop summary statement.
Testable hypothesis (“objective guess”). Write in observable terms. If not confirmable, collect more information & restate. Developed from review of assessment information. Composed of (a) problem behavior, (b) triggering antecedent, (c) maintaining consequences, & (d) setting events.

58 Setting events Factors that make problem behavior worse (more likely to occur, more intense) E.g., illness, fatigue, social conflict, change in routine,…… Factors that change value of current reinforcers E.g., verbal praise less effective, peer attention more influential,escaping work more desirable….

59 Testable Hypothesis Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem
Behavior Maintaining Consequences

60 Examples of summary statements
When he misses breakfast & peers tease him about his walk, Caesar calls them names & hits them. The teasing stops.

61 Testable Hypothesis Name calling & Hits. Misses breakfast. Teased
Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequences Name calling & Hits. Misses breakfast. Teased by peers. Teasing stops.

62 Camillia stares off into space & does not respond to teacher directions when she doesn’t know how to do a difficult math problem. Her teacher removes the work.

63 Testable Hypothesis Talking None Preferred Peer. Gain Peer attention
Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequences Talking None Preferred Peer. Gain Peer attention

64 When his teacher gives him clear directions & praises him privately, Charlop completes his work.

65 Testable Hypothesis Clear directions. Private Completes teacher work.
Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequences Clear directions. Private teacher praise. Completes work.

66 Activity Testable Hypothesis
Develop a testable hypothesis for you target student Operational definition of the problem behavior Triggering antecedent Maintaining Consequence Consider if there are Setting Events Put answers in the middle row of the Competing Path Analysis Activity

67 STEP 3. Collect direct observation data to confirm summary statement
Testable hypothesis Multiple settings Measures of problem behavior triggering antecedents, maintaining consequences, & setting events

68 Collect direction information to confirm summary statement.

69 STEP 4. Developing “competing pathways” summary statement
Components Confirmed summary statements Desired replacement behavior to be displayed in problem situation (behavioral objective) Alternative replacement behavior that could achieve same outcome as problem behavior

70 Competing Behavior Pathway
Desired Behavior Work quietly Existing Consequence Grades More work Setting event None Antecedent Preferred peer Problem Behavior Talking Maintaining Consequence Gain Peer attention Alternative Behavior Peer helper



73 Control Let others host Some events Less work Job Stress Deadlines
Desired Behavior Let others host Some events Existing Consequence Less work Setting event Job Stress Deadlines Antecedent Family event (e.g., holiday) Problem Behavior Host all events Do all cooking Maintaining Consequence Control Alternative Behavior ?????

74 Activity Competing Path Analysis
Finish completing the Competing Path Analysis for your target student Desired Behavior – Long term goal Consequence for Desired Behavior Alternative Behavior – Short term goal Meets same function as problem behavior Easier and more effective than problem behavior Activity

75 STEP 5. Develop behavior support plan.
Tactics for discouraging problem behavior, teaching & encouraging desirable & acceptable replacement behavior, preventing & responding to emergency/crisis situations, & monitoring implementation effectiveness Emphasis on manipulation of (a) behaviors, (b) antecedents, (c) consequences, & (d) setting events

76 Guidelines Design antecedent strategies to make triggering antecedents ineffective. So they no longer serve as triggers. Design behavior teaching strategies to make problem behaviors inefficient. So more acceptable behaviors are easier to do.

77 Guidelines Design consequence strategies to make maintaining consequences irrelevant. So they no longer are present or Are less reinforcing. Design setting event strategies to eliminate or neutralize effects of setting events. So they have less impact on routines & reinforcers.


