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PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama Managing Human Resources Bohlander Snell 14 th edition © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. Pay-for-Performance: Incentive Rewards Human Resource Management Snell Bohlander
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–2 Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1.Discuss the basic requirements for successful implementation of incentive programs. 2.Identify the types of, and reasons for implementing, individual incentive plans. 3.Explain why merit raises may fail to motivate employees adequately and discuss ways to increase their motivational value. 4.Indicate the advantage of each of the principal methods used to compensate salespeople.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–3 Objectives (cont’d) After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 5.Differentiate how gains may be shared with employees under the Scanlon, Rucker, and Improshare gainsharing systems. 6.Differentiate between profitsharing plans and explain advantages and disadvantages of these programs. 7.Describe the main types of ESOP plans and discuss the advantages of ESOP to employers and employees.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–4 Strategic Reasons for Incentive Plans Variable Pay Tying pay to some measure of individual, group, or organizational performance. Incentive Pay Programs Establish a performance “threshold” to qualify for incentive payments. Emphasize a shared focus on organizational objectives. Create shared commitment in that every individual contributes to organizational performance and success.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–5 Figure 10–1 Types of Incentive Plans INDIVIDUAL Piecework Standard hour plan Bonuses Merit pay Lump-sum merit pay Incentive awards Sales incentives Incentives for professional employees Executive compensation GROUP Team compensation Scanlon Plan Rucker Plan Improshare Earnings-at-risk plans ENTERPRISE Profit sharing Stock options Employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs)
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–6 Incentive Plans as Links to Organizational Objectives Incentive Plan Purposes Encourage employees to assume “ownership” of their jobs, thereby improving effort and job performance. Motivate employees to expend more effort than under hourly and/or seniority-based compensation systems. Support a compensation strategy to attract and retain top-performing employees. Incentive Plan Effectiveness There is evidence of a relationship between incentive plans and improved organizational performance.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–7 Figure 10–2 Advantages of Incentive Pay Programs Incentives focus employee efforts on specific performance targets. They provide real motivation that produces important employee and organizational gains. Incentive payouts are variable costs linked to the achievement of results. Base salaries are fixed costs largely unrelated to output. Incentive compensation is directly related to operating performance. If performance objectives (quantity and/or quality) are met, incentives are paid. If objectives are not achieved, incentives are withheld. Incentives foster teamwork and unit cohesiveness when payments to individuals are based on team results. Incentives are a way to distribute success among those responsible for producing that success. Incentives are a means to reward or attract top performers when salary budgets are low.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–8 Employee Opposition to Incentive Plans Production standards are set unfairly. Incentive plans are really “work speedup.” Incentive plans create competition among workers. Increased earnings result in tougher standards. Payout formulas are complex and difficult to understand. Incentive plans cause friction between employees and management.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–9 Successful Incentive Plans Employees have a desire for an incentive plan. Employees are encouraged to participate. Employees see a clear connection between the incentive payments they receive and their job performance. Employees are committed to meeting the standards. Standards are challenging but achievable. Payout formulas are simple and understandable. Payouts are a separate, distinct part of compensation.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–10 Highlights in HRM 1 Assessing Incentive Program Effectiveness Source: Christian M. Ellis and Cynthia L. Paluso, “Blazing a Trail to Broad-Based Incentives,” WorldatWork Journal 9, no. 4 (Fourth Quarter 2000): 33–41. Used with permission, WorldatWork, Scottsdale, Arizona.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–11 Highlights in HRM 2 Setting Performance Measures—The Keys Performance measures—at all organizational levels— must be consistent with the strategic goals of the organization. Define the intent of performance measures and champion the cause relentlessly. Involve employees. Consider the organization’s culture and workforce demographics when designing performance measures. Widely communicate the importance of performance measures.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–12 Effective Incentive Plan Administration Grant incentives based on individual performance differences. Have the financial resources to reward performance. Set clearly defined, accepted, and challenging yet achievable performance standards. Use an easily understood payout formula Keep administrative costs reasonable. Do not “ratchet up” performance standards.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–13 Individual Incentive Plans Straight Piecework An incentive plan under which employees receive a certain rate for each unit produced. Differential Piece Rate A compensation rate under which employees whose production exceeds the standard amount of output receive a higher rate for all of their work than the rate paid to those who do not exceed the standard amount.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–14 Computing the Piece Rate hourper units 5 unit)per time(standard minutes 12 hour)(per minutes 60 = unitper $1.50 hour)(per units 5 rate)(hourly $7.50 =
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–15 Piecework: The Drawbacks Problems with piecework systems: Is not always an effective motivator Piecework standards can be difficult to develop. Individual contributions can be difficult measure. Not easily applied to work that is highly mechanized with little employee control over output. Piecework may conflict with organizational culture (teamwork) and/or group norms (“rate busting”). When quality is more important than quantity. When technology changes are frequent.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–16 Individual Incentive Plans: Standard Hour Plan An incentive plan that sets pay rates based on the completion of a job in a predetermined “standard time.” If employees finish the work in less than the expected time, their pay is still based on the standard time for the job multiplied by their hourly rate.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–17 Bonuses Bonus Incentive payment that is supplemental to the base wage for cost reduction, quality improvement, or other performance criteria. Spot bonus Unplanned bonus given for employee effort unrelated to an established performance measure.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–18 Merit Pay Merit Pay Program (merit raise) Links an increase in base pay to how successfully an employee achieved some objective performance standard. Merit Guidelines Guidelines for awarding merit raises that are tied to performance objectives.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–19 Highlights in HRM 3 Merit Pay Guidelines Chart A merit pay guidelines chart is a “lookup” table for awarding merit increases on the basis of (1) employee performance, (2) position in the pay range, (3) time since the last pay increase. Concerns: What should unsatisfactory performers be paid? What should average performers be paid? How much should superior or outstanding performers be paid?
