Presentation on theme: "Cataloging Individual Oral History Interviews"— Presentation transcript:
1 Cataloging Individual Oral History Interviews Susan C. WynneOLAC ConferenceMacon, Georgia16 October 2010
2 Outline Definition and importance of oral history Summary of cataloging issues from 2007 survey of Georgia academic librariesDescription of CSU projectCataloging decisions/considerationsCreating MARC records for individual interviewsExercise
4 What is oral history?“The process of deliberately eliciting and preserving, usually in audio or audio and visual recording media, a person’s spoken recollections of events and experiences based on first-hand knowledge.”Oral History Cataloging Manual
5 Another definition“A process of collecting, usually by means of a tape-recorded interview, recollections, accounts, and personal experience narratives of individuals for the purpose of expanding the historical record of a place, event, person, or cultural group.” Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage
6 And another…“Oral history is the recording, preservation and interpretation of historical information, based on the personal experiences and opinions of the speaker.” Wikipedia, 23 August 2010.
7 Oral history interview Covers subject(s) of historical interestConducted by an interviewer who has some understanding of the subject(s)Knowledgeable intervieweeInteractiveQuestion and answer formatIntended to be available to researchers
8 Oral history project“Series of oral history interviews focused on documenting a topic, theme, era, place, organization, event, or group of people, conducted according to a plan, usually under the auspices of an institution or a group of cooperating institutions.”OHCM
9 Oral history collection “Oral history materials from various interviews not associated with an oral history project, usually assembled at some time after their creation by an individual collector, or by a repository for convenience in management or description. A collection, like an oral history project, often has an identifiable theme or focus.”OHCM
10 Why is oral history important? Fills gaps in the historical recordSupplements and aids in understanding the historical recordOften preserves viewpoints or experiences of underrepresented groupsMay document everyday life or give behind-the- scenes perspective on a well known event, person, organization, etc.Connects personal experiences with history and social contextCatalogers may be shifting local expertise to unique or hidden collections
11 Why are oral histories difficult to catalog? Lack of consensus in access methodsStandard manual needs updating“Neither fish nor fowl” … are they more like archival or published materials?Multiple formatsNames and organizations often require some authority workOften no dedicated staff or funding for managing access to oral historiesMay be little or no accompanying information
12 Choice of cataloging methods MARC records in local catalog and/or WorldCatFinding aids (online and/or print)InventoryIn-houseDigital libraryNon-MARC metadata (e.g., Dublin Core)
13 Benefits of the MARC approach No need to consult a separate resource to discover oral history materialsNavigate between oral histories and other types of material on the same subjectsContributing to WorldCat is one way to share beyond the local institutionLess of a learning curve if staff are already familiar with MARC
14 Grimsley and Wynne’s 2007 survey 31 Georgia academic institutionsAccess issues related to oral historiesMethods of intellectual access varyRespondents held variety of formatsOnly one respondent (CSU) reported using OHCMFew respondents reported applying authority control to subjects and names related to oral histories [caveat]
15 Methods of intellectual access in GA academic libraries
16 Cataloging standards/procedures Standard/procedureOral History Cataloging Manual1Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd ed. (AACR2)6Archives, Personal Papers, and Manuscripts (APPM)Describing Archives: A Content Standard (DACS)3Dublin CoreOther MetadataLocal Procedures4OtherNo Answer8
17 Columbus State University’s project (or, How did I get myself into this?) Project initiated by former archivist Reagan Grimsley~500 oral histories lacking intellectual access except for rudimentary in-house finding aidMany typescripts and analog recordings from the 1970s and 1980sCollaboration between archivist and catalogerNew acquisitions and cataloging policiesGrant to digitize selected typescriptsCollective finding aids and MARC records for selected individual interviews
18 CSU’s workflowArchives staff copy typescript onto acid-free paper and create artificial title page for each typescriptPeriodicals Assistant prepares photocopied typescript for bindingCataloger creates MARC record using OCLC Connexion Client, exports record from OCLC into ILS, and creates holdings (for copied typescripts only)Cataloging Assistant creates item record and performs minimal physical processing on bound typescript