79 Triggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences
Aaron Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Teaching Behaviors Maintaining Consequences None Neutralize Self-management sheet Choice of seating Teacher precorrection Irrelevant Teach Aaron to: - self-assess -self-monitor -self-recruit Inefficient Praise/tokens for appropriate (self & peer) Planned correction Ineffective

80 Activity Behavior Intervention Plan
Use the Competing Path Analysis to identify strategies for the behavior intervention plan Neutralize setting events Prevent antecedents from being triggers Teach alternative and desired behavior Consequences to encourage alternative and desired behaviors Consequences to discourage problem behavior Activity

81 STEP 6. Develop details & routines for full implementation of behavior support plan
Logistics E.g., schedules, people, materials, training, monitoring Scripts for adults to Modify structural/routine/environment “Neutralize” setting events Manipulate antecedent & consequence events Teach response/skills Respond to emergency/crisis situations


83 Setting Events Antecedents Behavior Consequences None Give Aaron self-management sheet Remind him to work quietly -Provide choice of seating -Teach Aaron to self-manage, record, and recruit Appropriate -Check and initial if correct -Give VISA tickets & praise Inappropriate -Remind him of plan -Redirect to task Weekly -Debrief -Send plan summary home

84 Generic Plan Template Beginning of class
give Aaron self-management sheet Remind him to work quietly When Aaron raises his hand -check his self-management sheet -initial if accurate -give Aaron VISA tickets & praise If Aaron talks during class -Remind him of plan -Redirect to task At end of class -collect self-management sheet from Aaron -give him praise for efforts/successes At end of week -debrief on weeks progress -send plan summary home to parents

85 Problem Behavior Pathway
Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequences Headaches Noise Peers Talking No work Obtain Peer Attention

86 Competing Behavior Pathway
Desired Sit quietly Do work Consequence Better grades Setting event Headaches Antecedent Noise Peers Problem Talking No work Maintaining consequence Obtain Peer Attention Alternative Ask for Peer buddy

87 Triggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences
Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Teaching Behaviors Maintaining Consequences Have Cary check-in with the teacher at the beginning of the day If Cary has a headache, give him a choice of tasks Give Cary a choice a seating Remind Cary that he can a sk to sit at the back table or move up Give Cary a self-management Teach Cary to ask for assistance (peer buddy) Teach Cary to ask to sit at the back table, and how to move up Teach Cary how to monitor his own behavior When Cary talks give reminder and/or ask him to take a break When Cary asks for assistance/ change seating immed. respond Good day/week give Cary praise and summary to take home

88 Problem Behavior Pathway
Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequences Prior “upsetting” event Difficult Work Groups Head down AWOL Escape Difficult work

89 Competing Behavior Pathway
Desired Participate Do work Consequence Better grades Friends Setting event Prior “upsetting” event Antecedent Difficult Work Groups Problem Head down AWOL Maintaining consequence Escape Difficult work Alternative Ask for Break

90 Triggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences
Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Teaching Behaviors Maintaining Consequences Home and school phone if possible upsetting event Meet Sean at door/bus Give options for schedule Reading instruction Stress Thermometer Art Basket Establish Cool down areas Give choice to be part of group from desk Teach Sean to use Cool down Teach Sean to use art basket Teach Sean to ask for alternative activity Teach Sean to use Stress Thermometer When Sean has good day let him choose “medal” When Sean is becoming upset remind him about break options If Sean is walking around room, redirect to desk or break area If Sean leaves area, begin search & call home


92 Activity BIP Implementation
Decide how you will summarize the BIP so that all individuals can easily understand and implement Two column summary FAQ Flow-chart Identify what materials will need to be developed before the BIP can be implemented Activity

93 STEP 7. Monitor & evaluate implementation of behavior support plan.
Data Impact on student behavior, lifestyle outcomes significant others Fidelity of implementation

94 Consider contextual fit (Albin, Lucyshyn, Horner, & Flannery, 1996)
Characteristics of person for whom plan is designed. Variables related to people who will implement plan. Features of environments & systems within which plan will be implemented. (p. 82)

95 Aaron Observations 1 9 8 P r e f e r r e d P e e r 7 A l o n e 6 N o n
C A C 1 B L F u n c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s B L I n t e r v e n t i o n B L S e l f - m a n a g e m e n t 9 8 P r e f e r r e d P e e r 7 A l o n e 6 N o n - P r e f e r r e d P e e r 5 4 3 2 1 1 3 6 8 1 1 2 1 4 1 7 2 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 8 3 2 3 4 3 6 3 7 3 9 4 1 4 3 Observations

96 How do I know if I’ve done an FBA?
Develop testable hypothesis statement Confirm hypothesis with direct observations Develop behavior support plan Develop implementation plan Monitor/evaluate implementation

97 Big Ideas FBA-BIP is a process designed to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of individualized behavior support planning. FBA-BIP is appropriate for all students and all types of problem behavior. Intensity of FBA-BIP should match intensity of problem and needs of students.

