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Presentation on theme: "SOCIALIZING THE INDIVIDUAL"— Presentation transcript:


2 Social experience is the foundation for the personality, a person’s fairly consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting

3 Personality The sum total of behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, and values that are characteristic of an individual Determines how we adjust/react Unique Develops over time

4 PERSONALITY personality development more obvious in childhood ( rapid physical, emotional, intellectual growth)

5 PERSONALITY What are the 4 main factors that affect development of personality?


7 NATURE VS NURTURE 19th century an intense debate regarding the relative importance of nature (biology) and nurture (socialization) in the shaping of human behavior. Modern sociologists view nurture as much more important than nature in shaping human behavior.

8 Nature vs. Nurture Heredity- the transmission of genetic characteristics from parents to children VERSUS Social environment- contact with other people

9 Nature argument Instinctual drives… motherhood, laughing, religion
Instinct- an unchanging biological inherited behavior pattern (animal behavior) Instinctual drives… motherhood, laughing, religion

10 Nurture argument Ivan Pavlov’s work w/dogs
Russian scientist that showed instinctual behavior could be taught American psychologist John B. Watson: apply principle to humans..dozen healthy infants and turn them into dr.’s, lawyers, beggars, thieves, etc

11 NATURE VS. NURTURE Studies of twins (including identical twins) shows that socialization and heredity both contribute to human development The Nature versus Nurture debate continues

12 Nature argument Sociobiology- systematic study of biological basis of all social behavior Certain cultural characteristics and behavioral traits are “rooted” in genetic makeup of humans Human social life is determined by biological factors

13 Reflection Describe the nature versus nurture viewpoints of personality developments. Which argument do you support? Explain

14 HEREDITY Characteristics present at birth: body build, hair, eye color, skin pigmentation Aptitude- capacity to learn a particular skill or acquire knowledge (natural talent) EXAMPLE-music or art = aptitude Social scientists believe that “inherited aptitude”- can be influenced by environmental factors – parents can encourage/discourage.

15 Heredity

16 HEREDITY and CULTURE Heredity provides you with biological needs
Culture determines how you meet these needs Shapes human personalities by setting limits on the individuals

17 Birth Order Order in which we are born influences our personalities

18 Birth Order First Born….achievement oriented Last Born…social
Middle child… Only child… What is your birth order?

19 Birth Order Birth Order
Personalities are influenced by brothers and sisters. Early-born siblings have different traits than later-born siblings.


21 Parental characteristics
Age of parents Level of education Religious orientation Cultural heritage Occupational background

22 Parental characteristics
Three parenting styles: Permissive Authoritative Authoritarian Children reared with authoritative style integrate into society with the most ease (balance). Permissive and authoritarian styles represent opposite extremes. Permissive parenting styles causes children to not understand their boundaries. Authoritarian raised children will often rebel.

23 The Cultural Environment
Culture influences personality Determines basic types of personalities found in society U.S.-competitive, assertiveness, competitive = personality traits. Ik (“eek”) culture- Prior to WW II the Ik were hunter-gatherers in mountainous region of Uganda. Children viewed all adults and other children as parents and brothers/sisters.

24 Ik socialization culture change continued
POST-WWII the government turned Ik land to national park, and the land went barren, and their social structure COLLAPSED. Today Ik children are thrown out by the age of 3. As a result they form bands for survival. Parents do not help children survive. Only the strongest and most clever survive. The culture influences the Ik children.

25 How we experience our culture influences personality
I.E. gender, subculture, region, neighborhood

What are the 4 main factors that affect personality development? Which factor has more influence on personality development and which less? Complete the graphic organizer to investigate how culture and socialization influences YOUR personality.

27 POINTS TO PONDER How does isolation in childhood affect development?
Make a list of characteristics a child might exhibit if he or she were raised isolated from their families….

28 Isolation in Childhood
Feral children- wild or untamed – found living in isolation in homes Case studies of isolation have led Sociologists to conclude that our personality comes from our cultural environment!

Anna-was confined to attic space, given no social attention. When found (at age 6) she had no interest in people. She could not walk, talk or feed herself. Died at 10 from malnourishment. Isabelle-was restricted to a dark room, but did have her mother (who was deaf). When found at age 6, she could not speak, but eventually did learn to communicate (shows that social deprivation can be overcome!)

30 Genie was raised in near isolation for the first twelve years of her life.
Lived in almost complete silence, and was beaten if she made noise. She did not learn how to talk. After she was found, she had the skills of a 1 year old. After 8 years of training, she never progressed past the 3rd grade level. Never able to function as a social being, but could conform to basic social norms.

