# VERY IMPORTANT COW!.

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VERY IMPORTANT COW!

Demand Review What are the two key aspects of the definition of demand? What is the Law of Demand? Give an example of the substitution effect Give an example of the income effect Give an example of the law of diminishing marginal utility Explain how the law of diminishing marginal utility causes the law of demand How do you determine the MARKET demand for a particular good? (from reading) Name 5 cities in Iowa.

The Demand Curve A demand curve is a graphical representation of a demand schedule. The demand curve is downward sloping showing the inverse relationship between price (on the y-axis) and quantity demanded (on the x-axis) When reading a demand curve, assume all outside factors, such as income, are held constant. (Remember: ceteris paribus)

This is a change in demand, not a change in quantity demanded
Shifts in Demand CHANGES IN DEMAND Ceteris paribus-“all other things held constant.” When the ceteris paribus assumption is dropped, movement no longer occurs along the demand curve. Rather, the entire demand curve shifts. A shift means that at the same prices, more people are willing and able to purchase that good. This is a change in demand, not a change in quantity demanded

This is a change in demand, not a change in quantity demanded
Shifts in Demand CHANGES IN DEMAND Ceteris paribus-“all other things held constant.” When the ceteris paribus assumption is dropped, movement no longer occurs along the demand curve. Rather, the entire demand curve shifts. A shift means that at the same prices, more people are willing and able to purchase that good. This is a change in demand, not a change in quantity demanded Changes in price DON’T shift the curve!

Change in Demand Original Curve P QD \$5 4 3 2 1 10 20 35 55 80 P D o Q
Price of Corn P \$5 4 3 2 1 CORN Original Curve P QD \$5 4 3 2 1 10 20 35 55 80 D o Q Quantity of Corn

Change in Demand What if Corn makes you smarter? P QD \$5 4 3 2 1 10 20
Price of Corn P What if Corn makes you smarter? \$5 4 3 2 1 CORN P QD \$5 4 3 2 1 10 20 35 55 80 D o Q Quantity of Corn

Change in Demand Plot the Increase in Demand Price of Corn P \$5 4 3 2 1 CORN P QD \$5 4 3 2 1 10 20 35 55 80 30 40 60 80 + D o Q Quantity of Corn

Change in Demand Increase in Demand P QD \$5 4 3 2 1 10 20 35 55 80 30
Price of Corn P \$5 4 3 2 1 Increase in Demand CORN P QD \$5 4 3 2 1 10 20 35 55 80 30 40 60 80 + D1 D o Q Quantity of Corn

Change in Demand What if Corn causes hair loss? P QD \$5 4 3 2 1 10 20
Price of Corn What if Corn causes hair loss? P \$5 4 3 2 1 CORN P QD \$5 4 3 2 1 10 20 35 55 80 D o Q Quantity of Corn

Change in Demand P QD \$5 4 3 2 1 10 20 35 55 80 -- 10 20 40 60 P
Price of Corn P Plot the Decrease in Demand \$5 4 3 2 1 CORN P QD \$5 4 3 2 1 10 20 35 55 80 -- 10 20 40 60 D o Q Quantity of Corn

Change in Demand Decrease in Demand P QD \$5 4 3 2 1 10 20 35 55 80 --
Price of Corn P \$5 4 3 2 1 CORN Decrease in Demand P QD \$5 4 3 2 1 10 20 35 55 80 -- 10 20 40 60 D D2 o Q Quantity of Corn

What Causes a Shift in Demand?
5 Determinates of Demand (SHIFTERS) : Tastes and Preferences Number of Consumers Price of Related Goods Consumer Income Future Expectations Changes in PRICE don’t shift the curve. It only causes movement along the curve.

Prices of Related Goods
The demand curve for one good can be affected by a change in the price of ANOTHER related good. Substitutes are goods used in place of one another. If the price of one increases, the demand for the other will increase (or vice versa) Ex: If price of Pepsi falls, demand for coke will… 2. Complements are two goods that are bought and used together. If the price of one increase, the demand for the other will fall. (or vice versa) Ex: If price of skis falls, demand for ski boots will...

Income The incomes of consumer change the demand, but how depends on the type of good. Normal Goods As income increases, demand increases As income falls, demand falls Ex: Luxury cars, Sea Food, Jewelry, homes 2. Inferior Goods As income increases, demand falls As income falls, demand increases Ex: Top Romen, used cars, used cloths,

In-and-Out Hamburgers (a normal good)
Practice First identify the determinant (Shifter). Then decide if demand will increase or decrease In-and-Out Hamburgers (a normal good) Population boom Incomes fall due to recession Price for Carne Asada burritos falls to \$1 Price increases to \$5 per In-and-Out burger New health craze- “No ground beef” In-and-Out announce that they will significantly increase prices NEXT month Government heavily taxes shakes and fries, which causes their prices to quadruple. In-and-Out lower price of burgers to \$1

Supply

Supply Defined EXAMPLE: Mowing Lawns
What is supply? Supply is the different quantities of a good that sellers are willing and able to sell at different prices. What is the Law of Supply? There is a DIRECT (or positive) relationship between price and quantity supplied. As price increases, the quantity producers make increases As price falls, the quantity producers make falls. Why? Because, at higher prices profit seeking firms have an incentive to produce more. EXAMPLE: Mowing Lawns

Putting Supply and Demand Together