98 Guiding Behavioral Principles

99 Guiding Behavioral Principles
Human behavior is important, understandable, & predictable Human behavior is learned Human behavior is malleable & teachable Behavior does NOT occur in a vacuum….it is affected directly by environmental events

100 Why use positive reinforcement?
Teach new behavior Encourage/establish infrequent & non-fluent behavior Establish positive relationship between the individual, others, & learning environment Strengthen specific replacement behaviors that compete with habitual undesirable behavior

101 Consequence (Wolery, Bailey, & Sugai, 1988)
Events that occur after the behavior and serve to affect the probability of that behavior occurring again in the future under similar conditions

102 Manipulation of Stimuli
Adding or taking away a consequence (Action) May be presented (give) May be withdrawn (take) May be withheld What happens to behavior (Effect) Increase or decrease in behavior No effect on behavior

103 Aversive stimulus When given, decreased likelihood of behavior in future Positive punishment When removed, increased likelihood of behavior in future Negative reinforcement

104 Reinforcing stimulus When given, increased likelihood of behavior in future Positive reinforcement When taken, decreased likelihood of behavior in future Negative punishment

105 A Matter of Perspective
Always define the who and what you are interested in.

106 Definitions “Positive” = add or give “Negative” = take away or remove
“Punishment” = decrease “Reinforcement” = increase

107 Reinforcement v. Punishment
Positive Reinforcement a behavior has an increased likelihood of occurring again if something is given after it occurs

108 Example 1: When Cleo yells out for teacher help during class, her teacher tells her to keep her voice down and try to figure it out on her own. Cleo’s yelling increases. Example 2: When Caesar helps the teacher or a peer with an activity and he is praised by the teacher, he helps more often.

109 Negative Reinforcement
behavior has an increased likelihood of occurring again if something is taken away after it occurs

110 Example 3: When Hidalgo throws his work assignments on the floor, his teacher picks them, marks a zero on them, and takes them away. His throwing of work assignment increases.

111 Example 4: When Mana comes in the room, she notices that her teacher glares at her. As soon as she puts her homework immediately in the assignment box, her teacher stops glaring. Mana turning in of homework assignment at the beginning of class increases.

112 Example 5: When kids tease her, Petunia hits and kicks them, and the teasing stops. Petunia increasingly uses hitting and kicking when she is teased.

113 Positive Punishment behavior has a decreased likelihood of occurring again if something is given after it occurs

114 Example 6: Whenever Ivar tries to answer a question in class, the other students make fun of his accent. Ivar frequency of answering questions in class decreases quickly.

115 Example 7: Every time Rodrigo visits the counselor’s office, the counselor makes him say something positive about himself. Rodrigo has stopped going to the counselor.

116 Negative Punishment behavior has a decrease likelihood of occurring again if something is taken away after it occurs

117 Example 8: For every minute that she is out of her seat, Camilla’s teacher takes away 1 minute of the computer lab time that she has earned. Camilla’s out of seat behavior decreases.

118 Example 9: Alexxa really enjoys being in music class
Example 9: Alexxa really enjoys being in music class. When she is verbally aggressive, her teacher gives her a 2 minute visit to the room next door. Alexxa’s verbal aggressions decrease.



121 When the hallway supervisor catches Kleat running in the hallway, she stops him and tells him, “NO running? If I catch you again, you’re really goin’ to be in trouble. Kleat’s behavior is explained by ________________________________

122 “Nice work, Petunia. You’re really staying on task today
“Nice work, Petunia. You’re really staying on task today.” Petunia’s on-task behavior decreases. Petunia’s behavior is explained _____________________________.