19 Cataloging considerations (top-level) StaffingPriority levelSize of collection/backlogTranscripts
20 Cataloging considerations Unit of descriptionFormat(s) to be described (especially which format(s) are available for use)“Readily available” informationLevel of authority controlClassificationChoice of cataloging method (not discussed in depth here)
21 Unit of descriptionCollection levelProject levelIndividual
22 Collective vs. individual descriptions Collective (Project or Collection Level)Individual (Item level)Required according to OHCMOral histories typically collected in groupsConsistent with archival principle of provenanceDemonstrates shared focus and characteristics within the groupUseful when interviews are more meaningful as a groupNo need to repeat information in multiple individual recordsOptional according to OHCMMore granular accessMore time-consumingNeed a mechanism for demonstrating relationshipsUseful when interviews may be able to stand aloneUseful when information about the collection/project is scarce
23 You can always do both and link from one to the other
24 Formats to be described Rule: describe the format(s) available for useOptionally, also describe original recordings
25 “Readily available” information Which pieces of information are most important?How much time can you spend in research?Consider your users, priorities, staffing, and possibly the context of each interview
26 Authority controlContribute records to OCLC authority file (NACO participants)Create records in local system (always, or only in special cases)Construct AACR2 (or RDA?!) headings but do not create authority recordsUse LCSH or another controlled vocabularyCreate a specialized vocabularyUncontrolled keyword
27 Classification possibilities BiographiesLocal historySubject of the interview (i.e., textile mills, school desegregation)Accession number or other local systemClass interviews in a project togetherOthers?
28 Crash course in oral histories for catalogers Context is more importantLess emphasis on transcribing information from the item into the record—most information is provided by the catalogerObtain information from the typescript and/or recording itself, finding aids, release forms, labels, and any accompanying materialExternal reference sources can be helpful and sometimes necessary (to clarify names, events, locations, etc.)Copious notes
29 OHCM’s fundamental elements for individual interviews Indication of form (i.e., oral history interview)Name(s) of interviewee(s)Date(s) of interviewStatement of quantity or extent, including physical formatName(s) of interviewer(s)
30 OHCM’s fundamental elements for individual interviews Language of interview, if other than EnglishSummary of the nature, content, and scope of the interviewRestrictions on access and/or use, if applicableName of the project or collection, if applicableIf any of these fundamental elements is not available, state in a note that it is missing
31 2-minute version of this presentation Who … interviewee(s) & biographical sketch, interviewer(s), persons or groups that are subjects of the interviewWhat … oral history interview, format(s)When … date(s) involved, time periods discussedWhere … place(s) discussed in interview, location of interviewWhy … project or collection name, subjects discussed, summary
32 Walk through a MARC record for an individual interview
33 Type code (Leader/06)Varies according to the format(s) you are describingp (mixed materials) for multiple formatsi (nonmusical sound recording) for audio onlyg (projected media) for video onlyt (manuscript language material) for unpublished typescript/transcript only
34 BLvl code Depends on unit of description Cannot use BLvl “m” with mixed materials workformUse “c” with mixed materials workform or for collective descriptionUse “m” when describing one format only
35 Other fixed fields Country code = xxu (unpublished, United States) Add 006 for each format as neededAdd 007 for each format as neededCtrl = a (archival control)DtSt = usually s (single date) for individual interviews, could be i (inclusive dates) for interviews, projects, or collections spanning different dates
36 006 and 007 examples006 for typescript: t for sound recording: innn t 007 for sound recording (standard cassette): s $b s $d l $e u $f n $g j $h l $i c $j u $k p $l n $m u $n e
37 Main entry (MARC 1XX or 245) Interviewee (MARC 100) If multiple interviewees, use the predominant interviewee (or title)Use relator terms in $e100 1_ $a Perry, Ophelia S., $e interviewee.
38 Title (MARC 245) Form element Name(s) element Date(s) element GMD not used unless describing only one format: electronic resource, microform, sound recording, or videorecording$a Oral history interview with Ophelia S. Perry, $f 1988 Feb. 23.
