2Social experience is the foundation for the personality, a person’s fairly consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting
3PersonalityThe sum total of behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, and values that are characteristic of an individualDetermines how we adjust/reactUniqueDevelops over time
4PERSONALITYpersonality development more obvious in childhood ( rapid physical, emotional, intellectual growth)
5PERSONALITYWhat are the 4 main factors that affect development of personality?
6PERSONALITY HEREDITY BIRTH ORDER PARENTAL CHARACTERISTICS CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT
7NATURE VS NURTURE19th century an intense debate regarding the relative importance of nature (biology) and nurture (socialization) in the shaping of human behavior.Modern sociologists view nurture as much more important than nature in shaping human behavior.
8Nature vs. NurtureHeredity- the transmission of genetic characteristics from parents to childrenVERSUSSocial environment- contact with other people
10Nurture argument Ivan Pavlov’s work w/dogs Russian scientist that showed instinctual behavior could be taughtAmerican psychologist John B. Watson: apply principle to humans..dozen healthy infants and turn them into dr.’s, lawyers, beggars, thieves, etc
11NATURE VS. NURTUREStudies of twins (including identical twins) shows that socialization and heredity both contribute to human developmentThe Nature versus Nurture debate continues
12Nature argumentSociobiology- systematic study of biological basis of all social behaviorCertain cultural characteristics and behavioral traits are “rooted” in genetic makeup of humansHuman social life is determined by biological factors
13ReflectionDescribe the nature versus nurture viewpoints of personality developments.Which argument do you support? Explain
14HEREDITYCharacteristics present at birth: body build, hair, eye color, skin pigmentationAptitude- capacity to learn a particular skill or acquire knowledge (natural talent)EXAMPLE-music or art = aptitudeSocial scientists believe that “inherited aptitude”- can be influenced by environmental factors – parents can encourage/discourage.
21Parental characteristics Age of parentsLevel of educationReligious orientationCultural heritageOccupational background
22Parental characteristics Three parenting styles:PermissiveAuthoritativeAuthoritarianChildren reared with authoritative style integrate into society with the most ease (balance). Permissive and authoritarian styles represent opposite extremes. Permissive parenting styles causes children to not understand their boundaries. Authoritarian raised children will often rebel.
23The Cultural Environment Culture influences personalityDetermines basic types of personalities found in societyU.S.-competitive, assertiveness, competitive = personality traits.Ik (“eek”) culture-Prior to WW II the Ik were hunter-gatherers in mountainous region of Uganda. Children viewed all adults and other children as parents and brothers/sisters.
24Ik socialization culture change continued POST-WWII the government turned Ik land to national park, and the land went barren, and their social structure COLLAPSED.Today Ik children are thrown out by the age of 3. As a result they form bands for survival. Parents do not help children survive.Only the strongest and most clever survive.The culture influences the Ik children.
25How we experience our culture influences personality I.E. gender, subculture, region, neighborhood
26SUMMARIZE/process INFO What are the 4 main factors that affect personality development?Which factor has more influence on personality development and which less?Complete the graphic organizer to investigate how culture and socialization influences YOUR personality.
27POINTS TO PONDER How does isolation in childhood affect development? Make a list of characteristics a child might exhibit if he or she were raised isolated from their families….
28Isolation in Childhood Feral children- wild or untamed – found living in isolation in homesCase studies of isolation have led Sociologists to conclude that our personality comes from our cultural environment!
29ISOLATION IN CHILDHOOD Anna-was confined to attic space, given no social attention. When found (at age 6) she had no interest in people. She could not walk, talk or feed herself. Died at 10 from malnourishment.Isabelle-was restricted to a dark room, but did have her mother (who was deaf). When found at age 6, she could not speak, but eventually did learn to communicate (shows that social deprivation can be overcome!)
30Genie was raised in near isolation for the first twelve years of her life. Lived in almost complete silence, and was beaten if she made noise. She did not learn how to talk.After she was found, she had the skills of a 1 year old. After 8 years of training, she never progressed past the 3rd grade level.Never able to function as a social being, but could conform to basic social norms.
31ISOLATION IN CHILDHOOD Lack social skillshuman characteristicsLack reasoning, manners, ability to control bodily functions or move like humanslack the ability to speak
32ISOLATION IN CHILDHOOD Research on the effects of social isolation demonstrates the importance of socialization.All the evidence points to the crucial role in social development in forming personality.
33SummarizeWhat is the significance of the cultural environment in the socialization /personality development?