123 Rem skipped two class periods
Rem skipped two class periods. The office assigned him 6 hours of community service with the custodian. The next week Rem skips 5 classes. Rem’s behavior is explained by _______________________________.

124 “Rhus, you owe me seven minutes of your recess time because you’ve been talking to your neighbors instead of working.” Rhus’ teacher notices that he doesn’t talk to his neighbors as much. Rhus’ behavior is explained by ________________________.

125 Jungo has learned that if continues to say “whine,” his mother eventually gives him what he wants. Sometimes he has to whine for 15 minutes, but eventually it works. Jungo’s behavior is explained by ________________________________ and Jungo’s mother’s behavior is explained by ___________________________.

126 As Floret walks done the hallway, she bumps into kids, pushes them aside, and yells at them to move. The other kids tell her to stop acting like an animal. Floret’s behavior is explained by _______________________________.

127 Whenever Ms. Taken gives the class an easy assignment for homework, they cheer and turn the homework in on time. Ms. Taken assigns more and easy assignments, especially on Friday. Ms. Taken’s behavior is explained by ______________________.

128 Measuring Behavior

129 Objectives Be familiar with why we use measurement
Know the different types of measurement procedures Permanent Product Anecdotal Event and Time-Based

130 Measurement Process of assignment numbers, values, units to some feature(s) of an event Johnston & Pennypacker (1993) Researchers operationalize empiricism Achieve a scientific understanding Practitioners Optimize effectiveness and resources Ethical and accountable

131 What can be measured? Anything observable. Anything with dimensions:
Frequency/Rate Topography Locus Duration Latency Force or intensity

132 Improving Decision-Making
Solution Problem From Problem Solving Solution Problem To Information

133 Social Significance of Behavior
Consider whose behavior is being assessed and changed and why? To what extent will the behavior change improve the person’s life? Habilitation Short and long term functionality/benefit Access natural reinforcement – Relevance of Behavior Rule Both ethical and pragmatic perspsective

134 Guidelines Is this behavior a necessary prerequisite for a useful skill? Phonemic awareness leads to reading Will this behavior increase access to environments where other important behaviors can be learned? Least restrictive environments (e.g., local school, general educ., afterschool activities) Will this behavior predispose others to interact with the individual in a more appropriate manner? Address needs of significant others, create social support

135 Is the behavior age appropriate?
Focus on real not developmental age If reducing behavior, what appropriate behavior is being taught to replace it? Never remove w/o giving another way to meet a need Is this behavior the actual problem or goal or just indirectly related? On-task v. active engagement, work completion, correct academic responding

136 Is this just talk or the real behavior of interest?
Knowing and doing are not the same Verbal behavior poorly correlated with behavior Skill or performance deficit What if the goal of the program isn’t a behavior? e.g., Weight loss, getting good grades, job satisfaction Goal is to change the behaviors that will ultimately meet the individuals goal

137 Prioritizing Behavior Selection
Danger to self and others Frequency of behavior or opportunity History Benefit (short and long term) Increase success, reduce failure Benefit to others (family, peers, co-workers) Difficulty and cost (resources) Response class and behavior chains

138 Ranking behavior Many ways to go about this
List behaviors rate against criterion 3 Columns Must be changed Can wait, but important Can live with Done as group or individually then compared

139 Behavioral Assessment
Variety of methods Direct observations, checklists, interviews, tests In addition to defining behavior, assessment should Discover resources, assessment and significant others Identify competing contingencies Inform about potential reinforcement/punishment Focus on facilitating maintenance and generalization Provide the analyst with a “road map”

140 Interviews – indirect method
Often a first step Primarily what and when questions Can interview the individual and/or significant others Can focus further assessment methods

141 Checklists - indirect Provides a description of the behavior and the conditions under which it occurs E.g., CBCL FACTS Guess & Check MAS PBQ

