2 After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to: Distinguish between self-esteem and self-efficacy.Contrast high and low self-monitoring individuals, and describe resulting problems each may have.Identify and describe the Big Five personality dimensions, specify which one is correlated most strongly with job performance, and describe the proactive personality.
3 After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to: Explain the difference between an internal and external locus of control.Identify the three components of attitudes and discuss cognitive dissonanceIdentify at least five of Gardner’s eight multiple intelligences, and explain “practical intelligence”Explain the concepts of emotional intelligence, emotional contagion and emotional labor
4 Focusing on the “Self” Self Self-concept core of one’s conscious existenceSelf-concepta person’s self-perception as a physical, social, spiritual being.
5 Focusing on the “Self” Cognitions Self-esteem a person’s knowledge, opinions, or beliefs.Self-esteemBelief about one’s own self worth based on an overall self-evaluation.
6 An OB Model for Studying Individual Differences Figure 5-1
7 Can General Self-Esteem Be Improved? Low self-esteem can be raised more by having a person think of desirable characteristics possessed rather of undesirable characteristics from which he is free
8 How to Build Self-Esteem in Yourself and Others Live consciouslyBe self-acceptingTake personal responsibilityBe self-assertiveLive purposefullyHave personal integrity
9 Question?Bianca, a manager for Oil Traders, Inc., has been offered a promotion. Her preference is to work in a culture where the correlation between self-esteem and life satisfaction is not strong. Based on what research tells us, which of these countries should Bianca choose?CanadaNetherlandsJapanNew ZealandThe correct answer is “C” – Japan.AACSB: Group-individual dynamics; Multicultural-diversityBloom's Taxonomy: Application Difficulty: Hard Page: 121
10 Self-Efficacy Self-efficacy Learned Helplessness a person’s belief about his chances of successfully accomplishing a specific taskLearned Helplessnessdebilitating lack of faith in one’s ability to control the situation
11 Self-Efficacy Beliefs Pave the Way for Success or Failure Figure 5-2
12 Managerial Implications On-the-job research evidence encourages managers to nurture self-efficacy, both in themselves and in othersSignificant positive correlation between self-efficacy and job performance
13 Self-Monitoring Self-monitoring extent to which a person observes their own self-expressive behavior and adapts it to the situationPositive relationship between high self-monitoring and career success
14 Question?Kevin is a high self-monitor. What advice would you offer him, based on research?Don't overdo it by turning into someone who is widely perceived as insincere, phony, dishonest, and untrustworthy.You can bend without breaking, so try to be a bit more accommodating while being true to your basic beliefs.Don't wear out your welcome when communicating.Practice reading and adjusting to non-verbal cues in various public situations.The correct answer is “A”AACSB: Group-individual dynamicsBloom's Taxonomy: Application Difficulty: Hard Page: 125
15 Personality Dynamics Personality stable and mental characteristics responsible for a person’s identity
17 Question?If Clint is dependable, responsible, achievement-oriented, and persistent, he is demonstrating which of these Big Five personality dimensions?ExtraversionEmotional stabilityLocus of controlConscientiousnessThe correct answer is “D” - conscientiousnessAACSB: Group-individual dynamics; Multicultural-diversityBloom's Taxonomy: Application Difficulty: Hard Page: 131
18 Personality and Job Performance Conscientiousness has the strongest positive correlation with job and training performanceExtraversion is associated with success for managers and salespeople
19 Proactive Personality Proactive Personality - an action-oriented person who shows initiative and perseveres to change things.
20 Locus of Control Internal locus of control External locus of control attributing outcomes to one’s own actionsExternal locus of controlbelieving performance is the product of circumstances beyond one’s immediate control
21 Build Your Stamina and Get More Done Take care of your bodyTake breaksNotice what brings on negative emotionsCultivate positive feelings by expressing appreciation to othersWhen you can, do one thing at a timeSet priorities to do the things that really matter to you and express your values
22 HumilityHumilityconsidering the contributions of others and good fortune when gauging one’s successThe silent virtue
23 Question?Joe believes his past performance in college is due to the difficulty of courses he has taken and his bad luck in getting tough instructors. Based on this, Joe:has an external locus of control.is a proactive personality.is an extravert.has a low degree of conscientiousness.The correct answer is “A” – external locus of controlAACSB: Group-individual dynamics; Multicultural-diversity Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Difficulty: Hard Page:
24 The Nature of Attitudes learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object
25 The Nature of Attitudes Affective componentthe feelings or emotions one has about an object or situationCognitive componentbeliefs or ideas one has about an object or situationBehavioral componenthow one intends to act or behave toward someone or something
26 When Attitudes and Reality Collide: Cognitive Dissonance psychological discomfort a person experiences what his or her attitudes or beliefs are incompatible between their attitudes and beliefs and their behavior
27 Cognitive Dissonance How people reduce dissonance Change your attitude or behavior, or bothBelittle the importance of the inconsistent behaviorFind consonant elements that outweigh the dissonant ones
28 Question?Alexa dreads going to work each day. She hates her job and her supervisor, but will not take time to look for a different job. She is experiencing ___________.External locus of controlCognitive dissonanceInternal locus of controlHalo errorThe correct answer is “B” – cognitive dissonance. See previous slide.
34 Question?Jimmy can remember the order preferences of each of his clients. This the mental ability of ________.Word fluencyNumericalSpatialMemoryThe correct answer is “D” – memory. See previous slide.