39 Statement of responsibility (MARC 245 $c) OHCM omits statement of responsibilityRule: give responsibility information in notesCSU decided to add SOR:/ $c conducted by Harvey Phelps.
40 Edition statement (MARC 250) Do not give an edition statementIf the interview exists in multiple versions (e.g., edited transcript), give this information in a note500 $a Transcript heavily edited.
41 Publication information (MARC 260) Do not provide a publication statement for unpublished oral historiesDate appears in 245 $f
42 Physical description (MARC 300) Describe formats available for use (optionally, may also describe original format)Multiple MARC 300 fields if applicableUse $3 with multiple 300 fields to specify the materialRequired: specific material designation and number of unitsOptional: playing time, type of recording (analog or digital), playing speed, dimensionsPlaying time is usually not readily available for CSU’s holdings
44 Series statementsOHCM: Concept of series does not apply to oral historiesCSU uses series statements as one means to collocate projects and collections in the absence of collective descriptionsCSU also collocates the entire oral history collection with a series statement
45 Series statement examples 830 _0 $a Mill worker oral history collection 830 _0 $a Columbus State University oral history collection
47 Interview details (MARC 518) Required:Date(s) of interviewName of interviewerLanguage (if other than English)Optional:Location of interviewNames of any other persons presentSponsorship (if applicable)Any other circumstances surrounding the interview
48 Interview details example 518 __ $a Interview conducted by Harvey Phelps in Columbus, Ga., for the Mill Worker Oral History Project, 23 February
49 Scope/Content/Abstract (MARC 520) Topics, conditions, issues, etc.Events, activities, etc.Places or geographic areasPeopleOrganizationsTime periodsOpinions/attitudes of intervieweeSummary of stories/anecdotes
50 Scope/content/abstract example 520 __ $a Ophelia Perry discusses working conditions, wages, labor- management relations, race relations, benefits, and women’s jobs, in the Bibb Manufacturing Company mill during World War II through the 1970s.
51 Biographical information about interviewee (MARC 545) BirthplaceEducationRace, ethnicity, nationalityFamily informationOccupation(s)Political/religious/other affiliationsAccomplishmentsOther…
52 Biographical sketch example 545 __ $a Ophelia Perry, who was born in Harris County, Ga. and moved to Columbus, Ga., during the Depression, worked in the Bibb Manufacturing Company mill from 1940 to the 1970s.
53 Other notesAdditional physical form available (MARC 530) for digitized typescriptsRestrictions on access (MARC 506)Terms for use and reproduction (MARC 540)Reproduction, if applicable (MARC 533)
54 Other notes Location of originals or duplicates (MARC 535) Provenance (MARC 561)Immediate source of acquisition (MARC 541)Finding aids (MARC 555)Citation (MARC 510)—refer to other works that index, describe, cite, etc. the interview(s)Preferred form of citation (MARC 524)—of the interview(s) themselvesPublications (MARC 581)—cite works based on the interview(s)
55 Other notes Supplementary materials Relationships to other materials Missing informationTranscripts—versions, editing, etc.Any other information deemed important not covered by other notesSound recording is housed in the Manuscript Collection at call no. MC 109.
56 Notes examples506 __ $a Available for use only in the Columbus State University Archives Reading Room. 540 __ $a Permission to publish material from the Columbus State University Oral History Collection must be obtained from the Columbus State University Archives _ $a Finding aid available in the Columbus State University Archives and online.
57 Notes examples541 1_ $c Gift; $a John Smith, $b Columbus State University History Department, $d __ $a Oral history interview with Ophelia S. Perry, 1988 Feb. 23, Columbus State University Archives, Columbus, Georgia. (524 __ $a [Title of interview], [date of interview], Columbus State University Archives, Columbus, Georgia.)
