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Individual Behavior, Personality, and Values McGraw-Hill/Irwin McShane/Von Glinow OB 5e Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights.

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Presentation on theme: "Individual Behavior, Personality, and Values McGraw-Hill/Irwin McShane/Von Glinow OB 5e Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights."— Presentation transcript:

1 Individual Behavior, Personality, and Values McGraw-Hill/Irwin McShane/Von Glinow OB 5e Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Values, Personality, and Self-Concept at Fairmont Hotels & Resorts Fairmont Hotels & Resorts has excelled as North America’s largest luxury hotel operator by hiring people such as Yasmeen Youssef (shown here) with the right values and personality and then nurturing their self- concept. YasmeenYoussef Fairmont Hotels & Resorts 2-2

3 MARS Model of Individual Behavior Individual behavior and results SituationalfactorsSituationalfactors Values Personality Perceptions Emotions Attitudes Stress Values Personality Perceptions Emotions Attitudes Stress Role perceptions MotivationMotivation AbilityAbility 2-3

4 The Basic Psychological Model McShane/Von Glinow OB 5e © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 4 Behavior = function (Person, Environment) Law of Effect = future behavior is a function of it’s past consequences

5 Employee Motivation  Internal forces that affect a person’s voluntary choice ofbehavior direction intensity persistence RR BARBAR SS MM AA 2-5

6 Employee Ability  Natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task  Competencies  personal characteristics that lead to superior performance  Person  job matching selecting developing redesigning RR BARBAR SS MM AA 2-6

7 Role Perceptions  Beliefs about what behavior is required to achieve the desired results: understanding what tasks to perform understanding relative importance of tasks understanding preferred behaviors to accomplish tasks RR BARBAR SS MM AA 2-7

8 Situational Factors  Environmental conditions beyond the individual’s short-term control that constrain or facilitate behavior time people budget work facilities RR BARBAR SS MM AA 2-8

9 Defining Personality  Relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize a person, along with the psychological processes behind those characteristics External traits – observable behaviors Internal states – thoughts, values, etc inferred from behaviors Some variability, adjust to suit the situation 2-9

10 Nature vs. Nurture of Personality  Influenced by Nature Heredity explains about 50 percent of behavioral tendencies and 30 percent of temperament Minnesota studies – twins had similar behaviour patterns  Influenced by Nurture Socialization, life experiences, learning also affect personality Personality isn’t stable at birth Stabilizes throughout adolescence Executive function steers using our self-concept as a guide 2-10

11 Five-Factor Personality Model (CANOE) Outgoing, talkative Sensitive, flexible Careful, dependable Courteous, caring Anxious, hostile ConscientiousnessConscientiousness AgreeablenessAgreeableness NeuroticismNeuroticism Openness to Experience ExtroversionExtroversion 2-11

12 Five-Factor Personality and Organizational Behavior  Conscientiousness and emotional stability Motivational components of personality Strongest personality predictors of performance  Extroversion Linked to sales and mgt performance Related to social interaction and persuasion  Agreeableness Effective in jobs requiring cooperation and helpfulness  Openness to experience Linked to higher creativity and adaptability to change 2-12

13 Common Personality Measures  MMPI – Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory measures “emotional stability” on 10 scales  MBTI – Meyers Briggs Type Indicator  CPI – California Psychological Inventory  HPI - Hogan Personality Inventory McShane/Von Glinow OB 5e © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 13

14 MBTI at Southwest Airlines Southwest Airlines uses the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to help staff understand and respect co-workers’ different personalities and thinking styles. “You can walk by and see someone's [MBTI type] posted up in their cube,” says Elizabeth Bryant, Southwest’s leadership development director (shown here). 2-14

15 Jungian Personality Theory  Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung  Identifies preferences for perceiving the environment and obtaining/processing information  Commonly measured by Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) 2-15

16 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Extroversion versus introversion similar to five-factor dimension  Sensing versus intuition collecting information through senses versus through intuition, inspiration or subjective sources  Thinking versus feeling processing and evaluating information using rational logic versus personal values  Judging versus perceiving orient themselves to the outer world order and structure or flexibility and spontaneity 2-16

17 Feeling Valued at Johnson & Johnson Johnson & Johnson is one of the most respected employers because it recognizes the value of supporting each employee’s self- concept 2-17

18 Self-Concept Defined  An individual’s self-beliefs and self-evaluations  “Who am I?” and “How do I feel about myself?”  Guides individual decisions and behavior 2-18

19 Three “C’s” of Self-Concept  Complexity People have multiple self-concepts  Consistency Improved wellbeing when multiple self-concepts require similar personality traits and values  Clarity Clearly and confidently described, internally consistent, and stable across time. Self-concept clarity requires self-concept consistency 2-19