142 Standardized Tests Same format, questions, presentation, order, etc.
Norm-referenced Tests Limited use for behavior analysis How the person compares to typical Criterion-referenced & Curriculum-based Specific skills mastered and needed Student performance of daily tasks

143 Direct Measures Analyzing written records. Anecdotal reports
Observing tangible products. Permanent product Observing a sample of behavior. Event based - record when occurs Time based - record when set time passes

144 Anecdotal reports Characteristics
A description of the students behavior in a particular setting Examples Notes, A-B-C data Advantages Provides a narrative (not isolated tallys), general impression Disadvantages Cannot make pre/post comparison decisions

145 Antecedents Behaviors Consequences Take out your math I’m not done with my art Rips up art project and throws on the floor Starts to cry and runs out of the room You will need to finish that latter Peers start to laugh. Teacher moves closer to Amanda. Teacher sighs and shakes her head

146 Permanent product Characteristics Outcomes of behavior Examples
Test grades, homework, work samples Advantages Durable sample Disadvantages Do not directly observe behavior

147 Observing Sample of Behavior
Event Based Record after behavior (event) occurs Tally, Latency, Duration Time Based Record after passage of time Partial, Whole, Momentary

148 Event based: Tally Characteristics
Direct method that can be computed to rate, behaviors should be equal duration Examples Words read, screams, compliance to requests Advantages Easy, can be used with many behaviors (academic and social) Disadvantages Not appropriate for high rate or unequal duration

149 Simple Tally

150 Scatter Plot

151 Event based: Two methods
Controlled presentations teacher controls number of opportunities monitor progress by evaluating progress for each session Trials to criterion number of trials before pre-established accuracy level reached useful for planning instruction time

152 Event based: Latency Characteristics Examples Advantages Disadvantages
How long it takes behavior to begin after request Examples Respond to teacher request, begin to answer a question Advantages Provides information about temporal boundaries Disadvantages Useful with limited number of behaviors

153 Event based: Duration Characteristics
Length of time behavior occurs, used with discrete behaviors (clear ending and beginning) Examples Time on task, length of tantrum Advantages Provides information about temporal nature of behavior Disadvantages Behavior must have clear beginning and ending

154 Duration: Two methods Average duration Cumulative duration
measure each occurrence compute average provides average amount of time e.g. 3 mins, 6 mins, and 4 mins mins/3 occur. = mins. average Cumulative duration measure each occurrence sum measures provides amount or percent of time e.g. 3 mins, 6 mins, and 4 mins = 13 mins. = 22% of an hour

155 Interval recording andTime sampling
Characteristics Estimate of behavior, recorded at end of the interval, intervals predetermined and equal length Examples Partial interval, whole interval, momentary time sampling Advantages Multiple behaviors or multiple students Disadvantages Only provides an estimate

156 Three Types Partial Interval Whole Interval Momentary Time Sampling
Record if behavior occurs an any time during the interval Whole Interval Record if behavior occurs throughout the entire interval Momentary Time Sampling Record if behavior occurs at end of interval

157 Activity


159 Guidelines (Sugai & Tindal, 1993)
Develop measurable and operational definitions. Develop as many (multiple) measures as is practical. Develop “well-calibrated” measurement system. Identify specific times and settings to collect the data. Develop observation systems that are as direct and formative as possible. Practice using the observation procedure.

160 Convert to Common Metric
Raw data to comparable units Allows you to compare observations of unequal lengths or combine multiple observations Tally = rate (e.g., talks out 15 times per hour) Duration/Latency = average length (out of seat average of 11 minutes) Time based = percent of intervals (appropriate 67% of 10 second intervals)

161 Big Ideas Measurement maintains an empirical and ethical perspective to both research and pratice There are many ways to measure a behavior. Choose the one that most accurately measures the behavior of interest

162 Measurement Decide how you will collect direct observation data on your target student Think through who will collect the data and how often What appropriate and inappropriate behaviors will be collected Determine a process for sharing the data with the teacher, parents and the behavior support team for decision-making Activity

