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Chapter Five Appreciating Individual Differences: Self-Concept, Personality, Emotions McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Five Appreciating Individual Differences: Self-Concept, Personality, Emotions McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Five Appreciating Individual Differences: Self-Concept, Personality, Emotions McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to:
Distinguish between self-esteem and self-efficacy. Contrast high and low self-monitoring individuals, and describe resulting problems each may have. Identify and describe the Big Five personality dimensions, specify which one is correlated most strongly with job performance, and describe the proactive personality.

3 After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to:
Explain the difference between an internal and external locus of control. Identify the three components of attitudes and discuss cognitive dissonance Identify at least five of Gardner’s eight multiple intelligences, and explain “practical intelligence” Explain the concepts of emotional intelligence, emotional contagion and emotional labor

4 Focusing on the “Self” Self Self-concept
core of one’s conscious existence Self-concept a person’s self-perception as a physical, social, spiritual being.

5 Focusing on the “Self” Cognitions Self-esteem
a person’s knowledge, opinions, or beliefs. Self-esteem Belief about one’s own self worth based on an overall self-evaluation.

6 An OB Model for Studying Individual Differences
Figure 5-1

7 Can General Self-Esteem Be Improved?
Low self-esteem can be raised more by having a person think of desirable characteristics possessed rather of undesirable characteristics from which he is free

8 How to Build Self-Esteem in Yourself and Others
Live consciously Be self-accepting Take personal responsibility Be self-assertive Live purposefully Have personal integrity

9 Question? Bianca, a manager for Oil Traders, Inc., has been offered a promotion. Her preference is to work in a culture where the correlation between self-esteem and life satisfaction is not strong. Based on what research tells us, which of these countries should Bianca choose? Canada Netherlands Japan New Zealand The correct answer is “C” – Japan. AACSB:  Group-individual dynamics; Multicultural-diversity Bloom's Taxonomy:  Application Difficulty:  Hard Page:  121

10 Self-Efficacy Self-efficacy Learned Helplessness
a person’s belief about his chances of successfully accomplishing a specific task Learned Helplessness debilitating lack of faith in one’s ability to control the situation

11 Self-Efficacy Beliefs Pave the Way for Success or Failure
Figure 5-2

12 Managerial Implications
On-the-job research evidence encourages managers to nurture self-efficacy, both in themselves and in others Significant positive correlation between self-efficacy and job performance

13 Self-Monitoring Self-monitoring
extent to which a person observes their own self-expressive behavior and adapts it to the situation Positive relationship between high self-monitoring and career success

14 Question? Kevin is a high self-monitor. What advice would you offer him, based on research? Don't overdo it by turning into someone who is widely perceived as insincere, phony, dishonest, and untrustworthy. You can bend without breaking, so try to be a bit more accommodating while being true to your basic beliefs. Don't wear out your welcome when communicating. Practice reading and adjusting to non-verbal cues in various public situations. The correct answer is “A” AACSB:  Group-individual dynamics Bloom's Taxonomy:  Application Difficulty:  Hard Page:  125

15 Personality Dynamics Personality
stable and mental characteristics responsible for a person’s identity

16 The Big Five Personality Dimensions

17 Question? If Clint is dependable, responsible, achievement-oriented, and persistent, he is demonstrating which of these Big Five personality dimensions? Extraversion Emotional stability Locus of control Conscientiousness The correct answer is “D” - conscientiousness AACSB:  Group-individual dynamics; Multicultural-diversity Bloom's Taxonomy:  Application Difficulty:  Hard Page:  131

18 Personality and Job Performance
Conscientiousness has the strongest positive correlation with job and training performance Extraversion is associated with success for managers and salespeople

19 Proactive Personality
Proactive Personality - an action-oriented person who shows initiative and perseveres to change things.