35 Positive and Negative Emotions complex human reactions to personal achievements and setbacks that may be felt and displayed
37 Emotional Intelligence ability to manage oneself one’s relationships in mature and constructive ways
38 Question?Dave is not very patient with restaurant service and will often complain loudly if things don’t go as expected. He is not very high in __________.AggressivenessPositive affectivityEmotional intelligenceBehavioral attitudeThe correct answer is “C” – emotional intelligence.See previous slide.
39 Supplemental SlidesSlides contain extra non-text examples to integrate and enhance instructor lecturesSlide 40: Self EfficacySlides 41: Work Applications of Self-EfficacySlide 42: Practical Tips for Building On-the-Job Self-EsteemSlide 43: The Dark Side of Self-MonitoringSlide 44-45: Video discussion slide
40 Self-EfficacySee an article on self-efficacy by Judge and Bono
41 Work Applications of Self-Efficacy Recruiting/Selection/job assignmentsWhat questions would you ask to determine one’s self-efficacy for performing the job well?Job designAre challenging or boring tasks more likely to improve one’s self efficacy?Training and developmentHow do training and development programs develop self-efficacy?If self-efficacy relates to the employees’ ability to perform, then in the areas of recruitment, selection, and job assignments it is desirable to hire people who have high self-efficacy. However, measures of self-efficacy are not well-developed. This makes sense because remember, self-efficacy is about one’s belief about being able to do something specific rather than a general feeling. So knowing what we know about how self-efficacy is developed, in a job interview, managers must be careful not to hire solely on the basis of self-efficacy.In the area of job design, challenging tasks tend to improve one’s self efficacy because they give people a feeling of accomplishment. While employees can do boring tasks, the fact that they were so easy doesn’t really say much about their ability.Providing employees with opportunities to perform new tasks and learn new skills through an organization’s training and development programs will improve their self-efficacy for future similar tasks.
42 Practical Tips for Building On-the-Job Self-Esteem Be supportive by showing concern for personal problems, interests, status, and contributionsOffer work involving variety, autonomy, and challenges that suit the individual’s values, skills, and abilitiesStrive for management-employee cohesiveness and build trustHave faith in each employee’s self-management abilityNotes:Topic Covered: Organizational Self-EsteemAccording to a study by the Society for Human Resource Management, managers can build employee self-esteem in four ways: see above slideSource: Practical steps are discussed in M Kaeter “Basic Self-Esteem,” Training, August 1993, pp
43 The Dark Side of Self-Monitoring Frank Abignale stole $21 million in fraudulent checks; after serving prison time has helped the FBI“When I talk to people about con-artists,” Abnigale writes, “they always ask me, ‘Well is there a certain type of person to beware of?’ It’s been my experience, on both sides of the law, that there is no profile of who’s a con artist or forger.”But there is this common trait: “There’s this thing they always say about con men: They live a chameleon existence. That was certainly true for me. I’d find myself in an unfamiliar situation, and I’d quickly adapt.”Notes:Topic Covered: Self-MonitoringTaken from“Frank Abignale is one of the world's most respected authorities on the subject of forgery, embezzlement and identity theft. His expertise comes from experience. Between the ages of 16 and 21 he successfully impersonated an airline pilot, an attorney, a pediatrician and a college professor. And along the way he cashed more than $2.5 million in fraudulent checks. The movie Catch me if You Can is based on him. Abignale was caught, of course. He served five years in a federal penitentiary. As a condition of his release he has spent the last 25 years assisting federal law enforcement authorities and teaching at the FBI Academy. During that time, he not only redeemed his reputation, but he developed and patented technologies to guard against the $19 billion in check fraud scams that are perpetrated every year.”Frank Abnigale writes that businesses lose billions a year from fraud and counterfeit goods.The above slide exhibits quotes from Abnigale’s book and pose interesting questions about self-monitoring.For Discussion: Are you hesitant to trust a coworker or acquaintance who is a very high self-monitor? Why? Are you a relatively low or high self-monitor? How can you tell?Source: Excerpted from J Fairly, “Ex-con Man Tells How to Avoid Scam,” USA Today, December 31, 2001, p 4B & “Tips from an expert on preventing ID theft” May 9, 2002 BY TERRY SAVAGE SUN-TIMES COLUMNIST
44 Video: Toying with Success: The McFarlane Companies McFarlane likely possesses high self-esteem, a proactive personality, and definitely has an internal locus of control.McFarlane Companies uses technology to support and spark creativity in new product development. The competitive environment spurs a quality orientation at McFarlane.What personality traits do entrepreneurs like Todd McFarlane possess that distinguish them from other individuals? Do you think McFarlane has an internal or external locus of control?What cognitive abilities do you think contributed most to McFarlane’s success?Why is the development of new products such as sports figures critical to the McFarlane Companies?How important are self-efficacy beliefs and intelligence in the creative process that leads to new products concepts?
45 Video Case: Generation Next Changes the Face of the Workplace What characteristics of Generation Y employees are so different from Generation X or Baby Boomer employees?How much responsibility for change should the organization take on and how much should the workers?What programs have you seen in the workplace today that are designed to address these issues? Do most employers recognize this as an important issue?GenY workers are more tech savvy, want things faster - don’t feel they should have to wait, they are more collaborative and resist corporate hierarchy, don’t want to just work work work.Supply of workers as Baby Boomers retire is shrinking - organizations who want to fill the vacancies created by these retirements will need to take on the responsibility - workers will “vote with their feet”.Many organizations are starting various programs, but just as many don’t recognize this as an issue…