163 Strategies to Increase Behaviors

164 When selecting a specific practice:
Base selection on need identified by competing behavior pathways analysis Setting events, antecedents, teaching behaviors, consequences to increase and decrease behavior Match practice to function of problem behavior Gain social or item/activity, escape social or demand, automatic

165 Match practice to context
Skills, resources, values, etc. Choose the practice that is least intrusive, yet effective Balance between intrusive and effective Begin where you believe you will be successful

166 Token Economy A contingency management system that allows students to earn tokens that can be exchanged at a latter time for specific back-up reinforcers. (Wolery, Bailey, & Sugai, 1988).

167 Everyday Examples Airline mileage programs
Bread, coffee, donut,…”free one” card Academic course credits & grades Shirakiya toy points

168 Token Reinforcement Token = anything that can be readily dispensed contingent upon behavior Examples: points, credits, poker chips, stickers, play money, weaving hoops Back-up Reinforcer = previously identified activities, objects, events, or privileges that have reinforcing value Examples: free time, school store, discount, parking privileges, CD, computer time, music, edibles 14 19

169 Establishing a Token Economy
Identify target behaviors Define tokens Identify incentives for appropriate behavior Plan an exchange system Plan procedures for fading tokens Developing monitoring system Establishing operating guidelines 15 20

170 Requirements Clearly defined expected behaviors.
Effective back-up reinforcers. Instruction on expected behaviors. Instruction on token system/procedures. Data-decision rule for fading and modifying. Planned correction procedures.

171 Token Economy, misc. A token economy can give immediate feedback on behavior, yet presentation of the reward can be delayed. Avoid satiation of reinforcers. 23

172 Group Contingencies Making consequences either contingent on group behavior or by letting an individual student’s behavior affect consequences for the entire group (Wolery, Bailey, & Sugai, 1988).

173 Three Variations Dependent Group-Oriented Independent Group-Oriented
Performance of selected members results in consequences for whole group Independent Group-Oriented Each member same criterion consequences based on their performance Interdependent Group-Oriented Each member same criterion but consequences based on group performance 6

174 Examples For every homework assignment that is turned in on time a marble is added to a jar. When the jar is full, the class gets an afternoon movie. Inter-dependent

175 Examples Chloe earns a pop-bead for every 3 minutes she cooperates with peers during free play. When she has 10 pop-beads, the class gets to have 10 minutes of extra break time. Dependent Group

176 Example Chloe earns a point for every 3 classes she is “on-time.” When she has 10 points, the whole class gets a no homework weekend. Dependent Group

177 Students who come to class (a) on time and (b) prepared (homework, pen/paper, and text book) for an entire week can go to the gym for “Afternoon Bash.” Independent Group

178 Advantages Learn within a social context Efficient
Build positive peer relations and interpersonal social skills

179 Disadvantages Peer pressure/ridicule Social status of “subverters”
Fairness Increased supervision and administration

180 Behavior Contract Written &/or verbal agreement or arrangement between two or more individuals that designates conditions, consequences, & responsibilities for improving behavioral performance

181 Prerequisites Ability to problem solve & achieve agreement
Fluency with desired behavior(s) Ability to establish relationship with others

182 Elements 1. Behavior(s) for improvement
identify 1-2 functional, useful, & socially important behaviors describe in observable & measurable focus on desired, achievable behavior

183 2. Level of improvement set achievable performance criteria
focus on accomplishments initially reward small approximations frequently

184 3. Strategies for achieving improvement
teacher-directed self-managed other-managed

185 4. Consequences for acknowledging improvement
assessment based reinforcers indicate specific consequences for all levels of behavior desired undesirable exceptional specify immediate & delayed reinforcers

186 4. Individual responsibilities
indicate who does what when where how

187 5. Record keeping procedure
establish clear data decision rules e.g., “3 day rules” arrange for continuous monitoring & evaluation

188 Other considerations Involve student Include “witnesses”
Use understandable language/terms State positively Monitor, review, & revise continuously