20 Four “Selves” of Self-Concept  Self-enhancement Promoting and protecting our positive self-view  Self-verification Affirming our existing self-concept (good and bad elements)  Self-evaluation Evaluating ourselves through self-esteem, self- efficacy, and locus of control  Social self Defining ourselves in terms of group membership 2-20

21 Self-Concept: Self-Enhancement  Drive to promote/protect a positive self-view competent, attractive, lucky, ethical, valued  Strongest in common/important situations  Positive self-concept outcomes: better personal adjustment and mental/physical health inflates personal causation and probability of success 2-21

22 Self-Concept: Self-Verification  Motivation to verify/maintain our existing self- concept  Stabilizes our self-concept  People prefer feedback consistent with their self-concept  Self-verification outcomes: We ignore or reject info inconsistent with self- concept We interact more with those who affirm/reflect self- concept 2-22

23 Self-Concept: Self-Evaluation  Defined mainly by three dimensions:  Self-esteem High self-esteem -- less influenced, more persistent/logical  Self-efficacy Belief in one’s ability, motivation, role perceptions, and situation to complete a task successfully General vs. task-specific self-efficacy  Locus of control General belief about personal control over life events Higher self-evaluation with internal locus of control 2-23

24 Self-Concept: Social Self  Social identity -- defining ourselves in terms of groups to which we belong or have an emotional attachment  We identify with groups that have high status -- aids self-enhancement Employees at other firms People living in other countries Graduates of other schools An individual’s social identity IBM Employee Live in U.S.A. University of Dallas Graduate Contrasting Groups 2-24

25 Values in the Workplace  Stable, evaluative beliefs that guide our preferences  Define right or wrong, good or bad  Value system -- hierarchy of values 2-25

26 Schwartz’s Values Model 2-26

27 Schwartz’s Values Model  Openness to change – motivation to pursue innovative ways  Conservation -- motivation to preserve the status quo  Self-enhancement -- motivated by self-interest  Self-transcendence -- motivation to promote welfare of others and nature 2-27

28 Values and Behavior  Habitual behavior usually consistent with values, but conscious behavior less so because values are abstract constructs  Decisions and behavior are linked to values when: Mindful of our values Have logical reasons to apply values in that situation Situation does not interfere 2-28

29 Values Congruence  Where two or more entities have similar value systems  Problems with incongruence Incompatible decisions Lower satisfaction/loyalty Higher stress and turnover  Benefits of incongruence Better decision making (diverse perspectives) Avoids “corporate cults” 2-29

30 Values Across Cultures: Individualism and Collectivism  Degree that people value duty to their group (collectivism) versus independence and person uniqueness (individualism)  Previously considered opposites, but unrelated -- i.e. possible to value high individualism and high collectivism 2-30

31 Individualism The degree to which people value personal freedom, self-sufficiency, control over themselves, being appreciated for unique qualities Denmark Taiwan Italy High Individualism U.S. Low Individualism India 2-31

32 Collectivism The degree to which people value their group membership and harmonious relationships within the group India U.S. Taiwan High Collectivism Italy Low Collectivism Denmark 2-32

33 Power Distance  High power distance Value obedience to authority Comfortable receiving commands from superiors Prefer formal rules and authority to resolve conflicts  Low power distance Expect relatively equal power sharing View relationship with boss as interdependence, not dependence Japan Israel Denmark Venezuela High Power Distance Malaysia Low Power Distance U.S. 2-33

34 Uncertainty Avoidance  High uncertainty avoidance feel threatened by ambiguity and uncertainty value structured situations and direct communication  Low uncertainty avoidance tolerate ambiguity and uncertainty High U. A. Low U. A. Japan Greece U.S. Italy Singapore 2-34

35 Achievement-Nurturing  High achievement orientation assertiveness competitiveness materialism  High nurturing orientation relationships others’ well-being Achievement Nurturing Japan U.S. Sweden Sweden China Chile France 2-35

36 Utilitarianism Individual Rights Greatest good for the greatest number of people Fundamental entitlements in society Distributive Justice People who are similar should receive similar benefits Three Ethical Principles 2-36

37 An Alternative Set of Principles McShane/Von Glinow OB 5e © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved 37 Egoist – if it benefits me Utilitarian – “the greatest net good” Absolutist – right and wrong stand apart from human judgment

38 Influences on Ethical Conduct  Moral intensity degree that issue demands ethical principles  Ethical sensitivity ability to recognize the presence and determine the relative importance of an ethical issue  Situational influences competitive pressures and other conditions affect ethical behavior 2-38

39 Supporting Ethical Behavior  Ethical code of conduct  Ethics training  Ethics hotlines  Ethical leadership and culture

40 Individual Behavior, Personality, and Values 2-40 McGraw-Hill/Irwin McShane/Von Glinow OB 5e Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


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