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© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Ryerson 2 C H A P T E R: T W O Individual Behaviour, Values, and Personality.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Ryerson 2 C H A P T E R: T W O Individual Behaviour, Values, and Personality."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Ryerson 2 C H A P T E R: T W O Individual Behaviour, Values, and Personality

2 2 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McShane/ Canadian OB 6e Courtesy of Fraser Health Authority Employee Engagement at FHA Fraser Health Authority (FHA), the organization that oversees public health care facilities in eastern Vancouver and the Fraser Valley, is making employee engagement a cornerstone of its organizational effectiveness strategy

3 3 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McShane/ Canadian OB 6e Courtesy of Fraser Health Authority Employee Engagement Defined The employee’s emotional and cognitive (rational) motivation, ability to perform the job, clear understanding of the organization’s vision and his/her specific role in that vision, and a belief that he/she has the resources to get the job done

4 4 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McShane/ Canadian OB 6e Individual Behaviour and Results RolePerceptions SituationalFactors Motivation Ability ValuesPersonalityPerceptionsEmotionsAttitudesStress MARS Model of Individual Behaviour

5 5 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McShane/ Canadian OB 6e M A R S BAR Employee Motivation Internal forces that affect a person’s voluntary choice of behaviour  direction  intensity  persistence

6 6 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McShane/ Canadian OB 6e M A R S BAR Employee Ability Natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task  competencies  personal characteristics that lead to superior performance  person  job matching select qualified people develop employee abilities through training redesign job to fit person's existing abilities

7 7 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McShane/ Canadian OB 6e M A R S BAR Employee Role Perceptions Beliefs about what behaviour is required to achieve the desired results  understanding what tasks to perform  understanding relative importance of tasks  understanding preferred behaviours to accomplish tasks

8 8 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McShane/ Canadian OB 6e M A R S BAR Situational Factors Environmental conditions beyond the individual’s short-term control that constrain or facilitate behaviour  time  people  budget  work facilities

9 9 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McShane/ Canadian OB 6e Organizational Citizenship Performance beyond the required job duties Task Performance Goal-directed behaviours under person’s control more Types of Behaviour in Organizations

10 10 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McShane/ Canadian OB 6e Maintaining Work Attendance Performance beyond the required job duties Joining/staying with the Organization Goal-directed behaviours under person’s control Types of Behaviour in Organizations Counterproductive Work Behaviours Voluntary behaviour that potentially harms the organization

11 11 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McShane/ Canadian OB 6e Values in the Workplace Stable, evaluative beliefs that guide our preferences Define right or wrong, good or bad Value system -- hierarchy of values Espoused vs. enacted values:  Espoused -- the values we say we use and often think we use  Enacted -- values we actually rely on to guide our decisions and actions

12 12 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McShane/ Canadian OB 6e Schwartz’s Values Model Conservation Self-enhancement Self-transcendence Openness to Change

13 13 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McShane/ Canadian OB 6e Values Congruence Values congruence -- where two or more entities have similar value systems Consequences of incongruence  Incompatible decisions  Lower satisfaction and commitment  Increased stress and turnover Benefits of incongruence  Better decision making (diverse values)  Enhanced problem definition  Prevents “corporate cults”

14 14 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McShane/ Canadian OB 6e Hyundai Crosses Cultures in Alabama When Korean automobile giant Hyundai Motor Company recently opened its manufacturing plant in Montgomery, Alabama, local residents and Hyundai executives alike paid close attention to differences in Korean and American cultural values. © AP Photo/Yonhap

15 15 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McShane/ Canadian OB 6e Individualism- Collectivism Peru Chile Italy Portugal Turkey Canada/U.S.A. Japan Egypt Korea France China Zimbabwe Mexico HongKong Taiwan Collectivism High Low Individualism High Low

16 16 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McShane/ Canadian OB 6e Power Distance The degree that people accept an unequal distribution of power in society Japan Israel Canada Venezuela High Power Distance Malaysia Low Power Distance

17 17 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McShane/ Canadian OB 6e Uncertainty Avoidance High U. A. Low U. A. Japan Greece Canada The degree that people tolerate ambiguity (low) or feel threatened by ambiguity and uncertainty (high uncertainty avoidance). Italy Singapore

18 18 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McShane/ Canadian OB 6e Achievement-Nurturing Achievement Nurturing Japan Canada Canada Sweden Sweden The degree that people value assertiveness, competitiveness, and materialism (achievement) versus relationships and well-being of others (nurturing) China Chile

19 19 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McShane/ Canadian OB 6e Canadian vs American Values Canadian Question authority Egalitarian Moral permissiveness Cultural mosaic Collective rights valued American Deference to authority Patriarchal Conservative, moralistic Melting pot Individual rights paramount

20 20 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McShane/ Canadian OB 6e Canadian Subcultures Francophone values  Shifted from more conservative to more liberal than English Canadians on social issues First Nations values  Strong collectivist values  Lower power distance  Low uncertainty avoidance  Relatively nurturing values orientation

21 21 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McShane/ Canadian OB 6e Utilitarianism Individual Rights Greatest good for the greatest number of people Fundamental entitlements in society Distributive Justice People who are similar should receive similar benefits Three Ethical Principles

22 22 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McShane/ Canadian OB 6e Influences on Ethical Conduct Moral intensity  degree that issue demands ethical principles Ethical sensitivity  ability to recognize the presence and determine the relative importance of an ethical issue Situational influences  competitive pressures and other conditions affect ethical behaviour

23 23 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McShane/ Canadian OB 6e Supporting Ethical Behaviour Ethical code of conduct  Establishes standards of behaviour  Problem: Limited effect alone on ethical behaviour Ethics training  Awareness and clarification of ethics code  Practice resolving ethical dilemmas Ethics officers  Educate and counsel; hear about wrongdoing Ethical leadership  Demonstrate integrity and role model ethical conduct

24 24 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McShane/ Canadian OB 6e Defining Personality Relatively stable pattern of behaviours and consistent internal states that explain a person's behavioural tendencies

25 25 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McShane/ Canadian OB 6e Big Five Personality Dimensions Outgoing, talkative Sensitive, flexible Careful, dependable Courteous, caring Anxious, hostile Extroversion Openness to Experience Conscientiousness Agreeableness Neuroticism

26 26 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McShane/ Canadian OB 6e Myers-Briggs Type Indicator ExtroversionIntroversion vs. SensingIntuition ThinkingFeeling JudgingPerceiving

27 27 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McShane/ Canadian OB 6e Locus of Control and Self-Monitoring Locus of control  Internals believe in their effort and ability  Externals believe events are mainly due to external causes Self-monitoring personality  Sensitivity to situational cues, and ability to adapt your behaviour to that situation

28 28 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McShane/ Canadian OB 6e Holland’s Occupational Choice Theory Career success depends on fit between the person and work environment Holland identifies six “themes”  Represent work environment and personality traits/interests A person aligned mainly with one theme is highly differentiated A person has high consistency when preferences relate to adjacent themes

29 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Ryerson 2 C H A P T E R: T W O Individual Behaviour, Values, and Personality

30 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill Ryerson 2 C H A P T E R: T W O Chapter Two Extras

31 31 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McShane/ Canadian OB 6e Japan Netherlands Russia Long-Term Orientation Short-Term Orientation China The degree that people value thrift, savings, and persistence (long-term) versus past and present issues, respect for tradition and fulfilling social obligations (short-term). Long/Short-Term Orientation Canada


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