34INSTITUTIONALIZATION Orphanages and hospitals can often create the same characteristics of isolated childrenSpitz’s research on institutionalization on infants in orphanage:Human interaction is importantLack of caring environment: develop much slower, mentally, physically, emotionally.
35THE SOCIAL SELFHow does a person’s sense of self emerge?
36Mirror, Mirror on the Wall Do you ever think about how other people see you?
37SOCIALIZATIONSocialization is the lifelong social experience by which individuals develop their human potential and learn culture.interactive process
38SELFdistinct identity that separates you from other members of society.
39Tabula RasaJohn Locke: we are born a “blank slate”
40Locke A “clean slate” onto which anything can be written Believed adults could shape newborns’ personalityAbsorb the aspects of the culture they are in contact with
41The Looking-Glass self Charles Horton CooleyInteractionist perspectiveProcess by which we develop an idea of self based on how we think we appear to others
42Begins in infancy but continues throughout life Three-step processWe imagine how we appear to othersBased on their reaction to us, we attempt to determine if others view us as we view ourselvesWe use perceptions of how others judge us to develop feelings about ourselvesBegins in infancy but continues throughout life
43ExampleMattie is a new sociology professor at the local college. During her first lecture, she noticed that some students were yawning. Based on her interpretation of the students yawning, Mattie has decided she is a boring teacher.
44CooleyThe formation of the self – the set of concepts we use in defining who we are – is a central part of the socialization process.The self emerges in the course of interaction with other people
45George Herbert Mead Interactionist perspective Idea similar to Cooley Role taking: we see ourselves as others see us but take on or pretend to take the roles of othersimagining the situation from that person’s point of view, a process called taking the role of the other.Internalize the expectations of the people closest to us (significant others)
46Mead The self develops through several stages: Imitation. Play, in which children take the roles of significant others.Games, in which they take the roles of several other people at the same time.Internalized attitudes, expectations, and viewpoints =the generalized other
47Click on the image above to play the Interactive.
48MeadI= unsocialized, spontaneous self-interested component of personality and self identityMe= aware of expectations and attitudes of society- the socialized self
49Seeing ourselves as others see us is first step Eventually take on, or pretend to take on, the roles of others (role-taking)
50Significant others are the people who are closest to us: parents, siblings, and others who directly influence our socializationAs an individual ages, significant others grow less importantGeneralized other is the internalized attitudes, expectations and viewpoints of societyChildren under three can only imitate the actions of others
51Creating a sense of self : Mead Criticized for ignoring the role of biology in the development of the self.Self-esteem is governed by appraisals, social comparisons, and self-attributionConclusion: Mead showed that symbolic interaction is the foundation of both self and society
52The Presentation of Self DramaturgyTheory suggested by Erving GoffmanStates that social interaction is similar to a drama performanceSuggests people are an audience, judging each others’ performances, trying to determine each individual’s true characterImpression ManagementAttempt to play the role well and manage the impressions that the audience receivesStates that much of our time with others is spent trying to manage their impressionsGoffman’s theory suggests that an individual’s self can be changed according to audience.
53AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION Specific individuals, groups, and institutions that enable socialization to take place.Family, the peer group, the school, and the mass media
54Family most important of the agents of socialization Primary socializer of young childrendetermining one's attitudes toward religion and establishing career goals.Unintended or deliberate socialization
55Peer GroupPeers refer to people who are roughly the same age and/or who share other social characteristicsInfluential during the pre-teen/early teenage yearsw/out peer acceptance…misfits, outsiders,
56School Major role in “deliberate” socialization Class activities deliberate teachingExtracurricular activities prepare students for life in larger societyTransmit cultural values: patriotism, responsibility, citizenship
57School Teachers become role models (manners, speech, style) Peer groups and cliques
58Mass Media Instruments of mass communication reaching large audiences No personal contactBooks, film, internet, magazines, newspapers, radio, televisionWhich form has the most influence?
59Mass Media 98% of homes in US have TV’s Average more than 2 tv’s per homeChildren watch avg. of 28 hrs a weekOngoing debate over TV violenceWhat are negative and positive aspects of the effects of mass media on socialization?
60ResocializationSetting in which people are isolated from the rest of society for a set periodBreak with past experiencesLearning of new values and normsVoluntary (college)and involuntaryI.E. prisons, (military)boot camp,
61Resocialization Total institutions concerned w/ resocializing members IsolatedSubject to tight controlChanging personality/social behaviorHow is this done?