Lack social skills human characteristics Lack reasoning, manners, ability to control bodily functions or move like humans lack the ability to speak

Research on the effects of social isolation demonstrates the importance of socialization. All the evidence points to the crucial role in social development in forming personality.

33 Summarize What is the significance of the cultural environment in the socialization /personality development?

Orphanages and hospitals can often create the same characteristics of isolated children Spitz’s research on institutionalization on infants in orphanage: Human interaction is important Lack of caring environment: develop much slower, mentally, physically, emotionally.

35 THE SOCIAL SELF How does a person’s sense of self emerge?

36 Mirror, Mirror on the Wall
Do you ever think about how other people see you?

37 SOCIALIZATION Socialization is the lifelong social experience by which individuals develop their human potential and learn culture. interactive process

38 SELF distinct identity that separates you from other members of society.

39 Tabula Rasa John Locke: we are born a “blank slate”

40 Locke A “clean slate” onto which anything can be written
Believed adults could shape newborns’ personality Absorb the aspects of the culture they are in contact with

41 The Looking-Glass self
Charles Horton Cooley Interactionist perspective Process by which we develop an idea of self based on how we think we appear to others

42 Begins in infancy but continues throughout life
Three-step process We imagine how we appear to others Based on their reaction to us, we attempt to determine if others view us as we view ourselves We use perceptions of how others judge us to develop feelings about ourselves Begins in infancy but continues throughout life

43 Example Mattie is a new sociology professor at the local college. During her first lecture, she noticed that some students were yawning. Based on her interpretation of the students yawning, Mattie has decided she is a boring teacher.

44 Cooley The formation of the self – the set of concepts we use in defining who we are – is a central part of the socialization process. The self emerges in the course of interaction with other people

45 George Herbert Mead Interactionist perspective Idea similar to Cooley
Role taking: we see ourselves as others see us but take on or pretend to take the roles of others imagining the situation from that person’s point of view, a process called taking the role of the other. Internalize the expectations of the people closest to us (significant others)

46 Mead The self develops through several stages: Imitation.
Play, in which children take the roles of significant others. Games, in which they take the roles of several other people at the same time. Internalized attitudes, expectations, and viewpoints =the generalized other

47 Click on the image above to play the Interactive.

48 Mead I= unsocialized, spontaneous self-interested component of personality and self identity Me= aware of expectations and attitudes of society- the socialized self

49 Seeing ourselves as others see us is first step
Eventually take on, or pretend to take on, the roles of others (role-taking)

50 Significant others are the people who are closest to us: parents, siblings, and others who directly influence our socialization As an individual ages, significant others grow less important Generalized other is the internalized attitudes, expectations and viewpoints of society Children under three can only imitate the actions of others

51 Creating a sense of self : Mead
Criticized for ignoring the role of biology in the development of the self. Self-esteem is governed by appraisals, social comparisons, and self-attribution Conclusion: Mead showed that symbolic interaction is the foundation of both self and society

52 The Presentation of Self
Dramaturgy Theory suggested by Erving Goffman States that social interaction is similar to a drama performance Suggests people are an audience, judging each others’ performances, trying to determine each individual’s true character Impression Management Attempt to play the role well and manage the impressions that the audience receives States that much of our time with others is spent trying to manage their impressions Goffman’s theory suggests that an individual’s self can be changed according to audience.

Specific individuals, groups, and institutions that enable socialization to take place. Family, the peer group, the school, and the mass media

54 Family most important of the agents of socialization
Primary socializer of young children determining one's attitudes toward religion and establishing career goals. Unintended or deliberate socialization

55 Peer Group Peers refer to people who are roughly the same age and/or who share other social characteristics Influential during the pre-teen/early teenage years w/out peer acceptance…misfits, outsiders,

56 School Major role in “deliberate” socialization
Class activities deliberate teaching Extracurricular activities prepare students for life in larger society Transmit cultural values: patriotism, responsibility, citizenship

57 School Teachers become role models (manners, speech, style)
Peer groups and cliques

58 Mass Media Instruments of mass communication reaching large audiences
No personal contact Books, film, internet, magazines, newspapers, radio, television Which form has the most influence?

59 Mass Media 98% of homes in US have TV’s
Average more than 2 tv’s per home Children watch avg. of 28 hrs a week Ongoing debate over TV violence What are negative and positive aspects of the effects of mass media on socialization?

60 Resocialization Setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society for a set period Break with past experiences Learning of new values and norms Voluntary (college)and involuntary I.E. prisons, (military)boot camp,

61 Resocialization Total institutions concerned w/ resocializing members
Isolated Subject to tight control Changing personality/social behavior How is this done?


63 Resocialization Strip away individual identity Replace inst. Identity
Uniforms, deny freedom



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