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CHAPTER THREE INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND TRAITS. Individual Differences Framework Personality Leadership Style and Behaviors Abilities & Skills Values.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER THREE INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND TRAITS. Individual Differences Framework Personality Leadership Style and Behaviors Abilities & Skills Values."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER THREE INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND TRAITS

2 Individual Differences Framework Personality Leadership Style and Behaviors Abilities & Skills Values Environment Culture & education Parental Influence Physical Environment HeredityGenesRace/EthnicityGender INDIVIDUAL CHARATERISTICS

3 The Effect Of Individual Characteristics On Behavior Zone of Discomfort Zone of Discomfort BEHAVIORAL RANGE Individual characteristics Comfort Zone

4 Personality  Psychological characteristics  Stable over time and across situations  A set of characteristics, rather than one trait  Makes the person unique and different from others

5 Abilities and Skills  Ability, or aptitude, is a stable natural talent for doing something mental or physical.  A skill is an acquired talent that a person develops related to a specific task.

6 Values And Value System Values are long-lasting beliefs about what is worthwhile and desirable Factors that affect values include:  Culture  Personality  Gender  Ethnicity  Generational differences

7 Views of Ethics  The relativist view of ethics suggests a belief that what is right or wrong depends on the situation or the culture.  The universalist view of ethics suggests that all activities should be judged by the same standards, regardless of the situation or culture.

8 Components Of Emotional Intelligence  Self-awareness  Managing emotions  Self-motivation  Empathy for others  Interpersonal skills

9 Characteristics Of Creative Leaders  Perseverance when facing obstacles  Self-confidence  Willingness to take risks  Willingness to grow and openness to new experiences new experiences  Tolerance for ambiguity

10 Three Categories Of Leadership Skills 1. Technical skills 2. Interpersonal skills 2. Interpersonal skills 3. Conceptual skills 3. Conceptual skills

11 Perception, Attribution and Learning

12 Social Perception Social Perception - interpreting information about another person

13 Social Perception Social Perception - interpreting information about another person Perceiver Characteristics Familiarity with target Attitudes/Mood Self-Concept Cognitive structure

14 Social Perception Social Perception - interpreting information about another person Perceiver Characteristics Familiarity with target Attitudes/Mood Self-Concept Cognitive structure Target Characteristics Physical appearance Verbal communication Nonverbal cues Intentions

15 Social Perception - interpreting information about another person Social Perception Perceiver Characteristics Familiarity with target Attitudes/Mood Self-Concept Cognitive structure Target Characteristics Physical appearance Verbal communication Nonverbal cues Intentions Situational Characteristics Interaction context Strength of situational cues

16 The Perception Process ATTENTION The Perceived The Perceiver ATTENTION The Perceived The Perceiver ORGANIZATION Patterns Schemas Scripts ORGANIZATION Patterns Schemas Scripts PERCEPTION

17 Comprehending Perception We all have a different store of knowledge. We all therefore interpret the world around us differently. Understanding relies upon the speaker and his audience having the same perception of the required outcome.

18 Perception is a 'Learned Experience'  It is the “awareness” of the external world (or some aspect of it, through one or more of our senses and, the interpretation of these by our mind.

19 Understanding  Understanding is achieved by interpreting current experience using past experience as a source of reference, and establishing a context upon which to base this new information. In other words: We are only able to understand today in terms of, and because of, our past experiences.We are only able to understand today in terms of, and because of, our past experiences. Yet, we also know that 'Today' is unlike 'Yesterday'.Yet, we also know that 'Today' is unlike 'Yesterday'. We inherit Yesterday's patterns and need them to interpret what our senses are experiencing in the present.We inherit Yesterday's patterns and need them to interpret what our senses are experiencing in the present. These patterns are simultaneously essential and yet out of date.These patterns are simultaneously essential and yet out of date.

20 How do we perceive?  We store a ‘model’ or memory of objects.  The process of perceiving involves ‘matching’ what our senses are experiencing to one of our ‘models.’  Perception is an active pattern-matching process.  We recognize the world because of our historical store of information.  We create our own unique world, our own interpretation of reality.

21 Barriers to Social Perception  Selective perception  Stereotyping  First-impression error  Implicit personality theory  Self-fulfilling prophecies Social Perception - interpreting information about another person

22 Personality Theories Trait Theory - understand individuals by breaking down behavior patterns into observable traits Psychodynamic Theory - emphasizes the unconscious determinants of behavior Humanistic Theory - emphasizes individual growth and improvement Integrative Approach - describes personality as a composite of an individual’s psychological processes

23 Variables Influencing Individual Behavior The Person skills & abilities personality perception attribution attitudes values ethics

24 Variables Influencing Individual Behavior The Person skills & abilities personality perception attribution attitudes values ethics The Environment organization work group job personal life

25 The Environment organization work group job personal life Behavior Variables Influencing Individual Behavior The Person skills & abilities personality perception attribution attitudes values ethics

26 Interactional Psychology Approach E The Environment organization work group job personal life B = f(P,E) B Behavior P The Person skills & abilities personality perception attribution attitudes values ethics

27  Conscientiousness  Extraversion/introversion  Openness to experience  Emotional stability  Agreeableness The “Big Five” Personality Dimensions