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–20 Problems with Merit Raises Money available for merit increases may be inadequate to satisfactorily raise all employees’ base pay. Managers may have no guidance in how to define and measure performance; there may be vagueness regarding merit award criteria. Employees may not believe that their compensation is tied to effort and performance; they may be unable to differentiate between merit pay and other types of pay increases. The performance appraisal objectives of employees and their managers are often at odds. There may be a lack of honesty and cooperation between management and employees. Merit pay plans do not necessarily motivate higher levels of employee performance.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–21 Motivation Through Merit Raises Develop employee confidence and trust in performance appraisal. Establish job-related performance criteria. Separate merit pay from regular pay. Distinguish merit raises from cost-of-living raises. Withhold merit payments when performance declines.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–22 Lump-Sum Merit Pay Lump-sum Merit Program Program under which employees receive a year-end merit payment, which is not added to their base pay. Advantages Provides financial control by maintaining annual salary expenses and not escalating base salary levels. Contains employee benefit costs for levels of benefits normally calculated from current salary levels. Provides a clear link between pay and performance.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–23 Incentive Awards and Recognition Awards Often used to recognize productivity gains, special contributions or achievements, and service to the organization. Employees feel appreciated when employers tie awards to performance and deliver awards in a timely, sincere and specific way. Noncash Incentive Awards Are most effective as motivators when the award is combined with a meaningful employee recognition program.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–24 Sales Incentives Straight Commission Sales Incentive Plans Straight Salary Salary and Commission Combinations
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–25 Incentive Plans for Salespersons Straight Salary Plan Compensation plan that permits salespeople to be paid for performing various duties that are not reflected immediately in their sales volume. Encourages building customer relationships. Provides compensation during periods of poor sales. May not provide sufficient motivation for maximizing sales volume.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–26 Incentive Plans for Salespersons Straight Commission Plan Compensation plan based upon a percentage of sales. Draw is a cash advance that must be paid back as commissions are earned. Disadvantages of straight commission incentive Emphasis is on sales volume rather than on profits. Customer service after the sale is neglected. Earnings tend to fluctuate widely between good and poor periods of business. Temptation to grant price concessions to get sales.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–27 Incentive Plans for Salespersons Combined Salary and Commission Plan A compensation plan that includes a straight salary and a commission component (“leverage”). Advantages Combines the advantages of straight salary and straight commission forms of compensation. Offers greater design flexibility Can be used to develop the most favorable ratio of selling expense to sales. Motivates sales force to achieve specific company marketing objectives in addition to sales volume.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–28 Incentives for Professional Employees Profit sharing and stock ownership Double-track wage systems Managerial and Executive Incentives Bonuses and merit increases Performance incentive bonuses Executive perquisites (perks)
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–29 Executive Compensation The Executive Pay Package Base salary Short-term incentives or bonuses Long-term incentives or stock plans Perquisites (perks)
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–30 Types of Long-Term Incentive Plans Stock Price Appreciation Plans Stock Options Stock Appreciation Rights (SARS) Stock Purchase Phantom Stock Restricted Stock/Cash Plans Restricted Stock Restricted Cash Performance-Based Plans Performance Units Performance Shares Formula-value Grants Dividend Units
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–31 Figure 10–3 Types of Long-Term Incentive Plans Stock options Stock appreciation rights (SARs) Stock purchase Phantom stock Restricted stock Performance units Performance shares
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–32 Executive Compensation: Ethics and Accountablility Incentive payments are excessive compared with return to stockholders. Time periods for judging and rewarding performance are too short. Quarterly earnings growth is emphasized at the expense of research and development. Emphasis is placed upon equaling or exceeding executive salary survey averages. Benefits do not relate closely to individual performance.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–33 Highlights in HRM 4 The “Sweetness” of Executive Perks Company car Company plane Executive eating facilities Financial consulting Company-paid parking Personal liability insurance Estate planning First-class air travel Home computers Chauffeur service Children’s education Spouse travel Physical exams Mobile phones Large insurance policies Income tax preparation Country club membership Luncheon club membership Personal home repairs Loans Legal counseling Vacation cabins