189 Why use contracts? Increase proactive interactions between individuals
Increase participation & accountability Structure behavioral programming Promote transfer of behavioral programming from teacher to student Improvement of performance Teach “responsibility”

190 Activity Strategies to Increase
Go back to the BIP you started on yesterday Add or modify the strategies for decrease problem behavior Ensure that your selected strategies match the identified function of behavior Activity

191 Behavior Reduction Procedures

192 Behavioral Assumptions
Human behavior is important, understandable, & predictable Human behavior is learned Human behavior is malleable & teachable Behavior does NOT occur in a vacuum….it is affected directly by environmental events

193 Prerequisites Behavioral perspective Proactive teaching emphasis
Examine behavior & context in which it occurs Proactive teaching emphasis Teach prosocial alternatives Data-guided decision making Use performance to make decisions

194 Group-based decision making Regular monitoring & evaluation
Work with others Regular monitoring & evaluation Check daily Research validated practices Use what works (evidence of effectiveness) Positive reinforcement of alternative behavior Strengthen replacement behaviors

195 Punishment guidelines
Cause no physical pain, injury, or humiliation. Always use least aversive most effective Always pair with positive reinforcement of alternative behavior Always take data to monitor effectiveness Always implement with high fidelity & by expert Always involve student, family, etc. in decision making

196 Timeout Decrease in future probability of behavior occurrences associated with contingent removal of opportunity to earn positive reinforcement

197 Guidelines for timeout
Must have reinforcing “time-in” environment Keep at 5-10 minutes or less Teach how & when to take timeout Keep business-like & objective Debrief/discuss after timeout consequence Reinforce compliance Teach/reinforce alternative response Have plan/response in place for escalations/crises

198 Response cost Decrease in future probability of behavior occurrences associated with contingent removal of positive reinforcers.

199 Guidelines for response cost
Give multiple & opportunities to earn contingent positive reinforcers Be sure backup reinforcers are really “positive reinforcers

200 DRO/DRI/DRL Differential reinforcement
Contingent positive reinforcement and extinction

201 DRO = differential reinforcement (DR) for occurrence of all alternatives behaviors except problem behavior DRI = DR for occurrence of a specific alternative behavior DRL = DR for progressively lower rates of problem behavior

202 Extinction Removal of previously maintaining positive reinforcers
Responding under extinction conditions gradual change intensity/frequency increase before decrease in intensity/frequency “spontaneous” recovery Never use extinction without positive reinforcement (DR)

203 Big Ideas Always do a functional assessment
Always teach & positively reinforce alternative behavior that “competes” with problem behavior effort, efficiency, effectiveness Always take data, and look at effect on target & other behaviors Do no harm Use least aversive & most effective

204 Activity BIP Implementation
Decide how you will summarize the BIP so that all individuals can easily understand and implement Two column summary FAQ Flow-chart Identify what materials will need to be developed before the BIP can be implemented Activity

205 Defusing Anger and Aggression

206 Goal = Continuum of Procedures
Minor = staff managed Major = administration/office managed Consequences Procedures Record Keeping

207 Minor Infractions Staff managed infractions Less serious/severe
Not … dangerous, violent or illegal Managed using low-level consequences Could be different for different schools

208 Responses to Misbehavior
Correcting/reminding Contacting parent/family Loss of privileges Time out in another classroom Problem solving Restitution, apology, notes, etc. Mentoring program

209 Strategy One: Reteaching
Signal that error has occurred State rule and expected behavior Ask student to state/show expected behavior Give positive feedback

210 Strategy Two: Off-Task
Acknowledge students on-task Redirect student’s group Privately redirect student to task Stay with direction until on-task Acknowledge cooperation Continue to prevent off-task by acknowledging on-task

211 Strategy Three: Disrespectful/provacative
Speak privately, calmly, respectfully Identify the problem Minimize body language Present reasonable options (focus on expected behavior Be brief Give student chance to comply, acknowledge Do not become involved in escalation