28  Less anxious  Set harder goals  Manage stress well and adapt to change  More considerate of followers and less likely to use coercive power  Internal CEOs select risky and innovative strategies innovative strategies Characteristics Of Individuals With Internal Locus Of Control

29 High need for control “Doing more in less and less time” Defining Characteristics Time urgency Competitiveness Polyphasic behaviors Hostility Work-Related Behaviors Poor delegation Likes to work alone Jumps into action Sets high goals Hard work Perceives more stress Characteristics Of Type A Individuals

30 Able to read cues from the environment Able to read cues from the environment Able to change behavior to match situation Able to change behavior to match situation Able to cope in cross-cultural environments Able to cope in cross-cultural environments May be a key factor in leadership effectiveness May be a key factor in leadership effectiveness Characteristics Of High Self-monitors

31 Sensation Thinkers (ST) Focus on hard facts Realistic, goal-oriented but can be impatient and jump into action quickly Intuitive Thinkers (NT) Change agents Responsive to creativity but can be unreasonable and unaware of others Sensation Feelers (SF) Practical and caring Good understanding of systems but can be reluctant to accept change THINKING (T) FEELING (F) INTUITIVE (N) SENSING (S) Four Major MBTI Types Intuitive Feelers (NF) Personal charisma and commitment to others Many ideas, trouble with implementation

32  High Machs are: Skilled at controlling othersSkilled at controlling others Able to perceive and resist manipulationAble to perceive and resist manipulation More successful in unstructured environmentsMore successful in unstructured environments  Low Machs are: Naive and trustingNaive and trusting  Leadership is associated with moderate Mach score Machiavellian Personality

33 * Abrasive and intimidating * Cold and arrogant * Untrustworthy * Self-centered and political * Poor performers * Unable to delegate Characteristics Of Leaders Who Fail

34 The Johari Window

35 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator  Based on Carl Jung’s work People are fundamentally differentPeople are fundamentally different People are fundamentally alikePeople are fundamentally alike People have preference combinations for extraversion/introversion, perception, judgmentPeople have preference combinations for extraversion/introversion, perception, judgment  Briggs & Myers developed the MBTI to understand individual differences Take it at:

36 Kiersey Temperament Sorter  1.In most situations are you more deliberate than spontaneous deliberate than spontaneous spontaneous than deliberate spontaneous than deliberate  2.Is it worse to be a softy a softy hard-nosed hard-nosed  3.Is it better to be just just merciful merciful

37 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator  Introvert-Extrovert where you derive your energywhere you derive your energy  Sensing-Intuitive where you obtain your informationwhere you obtain your information  Thinking-Feeling analysis & logic versus pleasing peopleanalysis & logic versus pleasing people  Judging-Perceiving how you make a decisionhow you make a decision

38 MBTI Preferences

39 Each Manager Has a Particular Personality Type That Focuses Attention and Presents Strengths and Weaknesses in Dealing With Situations Extroversion Introversion Focuses on people and things; sociable; outgoing Focuses on thoughts and concepts; reflective; inwardly directed Good at social interaction; en- thusiastic and confident; insti- gates action; open and straightforward Good at personal interaction; stays calm and focused; can con- centrate intensely; develops ideas; uses discretion in talking Intellectual super- ficiality; intrusive; lack of respect for others’ privacy; easily distracted May lose touch with outer world; keeps people at a distance; easily preoccupied Psychological Types Focus and Preferences Strengths Weaknesses (if Overextended)

40 Each Manager Has a Particular Personality Type That Focuses His or Her Attention and Presents Strengths and Weaknesses in Dealing With Situations as They Arise (Cont.) Sensing Intuitive Thinking Facts; data; details; concrete; reality based; present oriented Possibilities; hunches; speculations; theor- etical ; future oriented Analysis; objective; logic; impersonal; justice; systematic inquiry Pragmatic; precise; stable; results orient- ed; sensible; system- atic Imaginative; concep- tulizes easily; creative; intellectually tenacious; idealistic Rational; analytical; assertive; logical; care- fully weighs alternatives; firm but fair; explains thoroughly Lacks long-range outlook; may reject innovative ideas Unrealistic; out of touch; bored by routine; scattered Undervalues feel- ings; overly anal- ytical; insensitive; critical; judgmental Psychological Types Focus and Preferences Strengths Weaknesses (if Overextended)

41 Each Manager Has a Particular Personality Type That Focuses His or Her Attention and Presents Strengths and Weaknesses in Dealing With Situations as They Arise (Cont.) Feeling Judging Perceiving Sympathy; subjective; humane; personal; compassion; trust; consideration Organized; planned; settled;control one’s life; set goals; struc- tured; routine Pending; flexible; curious; spontaneity; tentative; let life happen; undaunted by surprise; open to change Persuasive; empathic; warm; sensitive; demon- strative and expressive; loyal Plan, organize, and control well; persistent; decisive; conscientious; reliable Open minded; adaptable; spontaneous; under- standing; tolerant; inquisitive Overly sensitive; moody; can become emotionally over- burdened Close minded; in- flexible; can jump to conclusions too quickly; intolerant; judgmental Indecisive; procrast- inates; unfocused; disorganized; im- pulsive; may collect data too long before deciding Psychological Types Focus and Preferences Strengths Weaknesses (if Overextended)


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