3 1. Approach & Behaviour: Individual Differences Approach Insight into personality and personality disorder
4 2. Aim & Hypothesis: Thigpen & Cleckley What was the aim of this study?Where does an aim come from?
5 AIMThe aim of this article was to provide an account of the psychotherapeutic treatment of a 25-year-old woman who was referred to Thigpen and Cleckley because of 'severe and blinding headaches'.Her marriage was failing and she had a 4 year old daughter whom she was very worried about
7 METHOD The psychiatrists used a case study method In depth study into one person
8 5. Sample & Participants: Thigpen & Cleckley One person: Eve BlackHer pseudonym was Eve but her real name was Christine Sizemore.
9 4. Design: Thigpen & Cleckley Interviews with the patient and her familyHypnosisObservationEEG testsPsychometric and projective tests including, memory tests, ink blot tests and intelligence tests.
10 6. Procedure of treatment: Thigpen & Cleckley Psychotherapeutic interviewsInterviews with family membersHypnosis sessionsPsychological tests:Psychometric tests: to look at IQ and memoryProjective tests: to focus on unconscious wishes and desiresElectroencephalogram (EEG)
11 What happened after treatment began? Eve was initially interviewed irregularly. During this time it became obvious that she had a number of emotional problems.Eve White’s husband also reported that Eve had been behaviour in a strange manner – for example, going into town and buying an array of expensive clothes, which as completely out of character.During the next interview, Eve White showed signs of stress and agitation, which prompted the appearance of Eve Black. The new Eve explained that the blackouts Eve White suffered were when she was out, but that Eve White had no awareness of her.
12 What happened after treatment began? Over the next 14 months, both Eves were interviewed for approximately 100 hours in total.Initially, Eve White had to be hypnotised to let Eve Black out, but over time she came out when called.Both personalities were very different. Eve White was demure, retiring, neat, colourless, honest and serious. Eve Black was mischievous, childish, a party girl, egocentric and provocative.After 8 months Eve White seemed to have made progress, but then the headaches and blackouts returned.At one of the therapy sessions, while talking about her childhood, she became sleepy, and Jane emerged. She was aware of both Eves, but was distinctly different, being mature, sincere, capable and interesting. She seemed to be the most balanced personality of the three.
14 8. Results/Findings: Thigpen & Cleckley Not long into therapy, Eve explained that she heard voices that were becoming more and more frequent and expressed a fear that she was going mad. This prompted the appearance of a second personality Eve Black. After this, the headaches and blackouts improved.After 8 months of therapy, the situation changed for the worse. Eve White’s headaches and blackouts returned. During one session of hypnosis, the third person- Jane appeared.Jane appeared to be the most balanced of the three personalities, and the one Thigpen and Cleckley felt should be encouraged to take over. However they realised that it was not their responsibility to make this decision, and this study ends with the three faces of Eve still in existence.
15 8. Results/Findings: Thigpen & Cleckley 4. Results of the Psychological Tests:IQ test: EW 110, EB 104Memory scales: EW had a superior memory function to EBRorschach test (inkblot test): EW was emotionally repressed, EB had a tendency to regress.5. Results of EEG test:Tenseness was most pronounced in EB, next EW and then JaneEW and Jane: 11 cycles per second (normal), EB: 12.5 cycles per second (slightly fast, sometimes associated with psychopathic personality).
16 Results of therapyPurpose of therapy is to help resolve the clients problems. In previously documented cases the secondary ego was found to help the primary. This did not seem to be the case here.Therapists tried to make matters better for EW by asking EB to help. EB generally made things worse for EW.Tried to fuse personalities together but this did not seem to be working.
17 Emergence of JaneAfter about 8 months of therapy a third personality emerged.She lacked EB’s more obvious faults but was more vivid and interesting than EW.Interestingly EW and Jane had same EEG reading but EB was faster(associated with psychopathic personality).Was seen that Jane would be he most likely to integrate the 3 personalities and provide solution to therapy.
18 9. Conclusions: Thigpen & Cleckley Eve White/Christine Sizemore was suffering MPD.They did admit that there was a possibility that Eve could be faking the different personalities – however this in unlikely given the time spent interviewing her.Were convinced that the study demonstrated a clear case of MPD, rather than any other hysterical conversion or dissociation.
19 10. Exam Style Questions Section A January 2010 Describe two personalities in the Thigpen and Cleckley’s study into MPD. (4)June 2010In Thigpen and Cleckley:What is a longitudinal study? (2)Outline one weakness of longitudinal research used in this study. (2)January 2011Outline one projective test used. (2)Suggest one problem with projective tests use in this study. (2)June 2011In Thigpen and Cleckley:Outline two ethical problems in Thigpen and Cleckly’s study on MPD. (4)January 2012In Thigpen and Cleckley used self-report to gather data:Identify two other methods used. (2)Describe one limitation of using the self- report method to gather data. (2)June 2012Describe two pieces of evidence which could support the claim that the patient did have MPD
20 Section A Outline two features of MPD (4) a. Describe the research method used in this study (2)Outline two of the personalities identified in this study (4)Identify two psychological tests used in this study (2)Outline the results of the EEG conducted in this study (4)Describe two pieces of evidence that indicate Eve was suffering from MPD (4)
21 10. Exam Style Questions Section B June 2014 Outline why your chosen study was conducted. (2)Describe how the self-report method was used to gather data in your chosen study. (4)Describe one strength and one weakness of gathering data using self-reports. Support your answer with evidence from your chosen study. (6)Outline the findings from your chosen study. (8)Suggest improvements to your chosen study. (8)Evaluate the improvements you have suggested to your chosen study. (8)
22 10. Exam Style Questions Section B January 2013 Briefly outline the aim of your chosen study. (2)Explain why your chosen study may be considered a longitudinal study. (2)With reference to your chosen study, suggest one strength and one weakness of longitudinal studies. (8)Outline the results of your chosen study. (8)Discuss the usefulness of observation as a way of gathering data in your chosen study. (8)Identify and evaluate two possible changes to your chosen study. (8)
23 10. Exam Style Questions Section B June 2010 What is the aim of your chosen study. (2)Describe why the sample was selected for your chosen study and suggest one disadvantage of this sample. (6)Give two advantages of the case study method as used in your chosen study. (6)Give two disadvantages of the case study method as used in your chosen study. (6)Outline the results of your chosen study. (8)Suggest how your chosen study could be improved. Give reason for your answer. (8)
24 10. Exam Style Questions Section C June 2013/January 10 (same set of questions)Outline one assumption of the individual difference approach. (2)With reference to Thigpen and Cleckley’s study, describe how the individual difference approach could explain MPD. (4)Describe one similarity and one difference between any studies that take the individual difference approach. (6)Discuss strengths and weaknesses of the individual difference approach using examples from studies that take this approach. (12)June 2011Outline one assumption of the Psychodynamic Perspective. (2)Describe how the Psychodynamic Perspective could explain MPD. (4)Describe one similarity and difference between any studies that could be viewed for the psychodynamic perspective. (6)Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the psychodynamic perspective using examples from any studies that could be viewed from this perspective. (12)