20 Locus of Control Internal locus of control External locus of control
attributing outcomes to one’s own actions External locus of control believing performance is the product of circumstances beyond one’s immediate control

21 Build Your Stamina and Get More Done
Take care of your body Take breaks Notice what brings on negative emotions Cultivate positive feelings by expressing appreciation to others When you can, do one thing at a time Set priorities to do the things that really matter to you and express your values

22 Humility Humility considering the contributions of others and good fortune when gauging one’s success The silent virtue

23 Question? Joe believes his past performance in college is due to the difficulty of courses he has taken and his bad luck in getting tough instructors. Based on this, Joe: has an external locus of control. is a proactive personality. is an extravert. has a low degree of conscientiousness. The correct answer is “A” – external locus of control AACSB:  Group-individual dynamics; Multicultural-diversity Bloom's Taxonomy:  Application Difficulty:  Hard Page:  

24 The Nature of Attitudes
learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object

25 The Nature of Attitudes
Affective component the feelings or emotions one has about an object or situation Cognitive component beliefs or ideas one has about an object or situation Behavioral component how one intends to act or behave toward someone or something

26 When Attitudes and Reality Collide: Cognitive Dissonance
psychological discomfort a person experiences what his or her attitudes or beliefs are incompatible between their attitudes and beliefs and their behavior

27 Cognitive Dissonance How people reduce dissonance
Change your attitude or behavior, or both Belittle the importance of the inconsistent behavior Find consonant elements that outweigh the dissonant ones

28 Question? Alexa dreads going to work each day. She hates her job and her supervisor, but will not take time to look for a different job. She is experiencing ___________. External locus of control Cognitive dissonance Internal locus of control Halo error The correct answer is “B” – cognitive dissonance. See previous slide.

29 Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior
Figure 5-3

30 Intelligence and Cognitive Abilities
Intelligence – capacity for constructive thinking, reasoning, and problem solving

31 Two Types of Abilities General mental ability needed for all cognitive tasks Unique to the task at hand

32 Fitness Isn’t Just about Your Body Anymore
Expose yourself to important experiences Take time to play Study and analyze Try something new Exercise

33 Mental Abilities

34 Question? Jimmy can remember the order preferences of each of his clients. This the mental ability of ________. Word fluency Numerical Spatial Memory The correct answer is “D” – memory. See previous slide.

35 Positive and Negative Emotions
complex human reactions to personal achievements and setbacks that may be felt and displayed

36 Positive and Negative Emotions
Figure 5-4

37 Emotional Intelligence
ability to manage oneself one’s relationships in mature and constructive ways

38 Question? Dave is not very patient with restaurant service and will often complain loudly if things don’t go as expected. He is not very high in __________. Aggressiveness Positive affectivity Emotional intelligence Behavioral attitude The correct answer is “C” – emotional intelligence. See previous slide.

39 Supplemental Slides Slides contain extra non-text examples to integrate and enhance instructor lectures Slide 40: Self Efficacy Slides 41: Work Applications of Self-Efficacy Slide 42: Practical Tips for Building On-the-Job Self-Esteem Slide 43: The Dark Side of Self-Monitoring Slide 44-45: Video discussion slide

40 Self-Efficacy See an article on self-efficacy by Judge and Bono

41 Work Applications of Self-Efficacy
Recruiting/Selection/job assignments What questions would you ask to determine one’s self-efficacy for performing the job well? Job design Are challenging or boring tasks more likely to improve one’s self efficacy? Training and development How do training and development programs develop self-efficacy? If self-efficacy relates to the employees’ ability to perform, then in the areas of recruitment, selection, and job assignments it is desirable to hire people who have high self-efficacy. However, measures of self-efficacy are not well-developed. This makes sense because remember, self-efficacy is about one’s belief about being able to do something specific rather than a general feeling. So knowing what we know about how self-efficacy is developed, in a job interview, managers must be careful not to hire solely on the basis of self-efficacy. In the area of job design, challenging tasks tend to improve one’s self efficacy because they give people a feeling of accomplishment. While employees can do boring tasks, the fact that they were so easy doesn’t really say much about their ability. Providing employees with opportunities to perform new tasks and learn new skills through an organization’s training and development programs will improve their self-efficacy for future similar tasks.