212 Strategy Four: Reducing Agitation
Recognize agitation Focus on expected behavior Remind student of options Allow space Attend to other students Monitor from nearby Assist student to begin work (possibly independent task)

213 In General… Work to prevent problem behavior
“positive time-in environment” Remain calm and respectful Address issues privately Follow-through Be consistent, no surprises Preteach time-out or other procedures

214 Team Activity Possible activities Office v. Staff managed
Toolkit of responses for staff managed Refine ODR process

215 The Escalation Cycle High Peak Acceleration De-escalation Agitation
Trigger Calm Recovery Low Colvin & Sugai, 1989

216 Purpose Enhance our understanding of & ways of responding to escalating behavior sequences.

217 Assumptions Behavior is learned. Behavior is lawful.
Behavior is escalated through successive interactions (practice). Behavior can be changed through an instructional approach.

218 Outcomes Identification of how to intervene early in an escalation.
Identification of environmental factors that can be manipulated. Identification of replacement behaviors that can be taught.

219 The Model High Low CALM 

220 1. Calm Student is cooperative. Accepts corrective feedback.
Follows directives. Sets personal goals. Ignores distractions. Accepts praise.

221 Calm Intervention is focused on prevention.
Arrange for high rates of successful academic & social engagements. Use positive reinforcement. Teach social skills. Problem solving Relaxation strategy Self-management Communicate positive expectations.

222 The MODEL High TRIGGER  Low

223 2. Trigger Student experiences a series of unresolved conflicts.
Repeated failures Frequent corrections Interpersonal conflicts Timelines Low rates of positive reinforcement

224 Trigger Intervention is focused on prevention & redirection.
Remove from or modify problem context. Increase opportunities for success. Reinforce what has been taught.


226 3. Agitation Student exhibits increase in unfocused behavior. Off-task
Frequent start/stop on tasks Out of seat Talking with others Social withdrawal

227 Agitation Intervention is focused on reducing anxiety.
Make structural/environmental modifications. Provide reasonable options & choices. Involve in successful engagements.


229 4. Acceleration Student displays focused behavior. Provocative
High intensity Threatening Personal

230 Acceleration Intervention is focused on safety. Remember:
Escalations & self-control are inversely related. Escalation is likely to run its course.

231 Acceleration Remove all triggering & competing maintaining factors.
Follow crisis prevention procedures. Establish & follow through with bottom line. Disengage from student.

232 The MODEL High PEAK Low

233 5. Peak Student is out of control & displays most severe problem behavior. Physical aggression Property destruction Self-injury Escape/social withdrawal Hyperventilation

234 Peak Intervention is focused on safety.
Procedures like acceleration phase, except focus is on crisis intervention


236 6. De-escalation Student displays confusion but with decreases in severe behavior. Social withdrawal Denial Blaming others Minimization of problem

237 De-escalation Intervention is focused on removing excess attention.
Don’t nag. Avoid blaming. Don’t force apology. Emphasize starting anew.


239 7. Recovery Student displays eagerness to participate in non-engagement activities. Attempts to correct problem. Unwillingness to participate in group activities. Social withdrawal & sleep.

240 Recovery Intervention is focused on re-establishing routines & activities. Follow through with consequences for problem behavior. Positively reinforce any displays of appropriate behavior.

241 Recovery Debrief Purpose of debrief is to facilitate transition back to program. Debrief follows consequences for problem behavior. Goal is to increase more appropriate behavior.

242 Recovery Problem solving example: What did I do? (define the problem)
Why did I do it? What could I have done instead? (create possible solutions) What do I have to do next? (make a plan) Can I do it? If not, whose help would I like?

243 The MODEL High Peak Acceleration De-escalation Agitation Trigger Calm
Recovery Low

244 Three Key Strategies Identify how to intervene early in an escalation.
Identify environmental factors that can be manipulated. Identify replacement behaviors that can be taught.

245 Final Thought It is always important to remember that “if you inadvertently assist the student to escalate, do not be concerned; you will get another chance to do it right the next time around” (Geoff Colvin,1989).

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