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–34 Executive Compensation Reform Current Reform Measures The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is looking for tax- code violations in executive pay packages and will make executive pay a part of corporate audit. The Securities and Exchange Commission ruled that companies on the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ must obtain shareholder approval before granting stock options and other equity compensation to executives and employees. The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) now requires that stock options be recognized as an expense on income statements.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–35 Executive Compensation Reform (cont’d) Possible Future Reform Measures Sophisticated formulas that peg executive compensation to organizational benchmarks other than stock price to align pay more closely with performance. Corporate policy changes governing how compensation committees structure executive pay packages. Restraints on stock options making it harder for executives to cash out and receive windfall cash sums.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–36 Group Incentive Plans Team Incentive Plans Compensation plans where all team members receive an incentive bonus payment when production or service standards are met or exceeded. Establishing Team Incentive Payments Set performance measures upon which incentive payments are based Determine the size of the incentive bonus. Create a payout formula and fully explain to employees how payouts will be distributed.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–37 Group Incentive Plans (cont’d) Gainsharing Plans Programs under which both employees and the organization share the financial gains according to a predetermined formula that reflects improved productivity and profitability. Scanlon Rucker Improshare
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–38 Figure 10–4 The Pros and Cons of Team Incentive Plans PROS Team incentives support group planning and problem solving, thereby building a team culture. The contributions of individual employees depend on group cooperation. Unlike incentive plans based solely on output, team incentives can broaden the scope of the contribution that employees are motivated to make. Team bonuses tend to reduce employee jealousies and complaints over “tight” or “loose” individual standards. Team incentives encourage cross-training and the acquiring of new interpersonal competencies.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–39 Figure 10–4 The Pros and Cons of Team Incentive Plans (cont’d) CONS Individual team members may perceive that “their” efforts contribute little to team success or to the attainment of the incentive bonus. Intergroup social problems—pressure to limit performance (for example, team members are afraid one individual may make the others look bad) and the “free-ride” effect (one individual puts in less effort than others but shares equally in team rewards)—may arise. Complex payout formulas can be difficult for team members to understand.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–40 Scanlon Plan Rewards come from employee participation in improving productivity and reducing costs. Rucker Plan (SOP) Shared rewards come from the difference between labor costs and sales value of production. Improshare Gainsharing based on increases in productivity of the standard hour output of work teams. Employee Bonus and Gainsharing Plans
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–41 Figure 10–5 Scanlon Plan Suggestion Process
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–42 Highlights in HRM 5 Lessons Learned: Designing Effective Gainsharing Programs Enlist total managerial support for the gainsharing effort. When developing new programs, include representatives from all groups affected by the gainsharing effort—labor, management, employees. Prevent political games in which involved parties are more interested in preserving their self-interests than in supporting the group effort. Bonus payout formulas must be seen as fair, must be easy for employees to calculate, must offer payouts on a frequent basis, and must be large enough to encourage future employee effort. Establish effective, fair, and precise measurement standards. Be certain that employees are predisposed to a gainsharing reward system. Launch the plan during a favorable business period.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–43 Enterprise Incentive Plans Profit Sharing Any procedure by which an employer pays, or makes available to all regular employees, in addition to their base pay, current or deferred sums based upon the profits of the enterprise. Challenges: Agreement over division of profits between company and employees. Possibility of no payout due to financial condition of company.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–44 Enterprise Incentive Plans (cont’d) Stock Options Granting employees the right to purchase a specific number of shares of the company’s stock at a guaranteed price (the option price) during a designated time period. The value of an option is subject to stock market conditions at the time that option is exercised.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–45 Enterprise Incentive Plans (cont’d) Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs) Stock plans in which an organization contributes shares of its stock to an established trust for the purpose of stock purchases by its employees. The employer establishes an ESOP trust that qualifies as a tax-exempt employee trust under Section 401(a) of the Internal Revenue Code Stock bonus plans are funded by direct employer contributions of its stock or cash to purchase its stock. Leveraged plans are funded by employer borrowing to purchase its stock for the ESOP.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–46 Employee Stock Ownership Plans Rewards and Risks of ESOPS AdvantagesAdvantagesDisadvantagesDisadvantages Liquidity and value Pride of ownership Deferred taxes Single funding basis Not insured Retirement benefits
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.10–47 Key Terms bonus combined salary and commission plan differential piece rate employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs) gainsharing plans Improshare lump-sum merit program merit guidelines perquisites profit sharing Rucker Plan Scanlon Plan spot bonus standard hour plan straight commission plan straight piecework straight salary plan team incentive plan variable pay
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