42 Practical Tips for Building On-the-Job Self-Esteem
Be supportive by showing concern for personal problems, interests, status, and contributions Offer work involving variety, autonomy, and challenges that suit the individual’s values, skills, and abilities Strive for management-employee cohesiveness and build trust Have faith in each employee’s self-management ability Notes: Topic Covered: Organizational Self-Esteem According to a study by the Society for Human Resource Management, managers can build employee self-esteem in four ways: see above slide Source: Practical steps are discussed in M Kaeter “Basic Self-Esteem,” Training, August 1993, pp

43 The Dark Side of Self-Monitoring
Frank Abignale stole $21 million in fraudulent checks; after serving prison time has helped the FBI “When I talk to people about con-artists,” Abnigale writes, “they always ask me, ‘Well is there a certain type of person to beware of?’ It’s been my experience, on both sides of the law, that there is no profile of who’s a con artist or forger.” But there is this common trait: “There’s this thing they always say about con men: They live a chameleon existence. That was certainly true for me. I’d find myself in an unfamiliar situation, and I’d quickly adapt.” Notes: Topic Covered: Self-Monitoring Taken from “Frank Abignale is one of the world's most respected authorities on the subject of forgery, embezzlement and identity theft. His expertise comes from experience. Between the ages of 16 and 21 he successfully impersonated an airline pilot, an attorney, a pediatrician and a college professor. And along the way he cashed more than $2.5 million in fraudulent checks. The movie Catch me if You Can is based on him. Abignale was caught, of course. He served five years in a federal penitentiary. As a condition of his release he has spent the last 25 years assisting federal law enforcement authorities and teaching at the FBI Academy. During that time, he not only redeemed his reputation, but he developed and patented technologies to guard against the $19 billion in check fraud scams that are perpetrated every year.” Frank Abnigale writes that businesses lose billions a year from fraud and counterfeit goods. The above slide exhibits quotes from Abnigale’s book and pose interesting questions about self-monitoring. For Discussion: Are you hesitant to trust a coworker or acquaintance who is a very high self-monitor? Why? Are you a relatively low or high self-monitor? How can you tell? Source: Excerpted from J Fairly, “Ex-con Man Tells How to Avoid Scam,” USA Today, December 31, 2001, p 4B & “Tips from an expert on preventing ID theft” May 9, 2002 BY TERRY SAVAGE SUN-TIMES COLUMNIST

44 Video: Toying with Success: The McFarlane Companies
McFarlane likely possesses high self-esteem, a proactive personality, and definitely has an internal locus of control. McFarlane Companies uses technology to support and spark creativity in new product development. The competitive environment spurs a quality orientation at McFarlane. What personality traits do entrepreneurs like Todd McFarlane possess that distinguish them from other individuals? Do you think McFarlane has an internal or external locus of control? What cognitive abilities do you think contributed most to McFarlane’s success? Why is the development of new products such as sports figures critical to the McFarlane Companies? How important are self-efficacy beliefs and intelligence in the creative process that leads to new products concepts?

45 Video Case: Generation Next Changes the Face of the Workplace
What characteristics of Generation Y employees are so different from Generation X or Baby Boomer employees? How much responsibility for change should the organization take on and how much should the workers? What programs have you seen in the workplace today that are designed to address these issues? Do most employers recognize this as an important issue? GenY workers are more tech savvy, want things faster - don’t feel they should have to wait, they are more collaborative and resist corporate hierarchy, don’t want to just work work work. Supply of workers as Baby Boomers retire is shrinking - organizations who want to fill the vacancies created by these retirements will need to take on the responsibility - workers will “vote with their feet”. Many organizations are starting various programs, but just as many don’t recognize this as an issue…

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