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Individual Behavior, Personality, and Values

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1 Individual Behavior, Personality, and Values
McGraw-Hill/Irwin McShane/Von Glinow OB 5e Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Values, Personality, and Self-Concept at Fairmont Hotels & Resorts
Fairmont Hotels & Resorts has excelled as North America’s largest luxury hotel operator by hiring people such as Yasmeen Youssef (shown here) with the right values and personality and then nurturing their self- concept. YasmeenYoussef Fairmont Hotels & Resorts 2-2

3 MARS Model of Individual Behavior
Situational factors Values Personality Perceptions Emotions Attitudes Stress Motivation Individual behavior and results Ability Role perceptions 2-3

4 The Basic Psychological Model
Behavior = function (Person, Environment) Law of Effect = future behavior is a function of it’s past consequences McShane/Von Glinow OB 5e © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

5 Employee Motivation Internal forces that affect a person’s voluntary choice ofbehavior direction intensity persistence R BAR S M A 2-5

6 Employee Ability Natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task Competencies  personal characteristics that lead to superior performance Person  job matching selecting developing redesigning R BAR S M A 2-6

7 Role Perceptions Beliefs about what behavior is required to achieve the desired results: understanding what tasks to perform understanding relative importance of tasks understanding preferred behaviors to accomplish tasks R BAR S M A 2-7

8 Situational Factors Environmental conditions beyond the individual’s short-term control that constrain or facilitate behavior time people budget work facilities R BAR S M A 2-8

9 Defining Personality Relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize a person, along with the psychological processes behind those characteristics External traits – observable behaviors Internal states – thoughts, values, etc inferred from behaviors Some variability, adjust to suit the situation 2-9

10 Nature vs. Nurture of Personality
Influenced by Nature Heredity explains about 50 percent of behavioral tendencies and 30 percent of temperament Minnesota studies – twins had similar behaviour patterns Influenced by Nurture Socialization, life experiences, learning also affect personality Personality isn’t stable at birth Stabilizes throughout adolescence Executive function steers using our self-concept as a guide 2-10

11 Five-Factor Personality Model (CANOE)
Conscientiousness Careful, dependable Agreeableness Courteous, caring Neuroticism Anxious, hostile Openness to Experience Sensitive, flexible Extroversion Outgoing, talkative 2-11

12 Five-Factor Personality and Organizational Behavior
Conscientiousness and emotional stability Motivational components of personality Strongest personality predictors of performance Extroversion Linked to sales and mgt performance Related to social interaction and persuasion Agreeableness Effective in jobs requiring cooperation and helpfulness Openness to experience Linked to higher creativity and adaptability to change 2-12

13 Common Personality Measures
MMPI – Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory measures “emotional stability” on 10 scales MBTI – Meyers Briggs Type Indicator CPI – California Psychological Inventory HPI - Hogan Personality Inventory McShane/Von Glinow OB 5e © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

14 MBTI at Southwest Airlines
Southwest Airlines uses the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to help staff understand and respect co-workers’ different personalities and thinking styles. “You can walk by and see someone's [MBTI type] posted up in their cube,” says Elizabeth Bryant, Southwest’s leadership development director (shown here). 2-14

15 Jungian Personality Theory
Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung Identifies preferences for perceiving the environment and obtaining/processing information Commonly measured by Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) 2-15

16 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
Extroversion versus introversion similar to five-factor dimension Sensing versus intuition collecting information through senses versus through intuition, inspiration or subjective sources Thinking versus feeling processing and evaluating information using rational logic versus personal values Judging versus perceiving orient themselves to the outer world order and structure or flexibility and spontaneity 2-16

17 Feeling Valued at Johnson & Johnson
Johnson & Johnson is one of the most respected employers because it recognizes the value of supporting each employee’s self-concept 2-17

18 Self-Concept Defined An individual’s self-beliefs and self-evaluations
“Who am I?” and “How do I feel about myself?” Guides individual decisions and behavior 2-18

19 Three “C’s” of Self-Concept
Complexity People have multiple self-concepts Consistency Improved wellbeing when multiple self-concepts require similar personality traits and values Clarity Clearly and confidently described, internally consistent, and stable across time. Self-concept clarity requires self-concept consistency 2-19

20 Four “Selves” of Self-Concept
Self-enhancement Promoting and protecting our positive self-view Self-verification Affirming our existing self-concept (good and bad elements) Self-evaluation Evaluating ourselves through self-esteem, self-efficacy, and locus of control Social self Defining ourselves in terms of group membership 2-20

