Presentation on theme: "The Individual and the Group Chapter 3. How social an animal is mankind? Is homo sapiens communal or individualistic? Is the self a private, personal."— Presentation transcript:
How social an animal is mankind? Is homo sapiens communal or individualistic? Is the self a private, personal quality? Overview
Studies in various contexts Solitary confinement Solitary adventurers Studies of people who agree to isolation All find strong negative reactions to isolation Issues
Do Humans Prefer Solitude or Membership in Groups? Alone vs Together Isolation can be positive, but prolonged isolation is stressful People respond negatively if they expect to be alone increased aggression take risks reduced cognitive capacity
Do Humans Prefer Solitude or Membership in Groups? Exclusion is aversive and avoided forms of exclusion: ignored, avoided, ostracized forms of inclusion: granted membership, welcomed, recruited shunning is a form of punishment even cyberostracism (exclusion from computer-based groups) is aversive
Do Humans Prefer Solitude or Membership in Groups? Leary’s sociometer theory: self-esteem warns of possible exclusion Cyber ostracism Second Life
Loneliness Types of loneliness: emotional and social Membership in groups can reduce both types of loneliness
Need to belong (Baumeister & Leary) Evolutionary psychology suggests this instinct resulted from natural selection
IndividualismCollectivism The individual is primary first. His or her rights must be recognized & put above the right of the group as a whole. If the group’s goals aren’t compatible with the individual’s goals, then the individual is free to go his or her own way. The group is primary first. Its rights must be recognized and put above the right of the individual. The individual belongs to the group. The Individualism & Collectivism Continuum Individualism & collectivism differ in their relative emphasis on individuals and groups.
Four Aspects : Interpersonal Relations Norms and Roles Motivations Self Conception I-C Continuum (cont’d)
Interpersonal Relations Norms and Roles Collectivism: stresses hierarchy and reacts more negatively to nonconformity Individualism: stresses individuality and independence Motivations Collectivism: group-serving tendencies, reliance on the equality norm Individualism: self-serving tendencies, reliance on the equity norm Self Conception Collectivism: emphasis on collective, social identity Individualism: emphasis on personal identity I-C Continuum (cont’d)
Levels : – Cultural Differences – Subcultures – Individual Differences – Sex Differences Variations in I-C Continuum Cultures, groups, and individuals vary in their relative emphasis of individualism and collectivism
Cultural Differences Asian, Eastern European, African, and Middle East countries are group-centered and Western countries as individualistic Example: East vs. West US
Subcultures Some ethnic groups, such as Asian, Americans and Latinos, are more collectivistic than individualistic Personality Independents are individualistic and interdependents putting their groups' goals and needs above their own. Sex Differences In Western cultures women are more interdependent, men more independent. Variations (cont’d)
Does Membership in a Group Change a Person's Self-Concept and Social Identity? – Social Identity Theory: the self-concept is determined by group memberships Social categorization: Individuals automatically classify people, including themselves, into groups. Social identification: accepting as self- descriptive (self-stereotyping) the qualities attributed to one’s group (depersonalization)
Self-Concept and Social Identity – Self-esteem depends on an individual’s personal qualities & the value of the groups to which they belong. Ingroup-outgroup bias: by rating one’s own group positively self- esteem is enhanced If a member of a prestigious collective self-esteem will increase Members of stigmatized group may nonetheless take pride in their groups and reject nonmembers evaluations of their groups (social creativity) Basking in Reflected Glory (BIRG): stressing association with successful groups.
– Self-protective strategies Denying connections to groups that are performing poorly (CORF, or cutting off reflected failure) Leaving the group (individual mobility). Self-Concept and Social Identity
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