58 Access points for individual interviews Additional interviewees other than the main entry—use relator term $e interviewee (MARC 700)Interviewer(s)—use relator term $e interviewer (MARC 700)Name of the oral history project (MARC 710)Any corporate bodies associated with the interview, project, or collection (MARC 710)Alternate titles (e.g., title supplied by the interviewer or transcriber) (MARC 246)
59 Access points examples 700 1_ $a Phelps, Harvey, $e interviewer _ $a Mill Worker Oral History Project _ $i Caption title on typescript: $a Beeler Haines interview
60 Subject accessNot covered by OHCM, AACR2, DACS … will be covered in RDA later?Name of interviewee(s) with $v Interviews. (MARC 600)Names of other people that are prominent subjects of the interviewOrganizations or corporate bodies that are prominent subjects in the interview (MARC 610)Geographic headings for places discussed (MARC 651)Topical headings for subjects discussed (MARC 650)Classes of people or ethnic groups, as applicableTitle or name-title entries for named works that are subjects of the interview
61 Subject accessLCSH may not be specific enough for specialized collectionsSubject-specific thesaurusLocally developed thesaurus
62 Subject access examples $a Perry, Ophelia S. $v Interviews $a Bibb Manufacturing Company $x History $a Bibb Manufacturing Company $x Employees. 650 _0 $a Cotton textile industry $z Georgia $z Bibb City $x History. 650 _0 $a Women textile workers $z Georgia $z Bibb City $v Interviews. 650 _0 $a African Americans $z Georgia $z Bibb City $v Interviews. 651 _0 $a Bibb City (Ga.) $x History $y 20th century.
63 Genre/form accessLibrary of Congress Genre/Form Terms for Library and Archival Materials655 _7 Oral histories. $2 lcgft(practice to be implemented late 2010/early 2011?)Art & Architecture Thesaurus655 _7 Oral histories. $2 aat655 _7 Transcripts. $2 aat
64 Links to online content, when applicable (MARC 856) Digital version of typescript, audio, video, etc.$3 Typescript $u /OpheliaPerry-OralHistory.pdfFinding aid(s)$3 Finding aid $u mc109.php
65 Linking collective and individual descriptions (MARC 773) Only if creating BOTH collective and individual descriptionUse “Forms part of”Give project or collection title (created according to guidelines for project or collection titles)$i Forms part of: $a Mill Worker Oral History Project.
66 Record examples Connexion browser http://connexion.oclc.org/ CSU catalog https://gil.colstate.edu/
74 Were rules meant to be broken? Do consider the unique needs of your users and your collections (and your staffing/workflow)MARC records unlikely to be used for traditional copy cataloging, but…You may be crosswalking them into non-MARC metadata… which may be harvested by other institutions… and repackaged in unexpected waysHow does your data look outside the catalog, and outside of your institution? (“On a horse”)
75 AdviceStandardize what you can (title format, 006/007/300 for common format(s), selected notes, genre/form headings, etc.)Use constant data, templates, macros, text strings, etc. when you canDocument decisions—choice of thesaurus or classification scheme, deviations from guidelines, etc.Provide context in notes
76 Collaboration between catalogers, archivists, oral historians “All my investigations point to the information gap between the creators of oral histories and those who care for them. The need for standards, best practices, and a spirit of collaboration is essential … to ensure that the work of oral historians is preserved as part of our cultural heritage.” --Nancy MacKay, Curating Oral Histories: From Interview to Archive (Walnut Creek, Calif.: Left Coast Press, 2007), preface.
77 Awareness of non-cataloging issues (which may affect cataloging) OwnershipConsent formsPreservationFormat refreshment or transferRestrictions on accessTranscriptionTechnologyAcquisitions and collecting policies
78 Information forms Names of interviewee(s) and interviewer(s) Date(s) and location(s) of interviewSummary of contentBiographical information about intervieweeSubject keywords or places, topics, events, etc. discussedName of oral history project, program, etc.Sponsoring institutionAccess restrictionsPlaying time of recordings
79 RDA and oral histories? Glossary and 22.214.171.124 Recording content type Content (MARC 336), Media (MARC 337), Carrier (MARC 338)Content type “spoken word” includes oral historiesRelationshipsInterviewee and interviewer are relationship designators for creators (work-level relationship)