21 Self-Concept: Self-Enhancement
Drive to promote/protect a positive self-view competent, attractive, lucky, ethical, valued Strongest in common/important situations Positive self-concept outcomes: better personal adjustment and mental/physical health inflates personal causation and probability of success 2-21

22 Self-Concept: Self-Verification
Motivation to verify/maintain our existing self-concept Stabilizes our self-concept People prefer feedback consistent with their self-concept Self-verification outcomes: We ignore or reject info inconsistent with self-concept We interact more with those who affirm/reflect self-concept 2-22

23 Self-Concept: Self-Evaluation
Defined mainly by three dimensions: Self-esteem High self-esteem -- less influenced, more persistent/logical Self-efficacy Belief in one’s ability, motivation, role perceptions, and situation to complete a task successfully General vs. task-specific self-efficacy Locus of control General belief about personal control over life events Higher self-evaluation with internal locus of control 2-23

24 Self-Concept: Social Self
Social identity -- defining ourselves in terms of groups to which we belong or have an emotional attachment We identify with groups that have high status -- aids self-enhancement Contrasting Groups IBM Employee Employees at other firms An individual’s social identity Live in U.S.A. People living in other countries Graduates of other schools University of Dallas Graduate 2-24

25 Values in the Workplace
Stable, evaluative beliefs that guide our preferences Define right or wrong, good or bad Value system -- hierarchy of values 2-25

26 Schwartz’s Values Model

27 Schwartz’s Values Model
Openness to change – motivation to pursue innovative ways Conservation -- motivation to preserve the status quo Self-enhancement -- motivated by self-interest Self-transcendence -- motivation to promote welfare of others and nature 2-27

28 Values and Behavior Habitual behavior usually consistent with values, but conscious behavior less so because values are abstract constructs Decisions and behavior are linked to values when: Mindful of our values Have logical reasons to apply values in that situation Situation does not interfere 2-28

29 Values Congruence Where two or more entities have similar value systems Problems with incongruence Incompatible decisions Lower satisfaction/loyalty Higher stress and turnover Benefits of incongruence Better decision making (diverse perspectives) Avoids “corporate cults” 2-29

30 Values Across Cultures: Individualism and Collectivism
Degree that people value duty to their group (collectivism) versus independence and person uniqueness (individualism) Previously considered opposites, but unrelated -- i.e. possible to value high individualism and high collectivism 2-30

31 Individualism High Individualism
The degree to which people value personal freedom, self-sufficiency, control over themselves, being appreciated for unique qualities U.S. Italy India Denmark Taiwan Low Individualism 2-31

32 Collectivism High Collectivism
The degree to which people value their group membership and harmonious relationships within the group Italy Taiwan India Denmark U.S. Low Collectivism 2-32

33 Power Distance High Power Distance High power distance
Value obedience to authority Comfortable receiving commands from superiors Prefer formal rules and authority to resolve conflicts Low power distance Expect relatively equal power sharing View relationship with boss as interdependence, not dependence Malaysia Venezuela Japan U.S. Denmark Israel Low Power Distance 2-33

34 Uncertainty Avoidance
High U. A. High uncertainty avoidance feel threatened by ambiguity and uncertainty value structured situations and direct communication Low uncertainty avoidance tolerate ambiguity and uncertainty Greece Japan Italy U.S. Singapore Low U. A. 2-34

35 Achievement-Nurturing
High achievement orientation assertiveness competitiveness materialism High nurturing orientation relationships others’ well-being Japan China U.S. France Chile Sweden Nurturing 2-35

36 Three Ethical Principles
Utilitarianism Greatest good for the greatest number of people Individual Rights Fundamental entitlements in society Distributive Justice People who are similar should receive similar benefits 2-36

37 An Alternative Set of Principles
Egoist – if it benefits me Utilitarian – “the greatest net good” Absolutist – right and wrong stand apart from human judgment McShane/Von Glinow OB 5e © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

38 Influences on Ethical Conduct
Moral intensity degree that issue demands ethical principles Ethical sensitivity ability to recognize the presence and determine the relative importance of an ethical issue Situational influences competitive pressures and other conditions affect ethical behavior 2-38

39 Supporting Ethical Behavior
Ethical code of conduct Ethics training Ethics hotlines Ethical leadership and culture

40 Individual Behavior, Personality, and Values
McGraw-Hill/Irwin McShane/Von Glinow OB 5e Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2-40

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