Overview Role of Education Intelligence Gifted Learners Mentally Retarded Integration, Mainstreaming, Inclusion
Task Think of five people who you think are highly intelligent and write them down. What characteristics do they have in common? Make your own theory of intelligence based on these characteristics How would you test your theory?
Individual Differences: What’s the Role of Education? Excellence- Emphasize differences between students First priority is distributing resources to students of greatest potential Education is a gate keeper Ach. Scores
Individual Differences: What’s the Role of Education? Equity: Emphasize success for all. First priority is distributing resources to students of greatest need Education as an agent for social fairness and change Ach. Scores # of Students
US system of Education Emphasis of Excellence with… Tracking Labels
Pros: Can Protect a Child Eligible for : Services Funding Information Cons: Stigma Self-fulfilling prophecy Treatments unpredictable
What the heck is Intelligence? Capacity to learn Total knowledge acquired Ability to adapt to the environment “Intelligence is what these tests measure” -Boring 1927
Evidence for Intelligence? Cultural factors Genes Parents’ education Enriched environments Both heredity and environment are about equally influential
How Many Factors? Or What do We Test? Spearman : g (general) (1) Sternberg : triarchic (3) Gardner : multiple intelligences (8) Carroll : ‘g’ with specific abilities (70) Guilford : faces of intellect (180)
The Modern Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale Type of Reasoning Examples of Test Intelligence Verbal Reasoning Abstract visual Reasoning Abstract visual Reasoning Vocabulary Comprehension Vocabulary Comprehension Quantitative Reasoning Short-term Memory Quantitative tests Number series Paper folding Copying Memory for sentences Memory for digits
Intelligence:Now and then… 19861921 Attributes of Intelligence 50%57%Higher cognitive processes (e.g. reasoning, problem solving 21% Success with novel problems, or situations 17%0%Integrating processes and knowledge 25%7%Executive control processes 29%0%That which is valued by culture 8%29%Physiological mechanisms
We want intelligence to be objective and reflect our cultural values More Intelligent Less Intelligent Einstein Carrey
Measuring Intelligence Individual tests: Administered one on one, and typically does not rely on pencil and paper tasks Stanford-Binet Group Tests: Administered to group, less reliable for individual scores Lorge-Thorndike
Which Way is intelligence going? Decreasing? Constant? Increasing?
Average IQ Score Wexler, Stanford-Binet Year of Testing Can you teach intelligence?
Identification of GT Kids Fast learners - retain information easily High level of creativity - original thinking High task commitment Common and practical knowledge Knows many things other children don’t Strong vocabulary Recognizes relationships Comprehends meanings Alert and keenly observant
Terms & Categories Handicap versus disability Seizure disorder - epilepsy Cerebral palsy Hearing impairment Vision impairment Communication disorder Emotional or behavioral disorder